Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Vehicle Interior Noise from Greenhouse Wind Noise Sources - Part II

2011-05-17
2011-01-1620
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (≻ 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. This paper presents a computational approach that can be used to predict the vehicle interior noise from the greenhouse wind noise sources, during the early stages of the vehicle developmental process so that design changes can be made to improve the wind noise performance of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Direct Aeroacoustic Simulation of Flow Impingement Noise in an Exhaust Opening

2011-05-17
2011-01-1517
Unusual noises during vehicle acceleration often reflect poorly on customer perception of product quality and must be removed in the product development process. Flow simulation can be a valuable tool in identifying root causes of exhaust noises created due to tailpipe openings surrounded by fascia structure. This paper describes a case study where an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the combined flow and acoustic radiation from an exhaust opening through fascia components provided valuable insight into the cause of an annoying flow noise. Simulation results from a coupled thermal/acoustic analysis of detailed tailpipe opening geometry were first validated with off-axis microphone spectra under wide open throttle acceleration. After studying the visualizations of unsteady flow velocity and pressure from the CFD, a problem that had proved difficult to solve by traditional “cut and try” methods was corrected rapidly.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Transient Thermal Convection of a Full Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0645
Many critical thermal issues that occur in vehicles are uncovered only under more “thermally stressed” driving conditions that are transient in nature such as abruptly changing vehicle speed or turning off fan and engine. Therefore, for flow simulations to be useful in the vehicle design process, it is imperative that these simulations have the ability to accurately model long term transient thermal convection on full vehicles. Presented are simulations for a passenger vehicle driving at 60 kilometers per hour followed by a complete stop. The simulations were performed using a coupling between the flow and thermal solver and in the process, taking into account convection, conduction and radiation effects. Temperature predictions were made both under steady state conditions and during the key-off. Good agreement with the measurements was observed.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Flow-Induced Noise of Automotive HVAC Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0493
Nowadays vehicle quality is rated for noise and vibration and the interior sound levels have become a major target of automotive companies. Strides have been made in reducing power train, tire and external wind noise over the years. However, HVAC and blower fan flow-induced noise reaches the interior cabin without any sound isolation and can strongly impact customer comfort. In the early stage of vehicle design, it is experimentally difficult to get an estimate of the flow pattern and sound levels. The goal of this study is to develop and validate a numerical noise prediction tool for complete HVAC systems noise, defined as the arrangement of sub-systems such as air intake duct, thermal mixing unit, blower, ducts and outlet vents. This tool can then be used during the development of vehicles to evaluate and optimize the aeroacoustics performances of the system without additional or belated experiments.
Technical Paper

HVAC Blower Aeroacoustic Predictions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1001
In recent years, vehicle cabin quietness takes a growing importance particularly related to the emergence of hybrid and electric vehicles and “Idle Stop system” vehicles. Demand for quieter car air-conditioner systems is increasingly important also, especially the reduction of the flow-induced noise from the HVAC. In HVAC systems, the rotating blower is one of the main noise sources and the digital solution for predicting and analyzing the blower aeroacoustic noise in the early stage of design is needed for developing a quieter blower. The target of this study is to develop and to validate a flow-induced noise predictive tool for a HVAC blower and to analyze the noise source. In this paper, a low-dissipation, transient, compressible CFD/CAA approach based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to predict simultaneously the flow and aeroacoustic radiation of two production blowers.
Technical Paper

Improved CFD Methodology for Class 8 Tractor-Trailer Coastdown Correlation

2013-09-24
2013-01-2412
Recent regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards for heavy duty vehicles have prompted government agencies to standardize procedures to assess aerodynamic performance of Class 8 tractor-trailers. The coastdown test procedure is the primary reference method to assess vehicle drag and other valid alternatives include wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. While there have been many published studies comparing results between simulations and wind tunnel testing, it is less well understood how to compare results with coastdown testing. Both the wind tunnel and simulation directly measure aerodynamic drag forces in controlled conditions, while coastdown testing is conducted in an open road environment, aerodynamic forces are calculated from a road load equation, and variable wind and vehicle speed introduce additional complexity.
Technical Paper

Long Term Transient Cooling of Heavy Vehicle Cabin Compartments

2010-10-05
2010-01-2018
A newly developed simulation methodology for a long term, transient tractor cabin cool-down is presented in this paper. The air flow was simulated using a Lattice-Boltzmann Equation (LBE) based 3-dimensional flow solver. The conduction and radiation effects on the solid parts as well as the average cabin air temperature evolution were solved by the thermal solver, which also includes a human comfort model. The simulation results were compared with the measured experimental test data and good agreement was observed validating the developed simulation approach. The developed methodology can be applied to all other ground vehicles cabin comfort applications.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Aerodynamics and Engine Cooling Performance of a JMC Mid-Size Truck using Simulation

2010-10-05
2010-01-2032
The engineering process in the development of commercial vehicles is facing more and more stringent emission regulations while at the same time the market demands for better performance but with lower fuel consumption and higher reliability. Respective targets require better utilization of existing or even higher engine cooling capacity and optimization of aerodynamic performance for reduced drag. In order to aid on achieving both goals, special attention should be paid on understanding both external and under hood flow structures. This paper describes an optimization study for reducing aerodynamic drag and increasing engine cooling performance conducted on a Light Truck at Jiangling Motors Corporation (JMC). The approach is using simulation based on a LBM solver coupled with a heat exchanger model. Such methodology was used to predict both aerodynamic and cooling characteristics and help highlighting potential areas for improvement.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Study of a Production Tractor Trailer Combination using Simulation and Wind Tunnel Methods

2010-10-05
2010-01-2040
The importance of fuel economy and emission standards has increased rapidly with high fuel costs and new environmental regulations. This requires analysis techniques capable of designing the next generation long-haul truck to improve both fuel efficiency and cooling. In particular, it is important to have a predictive design tool to assess how exterior design changes impact aerodynamic performance. This study evaluates the use of a Lattice Boltzmann based numerical simulation and the National Research Council (NRC) Canada's wind tunnel to assess aerodynamic drag on a production Volvo VNL tractor-trailer combination. Comparisons are made between the wind tunnel and simulation to understand the influence of wind tunnel conditions on truck aerodynamic performance. The production VNL testing includes a full range of yaw angles to demonstrate the influence of cross wind on aerodynamic drag.
Journal Article

The Bandwidth of Transient Yaw Effects on Vehicle Aerodynamics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0160
A vehicle on the road encounters an unsteady flow due to turbulence in the natural wind, the unsteady wakes from other vehicles and as a result of traversing through the stationary wakes of road side obstacles. There is increasing concern about potential differences in aerodynamic behaviour measured in steady flow wind tunnel conditions and that which occurs for vehicles on the road. It is possible to introduce turbulence into the wind tunnel environment (e.g. by developing active turbulence generators) but on-road turbulence is wide ranging in terms of both its intensity and frequency and it would be beneficial to better understand what aspects of the turbulence are of greatest importance to the aerodynamic performance of vehicles. There has been significant recent work on the characterisation of turbulent airflow relevant to road vehicles. The simulation of this time-varying airflow is now becoming possible in wind tunnels and in CFD.
Journal Article

Evaluation and Optimization of Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic Performance of a Heavy Truck using Digital Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0162
The engineering process in the development of commercial vehicles is facing more and more stringent emission regulations while at the same time the market demands for better performance but with lower fuel consumption. The optimization of aerodynamic performance for reduced drag is a key element for achieving related performance targets. Closely related to aerodynamics are wind noise and cabin soiling and both of them are becoming more and more important as a quality criterion in many markets. This paper describes the aerodynamic and aero-acoustic performance evaluation of a Dongfeng heavy truck using digital simulation based on a LBM approach. It includes a study for improving drag within the design of a facelift of the truck. A soiling analysis is performed for each aerodynamic result by calculating the accumulation of particles emitted form the wheels on the cabin. One of the challenges in the development process of trucks is that different cabin types have to be designed.
Journal Article

Simulation of Rear Glass and Body Side Vehicle Soiling by Road Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0173
Numerical simulation of aerodynamics for vehicle development is used to meet a wide range of performance targets, including aerodynamic drag for fuel efficiency, cooling flow rates, and aerodynamic lift for vehicle handling. The aerodynamic flow field can also be used to compute the advection of small particles such as water droplets, dust, dirt, sand, etc., released into the flow domain, including the effects of mass, gravity, and the forces acting on the particles by the airflow. Previous efforts in this topic have considered the water sprays ejected by rotating wheels when driving on a wet road. The road spray carries dirt particles and can obscure the side and rear glazing. In this study, road sprays are considered in which the effects of additional water droplets resulting from splashing and dripping of particles from the wheel house and rear under body are added to help understand the patterns of dirt film accumulation on the side glass and rear glass.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique for Underbody Noise Transmission of Wind Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1700
Wind noise has become an important indicator for passenger automobile quality. Several transmission paths can be related to different parts of the vehicle exterior. While the greenhouse (side glasses, windshield, seals & others) often dominates the interior noise level above 500 Hz, the contribution coming from the underbody area usually dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. This paper describes a framework of numerical tools which is capable of determining realistic underbody turbulent and acoustic loads being generated for typical driving conditions, as well as performing the noise transmission through underbody panels and the propagation of sound to the drivers ear location.
Journal Article

Combined Analysis of Cooling Airflow and Aerodynamic Drag for a Class 8 Tractor Trailer Combination

2011-09-13
2011-01-2288
Long haul tractor design in the future will be challenged by freight efficiency standards and emission legislations. Along with any improvements in aerodynamics, this will also require additional cooling capacity to handle the increased heat rejection from next generation engines, waste heat recovery and exhaust gas recirculation systems. Fan engagement will also have to be minimized under highway conditions to maximize fuel economy. These seemingly contradictory requirements will require design optimization via analysis techniques capable of predicting both the aerodynamic drag and engine cooling airflow accurately. This study builds on previous work [1] using a Lattice Boltzmann based computational method on a Volvo VNL tractor trailer combination. Simulation results are compared to tests conducted at National Research Council (NRC) Canada's wind tunnel.
Journal Article

A Computational Process for Early Stage Assessment of Automotive Buffeting and Wind Noise

2013-05-13
2013-01-1929
A computational process for early stage vehicle shape assessment for automotive front window buffeting and greenhouse wind noise is presented. It is a challenging problem in an experimental process as the vehicle geometry is not always finalized. For example, the buffeting behavior typically worsens during the vehicle development process as the vehicle gets tighter, leading to expensive late counter measures. We present a solution using previously validated CFD/CAA software based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). A CAD model with realistic automotive geometry was chosen to simultaneously study the potential of different side mirror geometries to influence the front window buffeting and greenhouse wind noise phenomena. A glass mounted mirror and a door mounted mirror were used for this comparative study. Interior noise is investigated for the two phenomena studied. The unsteady flow is visualized and changes in the buffeting and wind noise behavior are explored.
Journal Article

Simulation of Underbody Contribution of Wind Noise in a Passenger Automobile

2013-05-13
2013-01-1932
Wind noise is a significant source of interior noise in automobiles at cruising conditions, potentially creating dissatisfaction with vehicle quality. While wind noise contributions at higher frequencies usually originate with transmission through greenhouse panels and sealing, the contribution coming from the underbody area often dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. Continued pressure to reduce fuel consumption in new designs is causing more emphasis on aerodynamic performance, to reduce drag by careful management of underbody airflow at cruise. Simulation of this airflow by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools allows early optimization of underbody shapes before expensive hardware prototypes are feasible. By combining unsteady CFD-predicted loads on the underbody panels with a structural acoustic model of the vehicle, underbody wind noise transmission could be considered in the early design phases.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Automotive Windscreen Wiper Placement Options Early in the Design Process

2013-05-13
2013-01-1933
For most car manufacturers, wind noise from the greenhouse region has become the dominant high frequency noise contributor at highway speeds. Addressing this wind noise issue using experimental procedures involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process. Previously, a computational approach that couples an unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver (based on a Lattice Boltzmann method) to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver had been validated for predicting the noise contribution from the side mirrors. This paper presents the use of this computational approach to predict the vehicle interior noise from the windshield wipers, so that different wiper placement options can be evaluated early in the design process before the surface is frozen.
Journal Article

Role of Accurate Numerical Simulation of Brake Cooldown in Brake Design Process

2012-09-17
2012-01-1811
An important metric in the vehicle brake design process, the cool-down time for a brake disk, strongly influences the durability and reliability of brakes. However, the brake cool-down time is a function of many vehicle and chassis factors, making it time consuming and expensive to evaluate and optimize in hardware testing. In this study, we investigate an alternative approach to hardware testing for evaluating brake design cool-down time by implementing a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation based methodology. The simulation cases were all compared with test data and good agreement was observed between test data and simulation over a wide range of design parameters. It is therefore demonstrated that accurate simulation is a promising new approach to the brake design process.
Technical Paper

Engine Room Lay-out Study for Fuel Efficiency and Thermal Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0639
Systematic numerical simulations were performed for the improvement of fuel efficiency and thermal performance of a compact size passenger vehicle. Both aerodynamic and thermal aspects were considered concurrently. For the sake of systematic evaluation, our study was conducted employing various design changes in multiple steps: 1) analysis of the baseline design; 2) elimination of the engine room components; 3) modification of the engine room component layout; 4) modification of the aerodynamic components (such as under body cover and cooling ducts). The vehicle performance characteristics corresponding to different design options were analyzed in terms of aerodynamic coefficient, engine coolant temperature, and surface temperatures of thermally critical components such as battery and exhaust manifold. Finally optimal design modification solutions for better vehicle performance were proposed.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0297
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
X