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Technical Paper

Investigations of Automotive Defroster and Windshield Flow

2001-10-01
2001-01-3441
The specification of automotive ventilation / defrosting systems has often utilized “trial-and-error” and “prior experience” techniques. But design development and production efficiency has generated a strong interest in using more sophisticated design tools such as computational fluid dynamics. For this purpose a joint experimental and numerical study was undertaken. This comprehensive investigation was divided into two parts. First, the three dimensional defroster flow field was measured using LDA in an actual automobile. Second, LDA and infrared thermography was used to map the flow and temperature fields for a two dimensional jet impinging upon a slanted plate -- a simplified representation of a car defroster geometry.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0129
A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Journal Article

Assessment of Broadband Noise Generated by a Vehicle Sunroof at Different Flow Conditions using a Digital Wind Tunnel

2015-06-15
2015-01-2321
For the automotive industry, the quality and level of the wind noise contribution has a growing importance and therefore should be addressed as early as possible in the development process. Each component of the vehicle is designed to meet its individual noise target to ensure the wind noise passenger comfort level inside the vehicle is met. Sunroof broadband noise is generated by the turbulent flow developed over the roof opening. A strong shear layer and vortices impacting on the trailing edge of the sunroof are typical mechanisms related to the noise production. Sunroof designs are tested to meet broadband noise targets. Experimentally testing designs and making changes to meet these design targets typically involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions and potentially late design changes.
Journal Article

Exhaust and Muffler Aeroacoustics Predictions using Lattice Boltzmann Method

2015-06-15
2015-01-2314
Exhaust and muffler noise is a challenging problem in the transport industry. While the main purpose of the system is to reduce the intensity of the acoustic pulses originating from the engine exhaust valves, the back pressure induced by these systems must be kept to a minimum to guarantee maximum performance of the engine. Emitted noise levels have to ensure comfort of the passengers and must respect community noise regulations. In addition, the exhaust noise plays an important role in the brand image of vehicles, especially with sports car where it must be tuned to be “musical”. However, to achieve such performances, muffler and exhaust designs have become quite complex, often leading to the rise of undesired self-induced noise. Traditional purely acoustic solvers, like Boundary Element Methods (BEM), have been applied quite successfully to achieve the required acoustic tuning.
Journal Article

Comparison of Computational Simulation of Automotive Spinning Wheel Flow Field with Full Width Moving Belt Wind Tunnel Results

2015-04-14
2015-01-1556
One of the remaining challenges in the simulation of the aerodynamics of ground vehicles is the modeling of the airflows around the spinning tires and wheels of the vehicle. As in most advances in the development of simulation capabilities, it is the lack of appropriately detailed and accurate experimental data with which to correlate that holds back the advance of the technology. The flow around the wheels and tires and their interfaces with the vehicle body and the ground is a critical area for the development of automobiles and trucks, not just for aerodynamic forces and moments, and their result on fuel economy and vehicle handling and performance, but also for the airflows and pressures that affect brake cooling, engine cooling airflows, water spray management etc.
Technical Paper

Digital Aeroacoustics Design Method of Climate Systems for Improved Cabin Comfort

2017-06-05
2017-01-1787
Over the past decades, interior noise from wind noise or engine noise have been significantly reduced by leveraging improvements of both the overall vehicle design and of sound package. Consequently, noise sources originating from HVAC systems (Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning), fans or exhaust systems are becoming more relevant for perceived quality and passenger comfort. This study focuses on HVAC systems and discusses a Flow-Induced Noise Detection Contributions (FIND Contributions) numerical method enabling the identification of the flow-induced noise sources inside and around HVAC systems. This methodology is based on the post-processing of unsteady flow results obtained using Lattice Boltzmann based Method (LBM) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations combined with LBM-simulated Acoustic Transfer Functions (ATF) between the position of the sources inside the system and the passenger’s ears.
Technical Paper

Validation Studies for an Advanced Aerodynamic Development Process of Cab-Over Type Heavy Trucks

2017-10-25
2017-01-7009
The implementation of an advanced process for the aerodynamic development of cab-over type heavy trucks at China FAW Group Corporation (FAW) requires a rigorous validation of the tools employed in this process. The final objective of the aerodynamic optimization of a heavy truck is the reduction of the fuel consumption. The aerodynamic drag of a heavy truck contributes up to 50% of the overall resistance and thus fuel consumption. An accurate prediction of the aerodynamic drag under real world driving conditions is therefore very important. Tools used for the aerodynamic development of heavy trucks include Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), wind tunnels and track and road testing methods. CFD and wind tunnels are of particular importance in the early phase development.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Improvement of Greenhouse Wind Noise of a SGMW SUV using Simulation Driven Design

2018-04-03
2018-01-0737
At SAIC-GM-Wuling (SGMW) the greenhouse wind noise performance of their vehicles has gained a lot of attention in the development process. In order to evaluate and improve the noise quality of a newly developed SUV a digital simulation based process has been employed during the early stage of the design. CFD simulation was used for obtaining the flow induced exterior noise sources. Performance metrics for the quality were based on interior noise levels which were calculated from the exterior sources using a SEA approach for the noise transmission through the glass panels and propagation to the driver’s or passenger’s head space. Detailed analysis of the CFD results allowed to identify noise sources and related flow structures. Based on this analysis, design modifications were then applied and tested in a sequential iterative process. As a result an improvement of more than 2 dB in overall sound pressure level could be achieved.
Journal Article

Accurate Fuel Economy Prediction via a Realistic Wind Averaged Drag Coefficient

2017-03-28
2017-01-1535
The ultimate goal for vehicle aerodynamicists is to develop vehicles that perform well on the road under real-world conditions. One of the most important metrics to evaluate vehicle performance is the drag coefficient. However, vehicle development today is performed mostly under controlled settings using wind tunnels and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with artificially uniform upstream conditions, neglecting real-world effects due to road turbulence from wind and other vehicles. Thus, the drag coefficients computed with these methods might not be representative of the real performance of the car on the road. This might ultimately lead engineers to develop design solutions and aerodynamic devices which, while performing well in idealized conditions, do not perform well on the road. For this reason, it is important to assess the vehicle’s drag as seen in real-world environments. An effort in this direction is represented by using the wind-averaged drag.
Technical Paper

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Vehicle Interior Noise from Greenhouse Wind Noise Sources - Part II

2011-05-17
2011-01-1620
For most car manufacturers, aerodynamic noise is becoming the dominant high frequency noise source (≻ 500 Hz) at highway speeds. Design optimization and early detection of issues related to aeroacoustics remain mainly an experimental art implying high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the development of a reliable numerical prediction capability. This paper presents a computational approach that can be used to predict the vehicle interior noise from the greenhouse wind noise sources, during the early stages of the vehicle developmental process so that design changes can be made to improve the wind noise performance of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Direct Aeroacoustic Simulation of Flow Impingement Noise in an Exhaust Opening

2011-05-17
2011-01-1517
Unusual noises during vehicle acceleration often reflect poorly on customer perception of product quality and must be removed in the product development process. Flow simulation can be a valuable tool in identifying root causes of exhaust noises created due to tailpipe openings surrounded by fascia structure. This paper describes a case study where an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the combined flow and acoustic radiation from an exhaust opening through fascia components provided valuable insight into the cause of an annoying flow noise. Simulation results from a coupled thermal/acoustic analysis of detailed tailpipe opening geometry were first validated with off-axis microphone spectra under wide open throttle acceleration. After studying the visualizations of unsteady flow velocity and pressure from the CFD, a problem that had proved difficult to solve by traditional “cut and try” methods was corrected rapidly.
Technical Paper

Improved CFD Methodology for Class 8 Tractor-Trailer Coastdown Correlation

2013-09-24
2013-01-2412
Recent regulations on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards for heavy duty vehicles have prompted government agencies to standardize procedures to assess aerodynamic performance of Class 8 tractor-trailers. The coastdown test procedure is the primary reference method to assess vehicle drag and other valid alternatives include wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. While there have been many published studies comparing results between simulations and wind tunnel testing, it is less well understood how to compare results with coastdown testing. Both the wind tunnel and simulation directly measure aerodynamic drag forces in controlled conditions, while coastdown testing is conducted in an open road environment, aerodynamic forces are calculated from a road load equation, and variable wind and vehicle speed introduce additional complexity.
Journal Article

The Bandwidth of Transient Yaw Effects on Vehicle Aerodynamics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0160
A vehicle on the road encounters an unsteady flow due to turbulence in the natural wind, the unsteady wakes from other vehicles and as a result of traversing through the stationary wakes of road side obstacles. There is increasing concern about potential differences in aerodynamic behaviour measured in steady flow wind tunnel conditions and that which occurs for vehicles on the road. It is possible to introduce turbulence into the wind tunnel environment (e.g. by developing active turbulence generators) but on-road turbulence is wide ranging in terms of both its intensity and frequency and it would be beneficial to better understand what aspects of the turbulence are of greatest importance to the aerodynamic performance of vehicles. There has been significant recent work on the characterisation of turbulent airflow relevant to road vehicles. The simulation of this time-varying airflow is now becoming possible in wind tunnels and in CFD.
Technical Paper

The New BMW Climatic Testing Complex - The Energy and Environment Test Centre

2011-04-12
2011-01-0167
The Energy and Environment Test Centre (EVZ) is a complex comprising three large climatic wind tunnels, two smaller test chambers, nine soak rooms and support infrastructure. The capabilities of the wind tunnels and chambers are varied, and as a whole give BMW the ability to test at practically all conditions experienced by their vehicles, worldwide. The three wind tunnels have been designed for differing test capabilities, but share the same air circuit design, which has been optimized for energy consumption yet is compact for its large, 8.4 m₂, nozzle cross-section. The wind tunnel test section was designed to meet demanding aerodynamic specifications, including a limit on the axial static pressure gradient and low frequency static pressure fluctuations - design parameters previously reserved for larger aerodynamic or aero-acoustic wind tunnels. The aerodynamic design was achieved, in-part, by use of computational fluid dynamics and a purpose-built model wind tunnel.
Journal Article

Simulation of Underbody Contribution of Wind Noise in a Passenger Automobile

2013-05-13
2013-01-1932
Wind noise is a significant source of interior noise in automobiles at cruising conditions, potentially creating dissatisfaction with vehicle quality. While wind noise contributions at higher frequencies usually originate with transmission through greenhouse panels and sealing, the contribution coming from the underbody area often dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. Continued pressure to reduce fuel consumption in new designs is causing more emphasis on aerodynamic performance, to reduce drag by careful management of underbody airflow at cruise. Simulation of this airflow by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools allows early optimization of underbody shapes before expensive hardware prototypes are feasible. By combining unsteady CFD-predicted loads on the underbody panels with a structural acoustic model of the vehicle, underbody wind noise transmission could be considered in the early design phases.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Evaluate the Automotive Windscreen Wiper Placement Options Early in the Design Process

2013-05-13
2013-01-1933
For most car manufacturers, wind noise from the greenhouse region has become the dominant high frequency noise contributor at highway speeds. Addressing this wind noise issue using experimental procedures involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process. Previously, a computational approach that couples an unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver (based on a Lattice Boltzmann method) to a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) solver had been validated for predicting the noise contribution from the side mirrors. This paper presents the use of this computational approach to predict the vehicle interior noise from the windshield wipers, so that different wiper placement options can be evaluated early in the design process before the surface is frozen.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Impact of Tractor-Trailer in Drafting Configuration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2436
On-highway tractor-trailer vehicles operate in a complex aerodynamic environment that includes influences of surrounding vehicles. Typical aerodynamic analyses and testing of single vehicles on test track, in wind tunnel or in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) do not account for these real world effects. However, it is possible with simulation and on-road testing to evaluate these aerodynamic interactions. CFD and physical testing of multiple vehicle interactions show that traffic interactions can impact the overall drag of leading and trailing vehicles. This paper will discuss results found in evaluating the effects of separation distances on tractor-trailer aerodynamics in on-road and CFD evaluations using a time-accurate Lattice Boltzmann Method based approach and the ramifications for improving real world prediction versus controlled single vehicle testing.
Technical Paper

Validation Study for the Introduction of an Aerodynamic Development Process of Heavy Trucks

2014-09-30
2014-01-2444
A challenge for the aerodynamic optimization of trucks is the limited availability of wind tunnels for testing full scale trucks. FAW wants to introduce a development process which is mainly based on CFD simulation in combination with some limited amount of wind tunnel testing. While maturity of CFD simulation for truck aerodynamics has been demonstrated in recent years, a complete validation is still required before committing to a particular process. A 70% scale model is built for testing in the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC). Drag and surface pressures are measured for providing a good basis for comparison to the simulation results. The simulations are performed for the truck in the open road driving condition as well as in an initial digital model of the aerodynamic wind tunnel of SAWTC. A full size truck is also simulated in the open road driving condition to understand the scaling effect.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an SUV in early Development Stage using a Response Surface Method

2014-09-30
2014-01-2445
In the development of an FAW SUV, one of the goals is to achieve a state of the art drag level. In order to achieve such an aggressive target, feedback from aerodynamics has to be included in the early stage of the design decision process. The aerodynamic performance evaluation and improvement is mostly based on CFD simulation in combination with some wind tunnel testing for verification of the simulation results. As a first step in this process, a fully detailed simulation model is built. The styling surface is combined with engine room and underbody detailed geometry from a similar size existing vehicle. From a detailed analysis of the flow field potential areas for improvement are identified and five design parameters for modifying overall shape features of the upper body are derived. In a second step, a response surface method involving design of experiments and adaptive sampling techniques are applied for characterizing the effects of the design changes.
Technical Paper

Automotive Cabin Infotainment System Thermal Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-0328
The level of infotainment in today's vehicles and the customer expectation of the functionality imply a significant effort is required on thermal management of the systems, to guarantee their full operation under all operating conditions. The worst case thermal conditions the system will get exposed to are caused by solar loading on the cabin or heat up as a result of cabin heating. Simulation of a solar load driven case will be discussed in this paper. The long soak conditions during these tests result in the modelling requirement for long natural convection periods. This is creating a challenge for the conventional CFD simulations in turnaround time. New simulation methodology has resulted in significant speed up enabling these fully transient simulations in a reasonable turnaround time to enable programme support. A two phase approach to simulating this problem is proposed in this paper.
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