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Technical Paper

A Study on Robust Air Induction Snorkel Volume Velocity Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0480
The noise radiated from the snorkel of an air induction system (AIS) can be a major noise source to the vehicle interior noise. This noise source is typically quantified as the snorkel volume velocity which is directly related to vehicle interior noise through the vehicle noise transfer function. It is important to predict the snorkel volume velocity robustly at the early design stage for the AIS development. Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) is an engineering approach that supports the new product development process. The IDDOV (Identify-Define-Develop-Optimize-Verify) method is a DFSS approach which can be used for creating innovative, low cost and trouble free products on significant short schedules. In this paper, an IDD project which is one type of DFSS project using IDDOV method is presented on developing a robust simulation process to predict the AIS snorkel volume velocity. First, the IDDOV method is overviewed and the innovative tools in each phase of IDDOV are introduced.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Degradation Analysis of Flexible Film Cables in an Automotive Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0317
Automobiles have a high degree of mechanical and electrical complexity. However, product complexity has the accompanying effect of requiring high levels of design and process oversight. The net result is a product creation process which is prone to creating failures. These failures typically have their origin in an overall lack of complete understanding of the system in terms of materials, geometries and energy flows. Despite all of the engineering intentions, failures are inevitable, common, and must be dealt with accordingly. In the worst case, if a failure manifests itself into an observable failure the customer may have a negative experience. Therefore, it is imperative that design engineers, suppliers along with reliability professionals be able to assess the design risk. One approach to assess risk is the use of degradation analysis. Degradation analysis often provides more information than failure time data for assessing reliability and predicting the remnant life of a system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Robust AIS Parametric Model for V8 Engines Using Design for Six Sigma Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0140
The automotive Air Induction System (AIS) is an important part of the engine systems which delivers the air to the engine. A well-designed AIS should have low flow restriction and radiates a good quality sound at the snorkel. The GT-Power simulation tool has been widely utilized to evaluate the snorkel noise in industry. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, the simulation method enhanced with Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) approach has been developed and implemented in AIS development to meet the functional requirements. The development work included different types of DFSS projects such as identifying new concept, robust optimization and robust assessment etc. In this paper, the work of a robust optimization project is presented on developing an AIS parametric model to achieve optimized snorkel noise performance for a V8 engine. First, the theory of AIS acoustic modeling using GT-power and DFSS robust optimization using Taguchi’s parameter design method are described.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude. This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
Technical Paper

Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

2019-06-05
2019-01-1453
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Automotive Door Upper Frame Deflection Using Aerodynamic Loads

2018-04-03
2018-01-0716
Upper frame deflection of automobile doors is a key design attribute that influences structural integrity and door seal performance as related to NVH. This is a critical customer quality perception attribute and is a key enabler to ensure wind noise performance is acceptable. This paper provides an overview of two simulation methodologies to predict door upper frame deflection. A simplified simulation approach using point loads is presented along with its limitations and is compared to a new method that uses CFD tools to estimate aerodynamic loads on body panels at various vehicle speeds and wind directions. The approach consisted of performing external aerodynamic CFD simulation and using the aerodynamic loads as inputs to a CAE simulation. The details of the methodology are presented along with results and correlation to experimental data from the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Dual Unit System Cool-Down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0892
Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these heat exchangers by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance.
Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Rear Fascia Cutline Based On Investigating Deviation Sources of the Body Panel Fit and Finish

2017-03-28
2017-01-1600
A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Clamp Loss and Subsequent Loosening of Automotive Hub-Knuckle Joints under Time-Varying Proving Ground Loading

2020-04-14
2020-01-0181
Threaded fasteners or bolted joints are used extensively in automotive assemblies. There are standard procedures to evaluate joint performance under block cycles or road loads. The deciding load case for such joint design is slippage analysis of the joint. There are studies done to evaluate the theoretical and experimental behavior of these joints. There are different ways of understanding the interaction between the bolt and the nut under different loading scenarios. However, none have provided a satisfactory method of quantifying bolt loosening or loss of clamp load under cyclic loading, where no slippage is observed. Under varying loads, initial relaxation of the joint is followed by a loss of clamping load. Below a critical value, complete loss of clamping load progresses very rapidly and this results in a loose joint.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Performance of Self-Piercing Riveted Joints and Adhesively Bonded Self-Piercing Riveted Joints Connecting Steel and Aluminum Components

2020-04-14
2020-01-0177
This paper describes an experimental study on the performance of self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints and adhesively bonded SPR joints connecting steel and aluminum components under both quasi-static and cyclic loading. The joint configurations cover a wide range of material gauges, types and grades. Two and three thickness joints, with and without adhesive are also part of this study. Load versus deflection behavior, load carrying capacity, fatigue life and the failure modes for each type of joint are discussed. This study focuses on the influence of dissimilar material and adhesives to the joint performance.
Technical Paper

A Study on Bolted Joint Finite Element Modeling for Vehicle Level Durability Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-0178
This paper describes a study on identifying a suitable thickness for finite element modeling a “deformable washer” to simulate bolted joints for vehicle level durability analysis based on experimental results. First, a test matrix table is introduced, which is based on representative vehicle structures for different bolt/nut sizes, bolt grades, sheet gages, and sheet materials etc. Then coupon tests, both static and fatigue, are illustrated. Next, the corresponding finite element model with different thickness of “deformable washers” and results are presented. Following that, the optimal “deformable washer” thickness is recommended based on statistical parameters (mean and standard deviation) of the relative differences between finite element analysis results and physical test results. Lastly, a case study is demonstrated for the proposed strategy.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Rear Suspension Trailing Arm for Durability Using Taguchi Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0602
Vehicle suspension parts are subjected to variable road loads, manufacturing process variation and high installation loads in assembly process. These parts must be robust to usage conditions to function properly in the field. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) tools and Taguchi Method were used to optimize initial rear suspension trailing arm design. Project identified key control factor/design parameters, to improve part robustness at the lowest cost. Optimized design performs well under higher road loads and meets stringent durability requirements. This paper evokes use of Taguchi Method to design robust rear suspension trailing arm and study effect of selected design parameters on robustness, stress level/durability and part cost.
Technical Paper

Design of Valve Body Integrated Direct Acting Controids

2020-04-14
2020-01-0965
The latest trend in transmission hydraulic controls development ise body integrated direct acting control solenoid, ted by multiple automotive OEMs. The advantages of integrated direct acting control solenoids are key enablers for OEMs to meet more and more stringent fuel economy requirement and competitive environment. In the meantime, there are unique challenges in both designing and manufacturing of such solenoids, due to the fact the solenoid armature can only push the spool valve with limited force and limited stroke. Through analytical methods, this paper explains design guidelines to overcome the challenges and quantifies the impact of design decision to critical functional objectives. Multiple valve design configurations, including both normally low and normally high functionality, are covered in the analysis. Unique manufacturing process concerns are also addressed.
Technical Paper

Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0947
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more, thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the compressor power consumed in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on total vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent highway driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy.
Technical Paper

Equivalent Damping Added by Sound Package

2020-04-14
2020-01-1397
In Automotive and Aerospace industries, sound package has an important role to control vehicle noise in order to improve passenger comfort and reduce environmental noise pollution. The most known approaches used to model the sound package are the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) combined with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The Transfer Matrix Method based approach is extensively used and well-validated for predicting the transmission loss and other vibro-acoustic indicators of multi-layer structures. However, to the best of our knowledge, the equivalent damping due to the multilayer has not been addressed yet in the literature, and it's a novel approach. In this paper, simplified formulations using TMM to compute the equivalent damping will be recalled, and an experimental study will be conducted to assess the add-on damping by sound package for different configurations.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Analysis of Automotive HVAC Duct Designs Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Based Method and Correlation with Hemi-Anechoic Chamber

2020-04-14
2020-01-1263
Acoustic comfort of automotive cabins has progressively become one of the key attributes of passenger comfort within vehicle design. Wind noise and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system noise are two of the key contributors to noise levels heard inside the car. The increasing prevalence of hybrid technologies and electrification has an associated reduction in powertrain noise levels. As such, the industry has seen an increasing focus on understanding and minimizing HVAC noise, as it is a main source of noise in the cabin particularly when the vehicle is stationary. The complex turbulent flow path through the ducts, combined with acoustic resonances can potentially lead to significant noise generation, both broadband and tonal.
Technical Paper

CAE Cooling Module Noise and Vibration Prediction Methodology and Challenges

2020-04-14
2020-01-1262
In the NVH domain, the cooling module is an important subsystem in ground vehicles. Recently, with the development of small high output turbocharged internal combustion (IC) engines, cooling module noise and vibration has become more challenging. Furthermore, with plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), in some cases the cooling fan could be operational while the IC engine is not running. This poses a significant challenge for cabin noise enhancement. Small turbocharged IC engines typically require higher cooling capacity resulting in larger fan size designs with higher speed. Accurate prediction of the unbalance loads generated by cooling fan and loads transferred to the body are critical for the Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance of the vehicle. If the NVH risk of cooling module operation is not well quantified and addressed early in the program, attempts to find solutions in post launch stage could be very expensive and not as effective.
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