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Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Degradation Analysis of Flexible Film Cables in an Automotive Environment

2017-03-28
2017-01-0317
Automobiles have a high degree of mechanical and electrical complexity. However, product complexity has the accompanying effect of requiring high levels of design and process oversight. The net result is a product creation process which is prone to creating failures. These failures typically have their origin in an overall lack of complete understanding of the system in terms of materials, geometries and energy flows. Despite all of the engineering intentions, failures are inevitable, common, and must be dealt with accordingly. In the worst case, if a failure manifests itself into an observable failure the customer may have a negative experience. Therefore, it is imperative that design engineers, suppliers along with reliability professionals be able to assess the design risk. One approach to assess risk is the use of degradation analysis. Degradation analysis often provides more information than failure time data for assessing reliability and predicting the remnant life of a system.
Technical Paper

Target Setting Process for Hybrid Electric Drives Using TPA, Jury Study, and Torque Management

2019-06-05
2019-01-1453
The idea of improved efficiency without compromising the “fun to drive” aspect has renewed the auto industry’s interest toward electrification and hybridization. Electric drives gain from having multiple gear ratios which can use advantageous operating set points thus increasing range. Furthermore, they benefit significantly from frequent decelerations and stopping as is experienced in city driving conditions. To recuperate as much energy as possible, deceleration is done at high torque. This presents an interesting but serious sound quality issue in the form of highly tonal whine harmonics of rapidly changing gears that do not track with vehicle speed thus being objectionable to the vehicle occupants. This paper presents an NVH target setting process for a hybrid electric transmission being integrated into two existing vehicles, one belonging to the premium segment and another aimed at enthusiasts with off-road applications.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Clamp Loss and Subsequent Loosening of Automotive Hub-Knuckle Joints under Time-Varying Proving Ground Loading

2020-04-14
2020-01-0181
Threaded fasteners or bolted joints are used extensively in automotive assemblies. There are standard procedures to evaluate joint performance under block cycles or road loads. The deciding load case for such joint design is slippage analysis of the joint. There are studies done to evaluate the theoretical and experimental behavior of these joints. There are different ways of understanding the interaction between the bolt and the nut under different loading scenarios. However, none have provided a satisfactory method of quantifying bolt loosening or loss of clamp load under cyclic loading, where no slippage is observed. Under varying loads, initial relaxation of the joint is followed by a loss of clamping load. Below a critical value, complete loss of clamping load progresses very rapidly and this results in a loose joint.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Static and Fatigue Performance of Self-Piercing Riveted Joints and Adhesively Bonded Self-Piercing Riveted Joints Connecting Steel and Aluminum Components

2020-04-14
2020-01-0177
This paper describes an experimental study on the performance of self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints and adhesively bonded SPR joints connecting steel and aluminum components under both quasi-static and cyclic loading. The joint configurations cover a wide range of material gauges, types and grades. Two and three thickness joints, with and without adhesive are also part of this study. Load versus deflection behavior, load carrying capacity, fatigue life and the failure modes for each type of joint are discussed. This study focuses on the influence of dissimilar material and adhesives to the joint performance.
Technical Paper

A Study on Bolted Joint Finite Element Modeling for Vehicle Level Durability Analysis

2020-04-14
2020-01-0178
This paper describes a study on identifying a suitable thickness for finite element modeling a “deformable washer” to simulate bolted joints for vehicle level durability analysis based on experimental results. First, a test matrix table is introduced, which is based on representative vehicle structures for different bolt/nut sizes, bolt grades, sheet gages, and sheet materials etc. Then coupon tests, both static and fatigue, are illustrated. Next, the corresponding finite element model with different thickness of “deformable washers” and results are presented. Following that, the optimal “deformable washer” thickness is recommended based on statistical parameters (mean and standard deviation) of the relative differences between finite element analysis results and physical test results. Lastly, a case study is demonstrated for the proposed strategy.
Technical Paper

Automotive HVAC Dual Unit System Cool-Down Optimization Using a DFSS Approach

2019-04-02
2019-01-0892
Automotive AC systems are typically either single unit or dual unit systems, while the dual unit systems have an additional rear evaporator. The refrigerant evaporates inside these heat exchangers by taking heat and condensing the moisture from the recirculated or fresh air that is being pushed into the car cabin by air blowers. This incoming cold air in turn brings the cabin temperature and humidity to a level that is comfortable for the passengers. These HVAC units have their own thermal expansion valve to set the refrigerant flow, but both are connected to the main AC refrigerant loop. The airflows, however, are controlled independently for front and rear unit that can affect the temperature and amount of air coming into the cabin from each location and consequently the overall cabin cool-down performance.
Technical Paper

Virtual Method for Electronic Stop-Start Simulation & VDV Prediction Using Modified Discrete Signal Processing for Short Time Signals

2020-04-14
2020-01-1270
Electronic Stop-Start (ESS) system automatically stops and restarts the engine to save energy, improve fuel economy and reduce emissions when the vehicle is stationary during traffic lights, traffic jams etc. The stop and start events cause unwanted vibrations at the seat track which induce discomfort to the driver and passengers in the vehicle. These events are very short duration events, usually taking less than a second. Time domain analysis can help in simulating this event but it is difficult to see modal interactions and root cause issues. Modal transient analysis also poses a limitation on defining frequency dependent stiffness and damping for multiple mounts. This leads to inaccuracy in capturing mount behavior at different frequencies. Most efficient way to simulate this event would be by frequency response analysis using modal superposition method.
Technical Paper

EXV to Optimize PHEV/BEV Automotive Air Conditioning System Performance and Simulation Methodology

2020-04-14
2020-01-1393
Due to increasing standards in fuel consumption, battery electric vehicles (BEV) and plug in electric hybrid vehicles (PHEV), are becoming more commonplace in the automotive industry. Batteries used in such applications require methods of thermal management to promote longer life, higher efficiency and performance. A common method of keeping the battery cool, in high heat conditions, is to use a water to refrigerant chiller. The already existing automotive air conditioning system is leveraged to enable the use of such a chiller. The added thermal transient load of the battery adds complexity to the refrigeration system. Balancing the thermal comfort of the occupants with temperature requirements of battery drives challenges to the overall system capacity. The sudden change in battery cooling loads can noticeably degrade the evaporator heat rejection. In extreme cases the battery cooling load can cause complete loss of refrigerant flow to the evaporator.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Tow Hook and Bolted Joint Strength Behavior Using Virtual Test Simulation Technique

2020-04-14
2020-01-1399
There is an increasing demand for reducing vehicle development process and minimizing cost due to tough competition in Automotive market. One of the major focus areas is minimizing the vehicle proto build that are required for physical testing during vehicle development. Tow hooks are key structural components for the vehicle, which are designed to withstand structural strength performance under various vehicles towing condition. Typical extreme load scenario for the vehicle can be towing fully loaded vehicle breaks down on uphill road or stuck in wet muddy condition. To exercise the tow hook structural development in early design phase, it is important to have reliable simulation process. This paper focuses on development of virtual test simulation process that replicates the tow hook system test behavior for the operating load. The study includes the detail modeling of clevis load applicator, tow hook, bolt joint and attached test bed plate for capturing the load path.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Understanding Planetary Gear Train Efficiency and Powerflow

2020-04-14
2020-01-0432
Understanding planetary gear efficiency is more involved than understanding efficiency of external gears because of the recirculating power that is inherent in planetary gear operation. There have been several publications going back several decades on this topic. However, many of these publications are mathematical in their approach and tend to be overlooked by practicing engineers. This paper brings a new, more visual and more intuitive approach to the problem. It uses lever diagrams, which have been a standard tool in the transmission engineer’s arsenal for almost four decades, to visualize the power flow and develop analytical expressions for the efficiency of simple and compound planetary gears. It then extends the approach to more complex gear trains.
Journal Article

A Case Study on Clean Side Duct Radiated Shell Noise Prediction

2017-03-28
2017-01-0444
Engine air induction shell noise is a structure borne noise that radiates from the surface of the air induction system. The noise is driven by pulsating engine induction air and is perceived as annoying by vehicle passengers. The problem is aggravated by the vehicle design demands for low weight components packaged in an increasingly tight under hood environment. Shell noise problems are often not discovered until production intent parts are available and tested on the vehicle. Part changes are often necessary which threatens program timing. Shell noise should be analyzed in the air induction system design phase and a good shell noise analytical process and targets must be defined. Several air induction clean side ducts are selected for this study. The ducts shell noise is assessed in terms of material strength and structural stiffness. A measurement process is developed to evaluate shell noise of the air induction components. Noise levels are measured inside of the clean side ducts.
Technical Paper

Robust Optimization of Rear Suspension Trailing Arm for Durability Using Taguchi Method

2020-04-14
2020-01-0602
Vehicle suspension parts are subjected to variable road loads, manufacturing process variation and high installation loads in assembly process. These parts must be robust to usage conditions to function properly in the field. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) tools and Taguchi Method were used to optimize initial rear suspension trailing arm design. Project identified key control factor/design parameters, to improve part robustness at the lowest cost. Optimized design performs well under higher road loads and meets stringent durability requirements. This paper evokes use of Taguchi Method to design robust rear suspension trailing arm and study effect of selected design parameters on robustness, stress level/durability and part cost.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Rear Fascia Cutline Based On Investigating Deviation Sources of the Body Panel Fit and Finish

2017-03-28
2017-01-1600
A vehicle’s exterior fit and finish, in general, is the first system to attract customers. Automotive exterior engineers were motivated in the past few years to increase their focus on how to optimize the vehicle’s exterior panels split lines quality and how to minimize variation in fit and finish addressing customer and market required quality standards. The design engineering’s focus is to control the deviation from nominal build objective and minimize it. The fitting process follows an optimization model with the exterior panel’s location and orientation factors as independent variables. This research focuses on addressing the source of variation “contributed factors” that will impact the quality of the fit and finish. These critical factors could be resulted from the design process, product process, or an assembly process. An empirical analysis will be used to minimize the fit and finish deviation.
Technical Paper

Design of Valve Body Integrated Direct Acting Controids

2020-04-14
2020-01-0965
The latest trend in transmission hydraulic controls development ise body integrated direct acting control solenoid, ted by multiple automotive OEMs. The advantages of integrated direct acting control solenoids are key enablers for OEMs to meet more and more stringent fuel economy requirement and competitive environment. In the meantime, there are unique challenges in both designing and manufacturing of such solenoids, due to the fact the solenoid armature can only push the spool valve with limited force and limited stroke. Through analytical methods, this paper explains design guidelines to overcome the challenges and quantifies the impact of design decision to critical functional objectives. Multiple valve design configurations, including both normally low and normally high functionality, are covered in the analysis. Unique manufacturing process concerns are also addressed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Novel Test System to Determine the Durability of RTV Gasket Material

2020-04-14
2020-01-1069
This paper describes a laboratory-based test system and procedure for determining the durability of RTV sealant with fretting movement. A test machine is described in which shear and tensile stress-generating displacements at room temperature and temperature of 100°C are produced to load an RTV seal. The test system utilizes an air pressurized hollow cylinder with a cap sealed by RTV sealant on a reciprocating test rig. An external air leakage monitoring system detects the health of the tested RTV seal. When air leakage occurs, the seal is determined to have failed. RTV sealant used in the test was fully cured at room temperature and then aged with engine oil. In the experiments, a total of 6 displacements were used to generate cycle/amplitude graphs for both shear and tensile modes. Failures were determined to be caused by the loss of adhesion in tensile mode, and by crack nucleation due to the special step design in shear mode.
Technical Paper

Impact of Active-Grille Shutter Position on Vehicle Air-Conditioning System Performance and Energy Consumption in Real World Conditions

2020-04-14
2020-01-0947
Active grille shutter (AGS) in a vehicle provides aerodynamic benefit at high vehicle speed by closing the front-end grille opening. At the same time this causes lesser air flow through the cooling module which includes the condenser. This results in higher refrigerant pressure at the compressor outlet. Higher head pressure causes the compressor to work more, thereby possibly negating the aerodynamic benefits towards vehicle power consumption. This paper uses a numerical method to quantify the compressor power consumed in different scenarios and assesses the impact of AGS closure on total vehicle energy consumption. The goal is to analyze the trade-off between the aerodynamic performance and the compressor power consumption at high vehicle speeds and mid-ambient conditions. These so called real world conditions represent highway driving at mid-ambient temperatures where the air-conditioning (AC) load is not heavy.
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