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Journal Article

A Practical Simulation Procedure using CFD to Predict Flow Induced Sound of a Turbocharger Compressor

2015-04-14
2015-01-0662
A turbocharger is currently widely used to boost performance of an internal combustion engine. Generally, a turbocharger consists of a compressor which typically is driven by an exhaust turbine. The compressor will influence how the low frequency engine pulsation propagates in the intake system. The compressor will also produce broad-band flow induced sound due to the turbulence flow and high frequency narrowband tonal sound which is associated with rotating blade pressures. In this paper, a practical simulation procedure based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is developed to predict the flow induced sound of a turbocharger compressor. In the CFD model of turbocharger compressor, the unsteady, moving wheel, detached eddy simulation (DES) approach are utilized. In this manner, both the broad-band and narrow-band flow induced sound are directly resolved in the CFD computation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of MAC Side Window Demister Outlet by Parametric Modelling through DFSS Approach

2015-04-14
2015-01-0363
In recent years clearing the mist on side windows is one of the main criterions for all OEMs for providing comfort level to the person while driving. Visibility through the side windows will be poor when the mist is not cleared to the desired level. “Windows fog up excessively/don't clear quickly” is one of the JD Power question to assess the customer satisfaction related to HVAC performance. In a Mobile Air Conditioning System, HVAC demister duct and outlet plays an important role for removing the mist formation on vehicle side window. Normally demister duct and outlet design is evaluated by the target airflow and velocity achieved at driver and passenger side window. The methodology for optimizing the demister outlet located at side door trim has been discussed. Detailed studies are carried out for creating a parametric modeling and optimization of demister outlet design for meeting the target velocity.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Cargo Box Tailgate CAE Fatigue Life Predictions Loaded with Inertial Forces and Moments

2015-04-14
2015-01-0532
This paper describes a CAE fatigue life prediction technique for a tailgate on pickup truck cargo box with inertial forces and moments applied at mass center of the tailgate as input loads. The inertial forces and moments are calculated from the accelerations measured at the corners of the tailgate as the truck is being driven over a durability schedule at the test proving grounds. All the dynamic responses of the tailgate on cargo box, including any dynamic interactions at the pivot joints between the tailgate and box sides, are captured in the acquired data and also in the inertial forces and moments computed at the mass center. Correspondingly, all the dynamic responses are included in the CAE fatigue life predictions. The dynamic interactions at the pivot joints are simulated by using two identical CAE models, one with lateral translational constraint applied at the left pivot only and the other at the right pivot only.
Technical Paper

Development of a Nonlinear, Hysteretic and Frequency Dependent Bushing Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-0428
An accurate bushing model is vital for vehicle dynamic simulation regarding fatigue life prediction. This paper introduces the Advanced Bushing Model (ABM) that was developed in MATLAB® environment, which gives high precision and fast simulation. The ABM is a time-domain model targeting for vehicle durability simulation. It dynamically captures bushing nonlinearities that occur on stiffness, damping and hysteresis, through a time-history-based fitting technique, compensated with frequency dependency functionality. Among the simulated and test-collected bushing loads, good correlations have been achieved for elastomer bushings and hydraulic engine mounts and validated with a random excitation signal. This ABM model has been integrated into a virtual shaker table (from a parallel project) as the engine mount model to simulate the mount load, and has shown acceptable prediction on fatigue damage.
Journal Article

LES of Diesel and Gasoline Sprays with Validation against X-Ray Radiography Data

2015-04-14
2015-01-0931
This paper focuses on detailed numerical simulations of direct injection diesel and gasoline sprays from production grade, multi-hole injectors. In a dual-fuel engine the direct injection of both the fuels can facilitate appropriate mixture preparation prior to ignition and combustion. Diesel and gasoline sprays were simulated using high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulations (LES) with the dynamic structure sub-grid scale model. Numerical predictions of liquid penetration, fuel density distribution as well as transverse integrated mass (TIM) at different axial locations versus time were compared against x-ray radiography data obtained from Argonne National Laboratory. A necessary, but often overlooked, criterion of grid-convergence is ensured by using Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) for both diesel and gasoline. Nine different realizations were performed and the effects of random seeds on spray behavior were investigated.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Determine the Effective Volume of Gasoline Particulate Filter Technology on Criteria Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0936
New Particulate Matter (PM) and Particulate Number (PN) regulations throughout the world have created a need for aftertreatment solutions that include particulate control as an option to comply with the legislation. However, limitations in other criteria emissions cannot be sacrificed to accomplish the reduction of PM/PN. For this work, three-way washcoat catalyzed wall-flow Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPF) and similarly catalyzed flow-through catalysts of common defined volume were tested. Their catalytic performance was determined by measuring NOx, CO and HC conversion efficiencies and CO2 levels over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) cycles. Analysis of the impact on CO2 emissions was also evaluated in relation to backpressure from 1-D modeling analysis. All exhaust systems used the same loading and ratio of Platinum Group Metals (PGM), but employed different cell structures in their substrates.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Adaptable Insert Welds between Sheet Steel and Cast Magnesium Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0392
Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
Technical Paper

3D Simulation Models Simplified to 2D Planar/Axisymmetric Problems in Automotive Structures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0397
In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Critical Plane Models Using Non-Proportional Low Cycle Fatigue Test Data of 304 Stainless Steel

2016-04-05
2016-01-0380
Two popular critical plane models developed by Fatemi-Socie and Smith-Watson-Topper were derived from the experimental observations of the nucleation and growth of cracks during loading. The Fatemi-Socie critical plane model is applicable for the life prediction of materials for which the dominant failure mechanism is shear crack nucleation and growth, while the Smith-Watson-Topper model, for materials that fail predominantly by crack growth on planes perpendicular to the planes of maximum tensile strain or stress. The two critical plane models have been validated primarily by in-phase and 90° out-of-phase loading, and few, on the complex, non-proportional loading paths. A successful critical plane model should be able to predict both the fatigue life and the dominant failure planes. However, some experimental studies indicate the 304 stainless steel has the two possible failure modes, shear and tensile failure dominant, depending on the loading mode and stress and strain states.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine Performance and Valvetrain Dynamics Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0483
Valvetrain dynamics modeling and engine combustion modeling are often carried out independently. As a result, the interaction between these two physical responses may not be accurately assessed. The objective of this work is to understand the impact that robust valve timing simulations, implemented using a fully coupled valve train dynamics and engine performance model, have on engine performance prediction. The integrated simulation and detailed technical approach are discussed through the presentation of an example implementation. An I4 engine model is developed in which engine performance and valvetrain dynamics modeling are coupled. A benefit of this multi-physics approach is that it reduces reliance on empirically derived estimates of valve lash in favor of physical modeling of engine valvetrain dynamics that predicts lash during engine performance modeling.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Prediction and Validation of Vehicle Dynamic Performance by Concurrent Modeling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0482
This paper presents the latest development of using an integrated modeling approach to estimate the statistical ranges of key vehicle dynamics performance in the early design phase. The virtual analytical tools predict the statistical confidence interval for specified ride and handling (R&H) metrics to enable a robust design by concurrently simulating the dimensional tolerance of the structural parts as well as the compliance variation. The compliance variation can be defined as load deflection properties of bushings as well as vehicle weight effects on preload. The model can then be used to better represent real world customer experience, allowing prediction of performance ranges relative to targets. In order to better predict these targets, measurements of physical vehicles were made and compared to the model to reveal the actual interactions relative to the theoretical.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Body Inertance Response for Occupant Safety Control Module Attachment Regions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0473
Current generation passenger vehicles are built with several electronic sensors and modules which are required for the functioning of passive safety systems. These sensors and modules are mounted on the vehicle body at locations chosen to meet safety functionality requirements. They are mounted on pillars or even directly on panels based on specific packaging requirements. The body panel or pillar poses local structural resonances and its dynamic behavior can directly affect the functioning of these sensors and modules. Hence a specific inertance performance level at the mounting locations is required for the proper functioning of those sensors and modules. Drive point modal frequency response function (FRF) analysis, at full vehicle model for the frequency range up to 1000 Hz, is performed using finite element method (FEM) and verified against the target level along with test correlation.
Technical Paper

Evaluating Major Parasitic Power Losses in IC Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0489
The mathematical models that predict friction losses for an internal combustion (IC) engine are described in this paper. These models are based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical results. These include predictions of losses arising from friction and viscous fluid motion associated with the relative movement of solid surfaces within a piston assembly, the cranktrain, and valvetrain components. The engine friction losses are defined in the context of the geometries of the particular components within an IC engine. Details of these formulations are given, including novel geometry-related coefficients. Different regimes of lubricated friction are considered. In order to establish the model fidelity and robust solution methodology, the mathematical models are validated against engine friction tests. Utilization of these models enables practical solutions to the development of new low friction IC engines that leads to improved engine mechanical efficiency and fuel economy.
Journal Article

Transient Modeling of Vehicle Under-hood and Underbody Component Temperatures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0281
In this paper, transient component temperatures for the vehicle under-hood and underbody are estimated. The main focus is on the component temperatures as a result of radiation from exhaust, convection by underbody or under-hood air and heat conduction through the components. The exhaust surface temperature is simulated as function of time and for various vehicle duty cycles such as city traffic, road load and grade driving conditions. At each time step the radiation flux to the surrounding component is estimated, heat addition or removal by convection is evaluated based on air flow, air temperature and component surface area. Simulation results for under-hood and underbody components are compared against vehicle test data. The comparison shows very good agreement between simulated and measured component temperatures under both steady state and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design and Optimization of Vehicle Thermal Management System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0283
More stringent federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more sophisticated vehicle thermal management systems in order to best utilize the waste heat and minimize overall power consumption. With all new technologies and requirements, how to properly design, optimize, and control the vehicle thermal and cooling systems become great challenges to automotive engineers. Model based approach has become essential to the new thermal management system architectures design and evaluation of the optimal system solutions. This paper will discuss how the model based vehicle thermal system simulation tools have been developed from analytical & empirical data, and have been used for assessment and development of new thermal management system architectures.
Technical Paper

A DFSS Approach to Optimize the Second Row Floor Duct Using Parametric Modelling

2017-03-28
2017-01-0176
The main function of mobile air conditioning system in a vehicle is to provide the thermal comfort to the occupants sitting inside the vehicle at all environmental conditions. The function of ducts is to get the sufficient airflow from the HVAC system and distribute the airflow evenly throughout the cabin. In this paper, the focus is to optimize the rear passenger floor duct system to meet the target requirements through design for six sigma (DFSS) methodology. Computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD) has been used extensively to optimize system performance and shorten the product development time. In this methodology, a parametric modeling of floor duct design using the factors such as crossectional area, duct length, insulation type, insulation thickness and thickness of duct were created using CATIA. L12 orthogonal design array matrix has been created and the 3D CFD analysis has been carried out individually to check the velocity and temperature.
Technical Paper

Robust 1D Modelling for Automotive HVAC Warmup Prediction Using DFSS Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-0179
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the heater system plays a major role during winter condition to provide passenger comforts as well as to clear windshield defogging and defrost. In order to meet the customer satisfaction the heater system shall be tested physically in severe cold conditions to meet the objective performance in wind tunnel and also subjective performance in cold weather regions by conducting on road trials. This performance test is conducted in later stage of the program development, since the prototype or tooled up parts will not be available at initial program stage. The significance of conducting the virtual simulation is to predict the performance of the HVAC (Heating ventilating air-conditioning) system at early design stage. In this paper the development of 1D (One dimensional) model with floor duct systems and vehicle cabin model is studied to predict the performance. Analysis is carried out using commercial 1D simulation tool KULI®.
Technical Paper

Static Loading Analysis of Third Row Floor Duct System Using Finite Element Method

2017-03-28
2017-01-0168
In current scenario, there is an increasing need to have faster product development and achieve the optimum design quickly. In an automobile air conditioning system, the main function of HVAC third row floor duct is to get the sufficient airflow from the rear heating ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and to provide the sufficient airflow within the leg locations of passenger. Apart from airflow and temperature, fatigue strength of the duct is one of the important factors that need to be considered while designing and optimizing the duct. The challenging task is to package the duct below the carpet within the constrained space and the duct should withstand the load applied by the passenger leg and the luggage. Finite element analysis (FEA) has been used extensively to validate the stress and deformation of the duct under different loading conditions applied over the duct system.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Sheet Springback (Side-Wall-Curl) Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0396
Vehicle weight reduction is a significant challenge for the modern automotive industry. In recent years, the amount of vehicular components constructed from aluminum alloy has increased due to its light weighting capabilities. Automotive manufacturing processes, predominantly those utilizing various stamping applications, require a thorough understanding of aluminum fracture predictions methods, in order to accurately simulate the process using Finite Element Method (FEM) software or use it in automotive engineering manufacture. This paper presents the strain distribution of A5182 aluminum samples after punch impact under various conditions by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system, its software also measured the complete strain history, in addition to sample curvature after it was impacted; therefore obtaining the data required to determine the amount of side-wall-curl (Aluminum sheet springback) present after formation.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Durability Assessment and Relative Random Analysis Under Base Shake Loading Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0339
For many automotive systems it is required to calculate both the durability performance of the part and to rule out the possibility of collision of individual components during severe base shake vibration conditions. Advanced frequency domain methods now exist to enable the durability assessment to be undertaken fully in the frequency domain and utilizing the most advanced and efficient analysis tools (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In recent years new capabilities have been developed which allow hyper-sized models with multiple correlated loadcases to be processed. The most advanced stress processing (eg, complex von-Mises) and fatigue algorithms (eg, Strain-Life) are now included. Furthermore, the previously required assumptions that the loading be stationary, Gaussian and random have been somewhat relaxed. For example, mixed loading like sine on random can now be applied.
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