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Journal Article

Performance Assessment of a Multi-Functional Reactor Under Conventional and Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine Exhaust Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0606
Current progress in the development of diesel engines substantially contributes to the reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will not succeed to eliminate the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in the future. In the past we have introduced a Multi-Functional Reactor (MFR) prototype, suitable for the abatement of the gaseous and PM emissions of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine operation. In this work the performance of MFR prototypes under both conventional and advanced combustion engine operating conditions is presented. The effect of the MFR on the fuel penalty associated to the filter regeneration is assessed via simulation. Special focus is placed on presenting the performance assessment in combination with the existing differences in the morphology and reactivity of the soot particles between the different modes of diesel engine operation (conventional and advanced). The effect of aging on the MFR performance is also presented.
Technical Paper

Relationship between Fuel Properties and Sensitivity Analysis of Non-Aromatic and Aromatic Fuels Used in a Single Cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0333
Fuel properties are always considered as one of the main factors to diesel engines concerning performance and emission discussions. There are still challenges for researchers to identify the most correlating and non-correlating fuel properties and their effects on engine behavior. Statistical analyses have been applied in this study to derive the most un-correlating properties. In parallel, sensitivity analysis was performed for the fuel properties as well as to the emission and performance of the engine. On one hand, two different analyses were implemented; one with consideration of both, non-aromatic and aromatic fuels, and the other were performed separately for each individual fuel group. The results offer a different influence on each type of analysis. Finally, by considering both methods, most common correlating and non-correlating properties have been derived.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Different Biofuel Components in Diesel Blends on Engine Efficiency and Emission Performance

2010-10-25
2010-01-2119
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel components in Diesel blends. In this paper, thermodynamic single cylinder engine results of today's and future biofuel components are presented with respect to their engine-out emissions and engine efficiency. The investigations were divided into two phases: In the first phase, investigations were performed with rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) and an Ethanol-Gasoline blend (E85). In order to analyze the impact of different fuel blends, mixtures with 10 vol-% of B100 or E85 and 90 vol-% of standardized EN590 Diesel were investigated. Due to the low cetane number of E85, it cannot be used purely in a Diesel engine.
Journal Article

Influence of the Mixture Formation on the Lubrication Oil Emission of Combustion Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-1275
Partly competing objectives, as low fuel consumption, low friction, long oil maintenance rate, and at the same time lowest exhaust emissions have to be fulfilled. Diminishing resources, continuously reduced development periods, and shortened product cycles yield detailed knowledge about oil consumption mechanisms in combustion engines to be essential. There are different ways for the lubricating oil to enter the combustion chamber: for example as blow-by gas, leakage past valve stem seals, piston rings (reverse blow-by) and evaporation from the cylinder liner wall and the combustion chamber. For a further reduction of oil consumption the investigation of these mechanisms has become more and more important. In this paper the influence of the mixture formation and the resulting fuel content in the cylinder liner wall film on the lubricant oil emission was examined.
Technical Paper

Acoustics of Hybrid Vehicles

2010-06-09
2010-01-1402
The technology used in hybrid vehicle concepts is significantly different from conventional vehicle technology with consequences also for the noise and vibration behavior. In conventional vehicles, certain noise phenomena are masked by the engine noise. In situations where the combustion engine is turned off in hybrid vehicle concepts, these noise components can become dominant and annoying. In hybrid concepts, the driving condition is often decoupled from the operation state of the combustion engine, which leads to unusual and unexpected acoustical behavior. New acoustic phenomena such as magnetic noise due to recuperation occur, caused by new components and driving conditions. The analysis of this recuperation noise by means of interior noise simulation shows, that it is not only induced by the powertrain radiation but also by the noise path via the powertrain mounts. The additional degrees of freedom of the hybrid drive train can also be used to improve the vibrational behavior.
Journal Article

Analysis of the Effect of Bio-Fuels on the Combustion in a Downsized DI SI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1991
In this study the fuel influence of several bio-fuel candidates on homogeneous engine combustion systems with direct injection is investigated. The results reveal Ethanol and 2-Butanol as the two most knock-resistant fuels. Hence these two fuels enable the highest efficiency improvements versus RON95 fuel ranging from 3.6% - 12.7% for Ethanol as a result of a compression ratio increase of 5 units. Tetrahydro-2-methylfuran has a worse knock resistance and a decreased thermal efficiency due to the required reduction in compression ratio by 1.5 units. The enleanment capability is similar among all fuels thus they pose no improvements for homogeneous lean burn combustion systems despite a significant reduction in NOX emissions for the alcohol fuels as a consequence of lower combustion temperatures.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Temperature Management for Diesel Engines Assessment of Engine Concepts and Calibration Strategies with Regard to Fuel Penalty

2011-09-11
2011-24-0176
Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the development of future diesel engines. These engines will comprise not only the mandatory diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and particulate filter DPF but a NOx aftertreatment system as well - at least for heavier vehicles. The oxidation catalysts as well as currently available NOx aftertreatment technologies, i.e., LNT and SCR, rely on sufficient exhaust gas temperatures to achieve a proper conversion. This is getting more and more critical due to the fact that today's and future measures for CO₂ reduction will result in further decrease of engine-out temperatures. Additionally this development has to be considered in the light of further engine electrification and hybridization scenarios.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Combustion Control - Enabler of Future Refined Engine Performance Regarding Power, Efficiency, Emissions & NVH under Stringent Governmental Regulations

2011-09-11
2011-24-0171
Both, the continuous strengthening of the exhaust emission legislation and the striving for a substantial reduction of the carbon dioxide output in the traffic sector depict substantial requirements for the global automotive industry and especially for the engine manufacturers. From the multiplicity of possible approaches and strategies for clear compliance with these demands, engine internal measures offer a large and, eventually more important, very economical potential. For example, the achievements in fuel injection technology are a measure which in the last years has contributed significantly to a notable reduction of the emissions of the modern DI Diesel engines at favorable fuel efficiency. Besides the application of modern fuel injection technology, the linked combustion control (Closed Loop Combustion Control) opens possibilities for a further optimization of the combustion process.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Aging Method for Future Emissions Standard Requirements

2010-04-12
2010-01-1272
This paper describes an alternative catalyst aging process using a hot gas test stand for thermal aging. The solution presented is characterized by a burner technology that is combined with a combustion enhancement, which allows stoichiometric and rich operating conditions to simulate engine exhaust gases. The resulting efficiency was increased and the operation limits were broadened, compared to combustion engines that are typically used for catalyst aging. The primary modification that enabled this achievement was the recirculation of exhaust gas downstream from catalyst back to the burner. The burner allows the running simplified dynamic durability cycles, which are the standard bench cycle that is defined by the legislation as alternative aging procedure and the fuel shut-off simulation cycle ZDAKW. The hot gas test stand approach has been compared to the conventional engine test bench method.
Journal Article

Quantitative Fuel-Air-Mixing Measurements in Diesel-Like Sprays Emanating from Convergent and Divergent Multi-Layer Nozzles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0464
It is the objective of this work to characterize mixture formation in the sprays emanating from Multi-Layer (ML) nozzles under approximately engine-like conditions by quantitative, spatially, and temporally resolved fuel-air ratio and temperature measurements. ML nozzles are cluster nozzles which have more than one circle of orifices. They were introduced previously, in order to overcome the limitations of conventional nozzles. In particular, the ML design yields the potential of variable spray interaction, so that mixture formation could be controlled according to the operating condition. In general, it was also a primary aim of the cluster-nozzle concepts to combine the enhanced atomization and pre-mixing of small nozzle holes with the longer spray penetration lengths of large holes. The applied diagnostic, which is based on 1d spontaneous Raman scattering, yields the quantitative stoichiometric ratio and the temperature in the vapor phase.
Technical Paper

Modern Gear Train Simulation Process for the Virtual Engine and Transmission Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-0585
Current simulation tools for the investigation of the dynamic system response as well as for the component stresses on the basis of multi-body and finite-element techniques are integral part of today's powertrain development efforts. These tools are typical used for the analysis and optimization of shafts, clutches, chain/belt drives, bearings, levers, brackets, housings and many other components. An exception is made by gears which today are still frequently investigated by the help of semi-empirical methods based on DIN, ISO, AGMA and the specific knowledge base of well experienced developers. The main difficulty is that the gears are rolling off via large contact surfaces with complex nonlinear mechanical contact properties. Within the scope of research work FEV developed a new method for the analysis and optimization of gear drives based on comercial multi-body and finite-element software platforms.
Technical Paper

Potential of Synthetic Fuels in Future Combustion Systems for HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0232
In view of limited crude oil resources, alternative fuels for internal combustion engines are currently being intensively researched. Synthetic fuels from natural gas offer a promising interim option before the development of CO2-neutral fuels. Up to a certain degree, these fuels can be tailored to the demands of modern engines, thus allowing a concurrent optimization of both the engine and the fuel. This paper summarizes investigations of a Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) diesel fuel in a modern, post-EURO 4 compliant diesel engine. The focus of the investigations was on power output, emissions performance and fuel economy, as well as acoustic performance, in comparison to a commercial EU diesel fuel. The engine investigations were accompanied by injection laboratory studies in order to assist in the performance analyses.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1811
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels: The Potential of Oxygen Content in Fuels for Advanced Diesel Combustion Systems

2009-11-02
2009-01-2765
Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve. Thus, decanol was selected as an alcohol representative to investigate the influence of the oxygen content of an alcohol on the combustion performance.
Journal Article

Tomorrows Diesel Fuel Diversity - Challenges and Solutions

2008-06-23
2008-01-1731
Regulated emissions, CO2-values, comfort, good driveability, high reliability and costs, this is the main frame for all future powertrain developments. In this frame, the diesel powertrain, not only for passenger cars, but also for commercial vehicle applications, faces some challenges in order to fulfil the future European and current US emission legislations while keeping the fuel consumption benefit, good driveability and an acceptable cost frame. One of these challenges is the varying fuel qualities of diesel fuel in different countries including different cetane number, volatility, sulphur content and different molecular composition. In addition to that in the future, more and more alternative fuels with various fuel qualities and properties will be launched into the market for economical and environmental reasons. At present, the control algorithms of the injection system applied in most diesel engines is open loop control.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy

2008-04-14
2008-01-0651
Current and future emission legislations require a significant reduction of engine-out emissions for Diesel engines. For a further reduction of engine-out emissions, different measures are necessary such as: Especially an advanced emission and closed-loop combustion control has gained increased significance during the past years.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Modeling Approaches for NOx Formation in a Common-Rail DI Diesel Engine within the Framework of Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF)

2008-04-14
2008-01-0971
Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) have proven successful in predicting Diesel engine combustion. The RIF concept is based on the assumption that chemistry is fast compared to the smallest turbulent time scales, associated with the turnover time of a Kolmogorov eddy. The assumption of fast chemistry may become questionable with respect to the prediction of pollutant formation; the formation of NOx, for example, is a rather slow process. For this reason, three different approaches to account for NOx emissions within the flamelet approach are presented and discussed in this study. This includes taking the pollutant mass fractions directly from the flamelet equations, a technique based on a three-dimensional transport equation as well as the extended Zeldovich mechanism. Combustion and pollutant emissions in a Common-Rail DI Diesel engine are numerically investigated using the RIF concept. Special emphasis is put on NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Complex Air Path Management Systems and Necessary Controller Structures for Future High Dynamic Requirements

2009-05-13
2009-01-1616
The future worldwide emission regulations will request a drastic decrease of Diesel engine tailpipe emissions. Depending on the planned application and the real official regulations, a further strong decrease of engine out emissions is necessary, even though the utilized exhaust after-treatment systems are very powerful. To reduce NOx emissions internally, the external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is known as the most effective way. Due to the continuously increasing requirements regarding specific power, dynamic behavior and low emissions, future air path systems have to fulfill higher requirements and, consequently, become more and more complex, e.g. arrangements with a 2-stage turbo charging or 2-stage EGR system with different stages of cooling performance.
Technical Paper

LOTUS: A Co-operation for Low Temperature Urea-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

2004-03-08
2004-01-1294
The European research co-operation Lotus is presented. The main objectives of the project were i) to show the potential for a urea-based SCR system to comply with the EU standard of years 2005 and 2008 for heavy-duty Diesel engines for different driving conditions with optimal fuel consumption, ii) to reach 95 % conversion of NOx at steady state at full load on a Euro III engine, iii) to reach 75 % NOx reduction for exhaust temperatures between 200-300°C, and 85 % average NOx reduction between 200-500°C. The energy content of the consumed urea should not exceed 1.0 %, calculated as specific fuel consumption. These targets were met in May 2003 and the Lotus SCR system fulfilled the Euro V NOx legislative objectives for year 2008.
Technical Paper

Cooled EGR - A Must or an Option for 2002/04

2002-03-04
2002-01-0962
The introduction of the new emission standards in 2002/04 for heavy-duty diesel engines requires a substantial reduction of the NOx emissions while the particulate emissions remain on a constant level. The application of cooled EGR appears to be the most common approach in order to achieve the required target, although other means such as advanced combustion systems and the application of emission control devices to reduce NOx emissions have to be taken into account as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of such alternative solutions in comparison with cooled EGR to meet the upcoming emission standards.
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