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Video

Characterization of a New Advanced Diesel Oxidation Catalyst with Low Temperature NOx Storage Capability for LD Diesel

2012-06-18
Currently, two consolidated aftertreatment technologies are available for the reduction of NOx emissions from diesel engines: Urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) systems and LNT (Lean NOx Trap) systems. Urea SCR technology, which has been widely used for many years at stationary sources, is becoming nowadays an attractive alternative also for light-duty diesel applications. However, SCR systems are much more effective in NOx reduction efficiency at high load operating conditions than light load condition, characterized by lower exhaust gas temperatures.
Video

Analysis of Various Operating Strategies for a Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2012-05-30
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
Technical Paper

NEEXT : New Electric Experience For Traction

2010-04-12
2010-01-0034
Electric scooters are suited to mobility in zones with environmental traffic limitations, and particularly for city centers with very poor room for parking. Aim of this paper is the illustration of the performance that can be obtained from a purposely designed electric scooter. The features of the main components of the scooter driveline: battery package, converter, motor and control will be described.
Technical Paper

H-ergo: Electric-Hydrogen Powered Personal Mobility Concept Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0031
H-ergo, a concept of light electric vehicle devoted to personal mobility, will here be presented. H-ergo is a low-noise, user-friendly, zero-emission vehicle, with a pleasant style. Its main features include high payload/vehicle mass ratio, electric energy supplied either by batteries or by fuel cell, ergonomic style in order to transport a driver or a person whit mobility problems, chassis design to minimize cost of production, variable wheelbase (through electric actuator). The paper presents the main ideas on which the vehicle design was based and summarizes the most important results obtained.
Technical Paper

Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1391
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior. In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel.
Journal Article

Combustion Prediction by a Low-Throughput Model in Modern Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1410
A new predictive zero-dimensional low-throughput combustion model has been applied to both PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) and conventional diesel engines to simulate HRR (Heat Release Rate) and in-cylinder pressure traces on the basis of the injection rate. The model enables one to estimate the injection rate profile by means of the injection parameters that are available from the engine ECU (Electronic Control Unit), i.e., SOI (Start Of main Injection), ET (Energizing Time), DT (Dwell Time) and injected fuel quantities, taking the injector NOD (Nozzle Opening Delay) and NCD (Nozzle Closure Delay) into account. An accumulated fuel mass approach has been applied to estimate Qch (released chemical energy), from which the main combustion parameters that are of interest for combustion control in IC engines, such as, SOC (Start Of Combustion), MFB50 (50% of Mass Fraction Burned) have been derived.
Technical Paper

Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions of Different Biodiesel Blends Versus ULSD from a Small Displacement Automotive Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0633
Experimental work was carried out on a small displacement Euro 5 automotive diesel engine alternatively fuelled with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) and with two blends (30% vol.) of ULSD and of two different fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained from both rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) in order to evaluate the effects of different fuel compositions on particle number (PN) emissions. Particulate matter (PM) emissions for each fuel were characterized in terms of number and mass size distributions by means of two stage dilutions system coupled with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were performed at three different sampling points along the exhaust system: at engine-out, downstream of the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and downstream of the diesel particulate filter (DPF). Thus, it was possible to evaluate both the effects of combustion and after-treatment efficiencies on each of the tested fuels.
Journal Article

Performance Assessment of a Multi-Functional Reactor Under Conventional and Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine Exhaust Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0606
Current progress in the development of diesel engines substantially contributes to the reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will not succeed to eliminate the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in the future. In the past we have introduced a Multi-Functional Reactor (MFR) prototype, suitable for the abatement of the gaseous and PM emissions of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine operation. In this work the performance of MFR prototypes under both conventional and advanced combustion engine operating conditions is presented. The effect of the MFR on the fuel penalty associated to the filter regeneration is assessed via simulation. Special focus is placed on presenting the performance assessment in combination with the existing differences in the morphology and reactivity of the soot particles between the different modes of diesel engine operation (conventional and advanced). The effect of aging on the MFR performance is also presented.
Technical Paper

A Modal-Geometrical Selection Criterion for Master Nodes Applied to Engine Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0498
Usually, both an experimental modal analysis or a numerical modal analysis performed on reduced model present the problem of master nodes selection. A methodology based on the experience is normally used or computationally heavy criterion can be applied. In that paper, the Modal-Geometrical Selection Criterion (MoGeSeC) is applied to a crankshaft, both for an EMA (experimental modal analysis) and for a reduction procedure. Then the results are compared with other literature criteria. As far as the EMA is concerned, the nodes suggested by MoGeSeC and other criteria are used for identification of the component. The connection conditions between components are origin of uncertainty but in that case the comparison is done for each methodology in the same conditions. In that way MoGeSeC proves to be a very quick and accurate method because the nodes it selects depicts very well the dynamic behavior of the components.
Technical Paper

Interpretation Tools and Concepts for the Heat Management in the Drive Train of the Future

2011-04-12
2011-01-0650
Thermal management describes measures that result in the improved engine or vehicle operation in terms of energetics and thermo mechanics. In this context the involvement of the entire power train becomes more important as the interaction between engine, transmission and temperature sensitive battery package (of hybrid vehicles or electric vehicles with range extender) or the utilization of exhaust gas thermal energy play a major role for future power train concepts. The aim of thermal management strategies is to reduce fuel consumption while simultaneously increasing the comfort under consideration of all temperature limits. In this case it is essential to actively control the heat flow, in order to attain the optimal temperature distribution in the power train components.
Technical Paper

Pem Fuel Cell Performance Under Particular Operating Conditions Causing the Production of Liquid Water: A Morphing on Bipolar Plate's Channels Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-1349
A fuel-cell-based system's performance is mainly identified in the overall efficiency, strongly depending on the amount of power losses due to auxiliary devices to supply. In such a situation, everything that causes either a decrease of the available power output or an increment of auxiliary losses would determine a sensible overall efficiency reduction.
Journal Article

Computational Analysis of Internal and External EGR Strategies Combined with Miller Cycle Concept for a Two Stage Turbocharged Medium Speed Marine Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1142
In this work different internal and external EGR strategies, combined with extreme Miller cycles, were analyzed by means of a one-dimensional CFD simulation code for a Wärtsilä 6-cylinder, 4-strokes, medium-speed marine diesel engine, to evaluate their potential in order to reach the IMO Tier 3 NOx emissions target. By means of extreme Miller cycles, with Early Intake Valve Closures (up to 100 crank angle degrees before BDC), a shorter compression stroke and lower charge temperatures inside the cylinder can be achieved and thanks to the cooler combustion process, the NOx-specific emissions can be effectively reduced. EIVC strategies can also be combined with reductions of the scavenging period (valve overlap) to increase the amount of exhaust gases in the combustion chamber. However, the remarkably high boost pressure levels needed for such extreme Miller cycles, require mandatorily the use of two-stage turbocharging systems.
Technical Paper

A PEM Fuel Cell Distributed Parameters Model Aiming at Studying the Production of Liquid Water Within the Cell During its Normal Operation: Model Description, Implementation and Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1176
One of the major issues coming out from low temperature fuel cells concerns the production of water vapor as a chemical reaction (between hydrogen and oxygen) by-product and its consequent condensation (at certain operating conditions), determining the presence of an amount of liquid water affecting the performance of the fuel cell stack: the production and the quantity of liquid water are strictly influenced by boundaries and power output conditions. Starting from this point, this work focuses on collecting all the required information available in literature and defining a suitable CFD model able to predict the production of liquid water within the fuel cell, while at the same time localizing it and determining the consequences on the PEM cell performances.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell Performance under Pre-Compression of Electrode: A Multidisciplinary, Integrated and Advanced Calculus Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-1175
Finite element methodologies are widely used in the attempt to minimize the expense for testing and mock-ups. The same approach could be extensively used in predicting PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) performance, considering all of the aspects related to this modern and complex technology, from electric to thermal and structural, to fluid-dynamics behavior. The present work focuses on the clamping pressure of the stack and its influence on the electro-chemical performance of the fuel cell. The main objective is to evaluate PEMFC performance related to several clamping configurations defined by the user when assembling the entire stack. The concept is to simulate the behavior of more deformable components and predict their influence on the overall performance.
Technical Paper

A PEM Fuel Cell Laminar and Turbulent Models Comparison, Aiming at Identifying Small-Scale Plate Channel Phenomena: A Mesh Independent Configuration

2011-04-12
2011-01-1177
Computational Fluid Dynamics is a powerful instrument for PEM fuel cell systems development, testing and optimization. Considering the complication due to the multiple physical phenomena involved in the cell's operations, a good understanding of the micro-scale fluidic behavior in boundary layers is recommended: pressure drop along the reactants gas channels and the cooling channels has a sensible effect on parasite load in fuel cell systems (i.e. the power absorbed by the pump supplying the gases), as well as an important role in thermal transport. A correct thermal and fluid dynamic boundary layer prediction on the channel walls and the other contact surface with porous layers requires usually a dense finite element volumes discretization near wall, especially if laminar flows occur: therefore, the boundary layer computational cost tends to be the major one.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Port Design on the Flow Field Stability of a Gasoline DI Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1284
The application of technologies such as direct injection, turbo charging and variable valve timing has caused a significant evolution of the gasoline engine with positive effects on fuel consumption and emissions. The current developments are primarily focused on the realization of improved full load characteristics and fuel consumption reduction with stoichiometric operation, following the downsizing approach in combination with turbo charging and high specific power. The requirements of high specific power in a relatively small cylinder displacement and a wide range of DI injection specifications lead to competing development targets and to a high number of degrees of freedom during engine layout and optimization. One of the major targets is to assess the stability of the combustion system in the early development phase.
Journal Article

Model Based Engine Control Development and Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for the EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Competition

2011-04-12
2011-01-1297
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
Technical Paper

Shape Optimization of a Single Cylinder Engine Crankshaft

2011-04-12
2011-01-1077
Due to increasing demand for environment friendly vehicles with better fuel economy and strict legislations on greenhouse gas emissions, lightweight design has become one of the most important issues concerning the automobile industry. Within the scope of this work lightweight design potentials that a conventional single cylinder engine crankshaft offers are researched through utilization of structural optimization techniques. The objective of the study is to reduce mass and moment of inertia of the crankshaft with the least possible effect on the stiffness and strength. For precise definition of boundary conditions and loading scenarios multi body simulations are integrated into the optimization process. The loading conditions are updated at the beginning of each optimization loop, in which a multi body simulation of the output structure from the previous optimization loop is carried out.
Technical Paper

Integrated CAD/CAE Functional Design for Engine Components and Assembly

2011-04-12
2011-01-1071
In the present paper, starting from a first attempt design of engine components, a CAD/CAE integrated approach for designing engine is proposed. As first step, some typological quantities are setting in order to define the designed engine, for example the number of cylinders, displacements, thermodynamic cycle and geometrical constraints. Using literature approach and tailored design methodologies, the developed software provides the geometric parameters of the main engine components: crankshaft, piston, wrist pin, connecting rod, bedplate, engine block, cylinder head, bearings, valvetrain. Form the geometrical parameters, the developed software, using 3D CAD parametric models, defines a first functional model of each component and of their mutual interactions. Then a numerical analysis can be evaluated and it provides important feedback result for design targets. In the paper the particular case of a crank mechanism model is presented.
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance and Emissions of an Automotive Euro 5 Diesel Engine Fuelled with B30 from RME and JME

2011-04-12
2011-01-0328
The effects of using a B30 blend of ultra-low sulfur diesel and two different Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) obtained from both Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) in a Euro 5 small displacement passenger car diesel engine on both full load performance and part load emissions have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine torque were firstly analyzed, for both a standard ECU calibration (i.e., without any special tuning for the different fuel characteristics) and for a specifically adjusted ECU calibration obtained by properly increasing the injected fuel quantities to compensate for the lower LHV of the B30: with the latter, the same torque levels measured under diesel operation could be observed with the B30 blend too, with lower smoke levels, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance while achieving substantial emissions benefits.
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