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Technical Paper

The Ford 427 Cubic Inch Single Overhead Cam Engine

1965-02-01
650497
Continuing demands for performance improvements in passenger car engines led to the development of the Ford 427 cu in. single overhead cam engine. See Fig. 1. Author discusses manner in which development of this engine was accomplished, using several design parameters, which included new and previously proved features.
Technical Paper

Performance and Economic Objectives for Over-the-Road Powerplants of the Future

1965-02-01
650482
The purpose of this paper is to project the performance and economic objectives of over-the-road powerplants in the decade of the 1970’s. The influencing factors for this projection are trends in: intercity ton miles of freight, size and weight legislation, the interstate highway system maximum legal speed laws, and operating costs of interstate carriers. These factors set the stage and establish the horizon for over-the-road vehicles of tomorrow.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Penetration Resistance of Windshield Glass

1965-02-01
650474
A twofold improvement in penetration resistance of laminated safety glass for use in vehicle windshields has been achieved. A new test procedure has been established which will provide better correlation of test conditions to accident conditions than present tests do. Present windshield material and the new safety glazings are compared.
Journal Article

Pressure Based Sensing Approach for Front Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1443
This study demonstrates the use of pressure sensing technology to predict the crash severity of frontal impacts. It presents an investigation of the pressure change in the front structural elements (bumper, crush cans, rails) during crash events. A series of subsystem tests were conducted in the laboratory that represent a typical frontal crash development series and provided empirical data to support the analysis of the concept. The pressure signal energy at different sensor mounting locations was studied and design concepts were developed for amplifying the pressure signal. In addition, a pressure signal processing methodology was developed that relies on the analysis of the air flow behavior by normalizing and integrating the pressure changes. The processed signal from the pressure sensor is combined with the restraint control module (RCM) signals to define the crash severity, discriminate between the frontal crash modes and deploy the required restraint devices.
Journal Article

Measurement of r-values of High Strength Steels Using Digital Image Correlation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0234
The r-value is a very important parameter in the forming simulations of high strength steels, especially for steels with prominent anisotropy. R-values for sheet steels conventionally measured by extensometers were found neither consistent nor accurate due to difficulties in measuring the width strain. In this study, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was applied to determine r-values in Longitudinal (L), Transverse (T) and Diagonal (D) directions for cold rolled DP980 GI, DP780 GI, DP600 GI and BH250 GI sheet steels. The r-values measured from DIC were validated by finite element analysis (FEA) of a uniaxial tensile test for BH250. The simulation results of the load-displacement for two plasticity models were compared to experimental data, with one being the isotropic yield (von-Mises) and the other being an anisotropic model (Hill-48) using the r-value measured from DIC.
Technical Paper

Establishing Localized Fire Test Methods and Progressing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0251
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.
Journal Article

The Effect of Welding Dimensional Variability on the Fatigue Life of Gas Metal Arc Welded Joints

2011-04-12
2011-01-0196
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is widely employed for joining relatively thick sheet steels in automotive body-in-white structures and frames. The GMAW process is very flexible for various joint geometries and has relatively high welding speed. However, fatigue failures can occur at welded joints subjected to various types of loads. Thus, vehicle design engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints produced by GMAW. Currently, automotive structures employ various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) such as dual-phase (DP) and transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels to produce lighter vehicle structures with improved safety performance and fuel economy, and reduced harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using GMAW in current body-in-white structures and frames.
Technical Paper

Two-stage Gear Driveline Vibration and Noise

2011-05-17
2011-01-1542
Gear meshing noise is a common noise issue in manual transmission, its noise generation mechanism has been studied extensively [1, 2]. But most of time we have situations where multiple gear sets are connected in series and the noise and vibration behavior for a multi-stage gear can be quite different due to vibration inter-actions or interferences among multiple gear sets. In this paper, a two-stage gear driveline model was built using MSC ADAMS. Vibration order contents of a two-stage gear driveline were analyzed by both CAE simulation and theoretical calculations. In addition to gear meshing vibration orders of each gear set, the orders resulted from modulations between individual gear meshing and their harmonics were evident in the results. These special order contents were verified by experimental results, and also evidenced on transmission end of line tester results at transmission supplier GJT in Ganzhou, China.
Journal Article

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for FWD-Based Power Transfer Units

2013-04-08
2013-01-0361
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of efficiency on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently and provides data to make comparisons. In addition, the procedure offers a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. Previous published studies have outlined the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This paper will take the same basic approach for the Power Transfer Units (PTUs) used on Front Wheel Drive (FWD) based All Wheel Drive (AWD) vehicles. Factors included in the assessment include single and multi-stage PTUs, fluid levels, break-in process, and temperature effects.
Technical Paper

The Integrated Electric Lifestyle: The Economic and Environmental Benefits of an Efficient Home-Vehicle System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0495
In recent years, the residential and transportation sectors have made significant strides in reducing energy consumption, mainly by focusing efforts on low-hanging fruit in each sector independently. This independent viewpoint has been successful in the past because the user needs met and resources consumed in each sector have been clearly distinct. However, the trend towards vehicle electrification has blurred the boundary between the sectors. With both the home and vehicle now relying upon the same energy source, interactions between the systems can no longer be neglected. For example, when tiered utility pricing schemes are considered, the energy consumption of each system affects the cost of the other. In this paper, the authors present an integrated Home-Vehicle Simulation Model (HVSM), allowing the designer to take a holistic view.
Journal Article

Investigation of Key Mechanisms for Liquid Length Fluctuations in Transient Vaporizing Diesel Sprays

2013-04-08
2013-01-1594
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is spray and mixing controlled and understanding spray parameters is key to determining the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, both spray visualization and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were undertaken to investigate key mechanisms for liquid length fluctuations. For the experimental portion of this study a common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid penetration of the spray was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with a 0% oxygen environment. Tests were undertaken at a gas density of 34.8 kg/m₃, 2000 bar injection pressure, and at ambient temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1300 K.
Journal Article

The Impact of Spark Discharge Pattern on Flame Initiation in a Turbulent Lean and Dilute Mixture in a Pressurized Combustion Vessel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1627
An operational scheme with fuel-lean and exhaust gas dilution in spark-ignited engines increases thermal efficiency and decreases NOx emission, while these operations inherently induce combustion instability and thus large cycle-to-cycle variation in engine. In order to stabilize combustion variations, the development of an advanced ignition system is becoming critical. To quantify the impact of spark-ignition discharge, ignitability tests were conducted in an optically accessible combustion vessel to characterize the flame kernel development of lean methane-air mixture with CO₂ simulating exhaust diluent. A shrouded fan was used to generate turbulence in the vicinity of J-gap spark plug and a Variable Output Ignition System (VOIS) capable of producing a varied set of spark discharge patterns was developed and used as an ignition source. The main feature of the VOIS is to vary the secondary current during glow discharge including naturally decaying and truncated with multiple strikes.
Journal Article

Comparison of Compression Ignition Engine Noise Metrics in Low-Temperature Combustion Regimes

2013-04-08
2013-01-1659
Many combustion researchers use peak pressure rise rate or ringing intensity to indicate combustion noise in lieu of microphone data or using a combustion noise meter that simulates the attenuation characteristics of the engine structure. In this paper, peak pressure rise rate and ringing intensity are compared to combustion noise using a fully documented algorithm similar to the ones used by combustion noise meters. Data from multiple engines operating under several low-temperature combustion strategies were analyzed. The results suggest that neither peak pressure rise rate nor ringing intensity provides a direct correlation to engine noise over a wide range of operating conditions. Moreover, the estimation of both metrics is often accompanied by the filtering of the pressure data, which changes the absolute value of the results.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ignition Energy Phasing and Spark Gap on Combustion in a Homogenous Direct Injection Gasoline SI Engine Near the EGR Limit

2013-04-08
2013-01-1630
For spark-ignition gasoline engines operating under the wide speed and load conditions required for light duty vehicles, ignition quality limits the ability to minimize fuel consumption and NOx emissions via dilution under light and part load conditions. In addition, during transients including tip-outs, high levels of dilution can occur for multiple combustion events before either the external exhaust gas can be adjusted and cleared from the intake or cam phasing can be adjusted for correct internal dilution. Further improvement and a thorough understanding of the impact of the ignition system on combustion near the dilution limit will enable reduced fuel consumption and robust transient operation. To determine and isolate the effects of multiple parameters, a variable output ignition system (VOIS) was developed and tested on a 3.5L turbocharged V6 homogeneous charge direct-injection gasoline engine with two spark plug gaps and three ignition settings.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0513
Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. Using an accelerated aging procedure, a set of production exhaust systems from a 2011 Ford F250 equipped with a 6.7L diesel engine have been aged to an equivalent of 150,000 miles of thermal aging and metal exposure. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ULSD containing no measureable metals, B20 containing sodium, B20 containing potassium and B20 containing calcium. Metals levels were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to the ASTM D6751 standard. Analysis of the aged catalysts included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing with the systems installed on a Ford F250 pickup, bench flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Renewable Ethanol Use for Enabling High Load Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0904
As a renewable energy source, the ethanol fuel was employed with a diesel fuel in this study to improve the cylinder charge homogeneity for high load operations, targeting on ultra-low nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions. A light-duty diesel engine is configured to adapt intake port fuelling of the ethanol fuel while keeping all other original engine components intact. High load experiments are performed to investigate the combustion control and low emission enabling without sacrificing the high compression ratio (18.2:1). The intake boost, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection pressure are independently controlled, and thus their effects on combustion and emission characteristics of the high load operation are investigated individually. The low temperature combustion is accomplished at high engine load (16~17 bar IMEP) with regulation compatible NOx and soot emissions.
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