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The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

C-Max Energi - Ford's Plug-In Solution

Evolving the current state of the art Hybrid Technology for vehicles with plug-in capability will yield three significant results, the displacement of petroleum with electricity for transportation, improved efficiency and reduced emissions. As the technology evolves from the Ford Escape Hybrid Plug-In demo fleet, Ford is in the final stages of development of the C-Max Energi, which will be delivered in 2012 as a highly efficient, full purpose vehicle designed to meet customer expectations without compromise. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

OBD Experiences: A Ford Perspective

Some the OBD-II regulations have been around for a long time or seem to be intuitively obvious. It is easy to assume to assume that everyone knows how to implement them correctly, that is, until someone actually reads the words and tries to do it. Most often, these issues come up when modifying existing OBD features, not when creating completely new ones. This presentation contains a few examples of features that should have been easy to implement, but turned out not to be easy or simple. Presenter Paul Algis Baltusis, Ford Motor Co.

Future Development of EcoBoost Technology

Ford's EcoBoost GTDI engine technology (Gasoline Direct Injection, Turbo-charging and Downsizing) is being successfully implemented in the market place with the EcoBoost option accounting for significant volumes in vehicle lines as diverse as the F150 pickup truck, Edge CUV and the Lincoln MKS luxury sedan. A logical question would be what comes after GTDI? This presentation will review some of the technologies that will be required for further improvements in CO2, efficiency and performance building on the EcoBoost foundation as well as some of the challenges inherent in the new technologies and approaches. Presenter Eric W. Curtis, Ford Motor Co.

Ford: Driving Electric Car Efficiency

The Focus Electric is Ford�s first full-featured 5 passenger battery electric vehicle. The engineering team set our sights on achieving best-in-class function and efficiency and was successful with an EPA certified 1XX MPGe and range XXX then the facing competition allowing for a slightly lower capacity battery pack and larger vehicle without customer trade-off. We briefly overview the engineering method and technologies employed to deliver the results as well as sharing some of the functional challenges unique to this type of vehicle. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Hybrid Vehicle Battery OBD: Why, Wherefore, and How

The introduction of hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles has resulted in the introduction of battery systems into the realm of OBD II diagnostics. After a high-level overview of battery systems, general battery system fault responses are discussed, as well as which of these might be OBD faults. The alignment of the OBD regulations and DTC assignment in systems with large numbers of similar/identical components is discussed, along with apparent conflicts between existing OBD regulations and the physical realities of battery systems in HEVs and PHEVs. Presenter Dyche Anderson, Ford Motor Co.

Monitoring Urea Quantity Delivery for Diesel SCR After-treatment

While providing significant benefits to vehicle operation and emissions, on board diagnosis comes at a cost. In many cases the additional cost comes in the form of reduced optimal performance. Often the additional cost can be mitigated by considering the OBD requirements early in the development stages. In this presentation we show these trade-offs in a number of case studies. We will point out where the ability to diagnose comes at the cost of suboptimal performance, and where system design decisions can facilate the OBD task. Presenter Michiel Van Nieuwstadt, Ford Motor Co.

Ford: Driving Hybrid Efficiency

Hybrid vehicles in the modern era were developed with a strong primary goal to increase fuel efficiency in the North American market. Over the last 15 years, this market has expanded from zero sales to as high as 3% of total US sales. Most recently, the portfolio of competitive offerings with HEV propulsion systems has grown even more to about 30 models on sale today. Some interesting features and attributes have evolved thru this wider array of products giving the customer much more choice of which characteristics to select to match their needs. Ford�s 3rd generation HEV system will be offered for sale this fall. With it, we have continued our focus on the Fuel Efficiency as the driving force for our efforts. The overall process for the system engineering and some of the relevant subsystem and component contributors to the Fuel Efficiency improvement reflected in the 2013 Model Year Fusion and CMAX Hybrids will be presented. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.

Smart and Connected Electrification at Ford

Electrification is becoming a means of sustainable transportation to address global climate change and environmental concerns by reducing the dependency on fossil fuels for personal transportation; and to use renewable energy for transportation. Ford has incorporated Electrification as an important part of the company's sustainable strategy to provide sustainable transportation that is affordable environmentally, socially and economically. While offering customers Power of Choice for a wide range of Electrification products, Ford continues to exploit the potentials of Electrification by taking advantage of the advanced information technology to create smarter and greener vehicles customers want and value. This presentation will highlight some of the on-going research and development on smart and connected Electrification. Presenter Ming Lang Kuang, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

Passenger-Car Suspension Analysis

A DESCRIPTION of ride analysis by experimental and mathematical methods is presented. Test facilities and instrumentation employed in experimental analysis are described, followed by presentation of actual test results. The application of electronic analog computers o t mathematical analysis is explained, and experimental results are correlated with mathematical analysis. Results of experimental and mathematical analyses are interpreted in terms of passenger comfort limits. The authors cite the need for more extensive information regarding response of the human body to motion in passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Can All Engine Wear Be Trapped in a Can?

THE study of engine life, carried out by investigating engine wear in typical service, and by then striving to find the most effective ways of controlling it, forms the basis of this paper on contaminants in lubricants. The investigation involved a study of engine wear in 20,000 miles of operation typical of the average driver. The average driver was selected by using test cars from an employee transportation car pool. At the conclusion of the tests it was found that the use of the full-flow oil filter proved to be the best method for restricting engine wear caused by contaminants that get inside the engine. It was also shown that after successfully eliminating large, solid particles, further restriction of engine wear would depend upon the ability of the oil to lubricate, and upon the engine design to provide the oil supply in a manner suitable for lubrication of each part of the engine.
Technical Paper

The Continental Mark II —A Design Story—

STYLING the Continental Mark II with a very low silhouette without sacrificing leg room, seating comfort, and driver visibility was accomplished by using a specially designed frame and a 3-joint driveline. These two features are the basic engineering innovations which make possible the Continental's distinctive classic styling. As a result of this structural analysis, Ford has produced an automobile that, according to the author, has technical advancements that are of value to the consumer.
Technical Paper


APPLICATIONS of nuclear energy in automotive manufacture have been made principally in the field of radioactivity. These are grouped under the following categories: radiography, nondestructive testing, gaging and control, tracer techniques, and static neutralizers. Radioactivity techniques are being used in foundry operations to check stock and metal levels in cupolas and distribution of element additives. In steel operations, these techniques are being used to check assimilation of ore-concentrate fines and thickness of rolled sheet steel. Other applications include measurement of pipe and wall thickness in pressure lines and engines, and inspection of castings and welds for internal faults. Radioactive techniques for improving processes, quality, and materials have potentially universal application. Greater industrial access to reactors will permit broader study and speed the development of new applications of radio-activity in industry.
Technical Paper

Motion Sensitivity as a Guide to Road Design

HUMAN perception thresholds to motions and the various characteristics of motions in six degrees of freedom are presented. Experiments made to establish these thresholds for disturbances of the duration or frequency that might arise from highway geometry—durations in the range of from one second to several hundred seconds—are described. Applications of motion sensitivity criteria in the design of vertical and horizontal highway curves and transitions are developed, with examples from company proving grounds in Arizona and Michigan. The resulting geometric features of the high-speed road systems differ in several important respects from conventional highway practice and previous automotive test-track designs.
Technical Paper


THIS paper discusses the free-piston engine which is being investigated by Ford. The analytic method for calculating free-piston-gasifier thermodynamic performance over the complete operating range is discussed for the given limitations and conditions. Using these analytical methods, an automotive-size free-piston and matched turbine was designed, built, and tested.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Technical Paper


NODULAR cast iron, so called because the graphite is present as finely dispersed, well-rounded particles, is made in two stages: The first stage consists of the addition of magnesium or other carbide formers, which promote the formation of white iron in one normally solidifying gray. In the second stage a ferrosilicon type of inoculant overcomes the tendency toward white iron and causes the graphite to precipitate out in the form of small spherulites. The methods of making nodular iron, the effect of composition on physical properties, economic factors involved, and potential applications are discussed in this paper.