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Technical Paper

SCUFF-AND WEAR-RESISTANT CHEMICAL COATINGS

1947-01-01
470250
PROPER protection of metal parts operating as bearing surfaces, or in contact under relatively heavy loads, during the break-in period often means the difference between successful operation and failure. Various surface coatings have been investigated to discover which ones will give this protection. The authors discuss here three types of surface treatment for cast-iron and steel that do give superior wear and scuff resistance.
Technical Paper

FORD FREE-PISTON ENGINE DEVELOPMENT

1959-01-01
590045
THE Free-Piston Engine Program described in this paper was concerned with determining thermodynamic relationships of small, high-speed engines. The purpose was to establish proper engine geometry and mechanical design which could then be applied to developing larger automotive engines. The author outlines the problems encountered during the Program's beginnings: starting system, powerplant assembly, cooling system, and lubrication. The results indicated that the free-piston engine would be particularly applicable to the farm tractor. The author thinks that such a powerplant may equal or better the diesel engine in economy.
Technical Paper

Innovative Robust Solutions for Lean Manufacturing in Automotive Assembly Processes

2011-04-12
2011-01-1254
The article presents an innovative approach to the implementation of a robust design optimization solution in an automobiles assembly process. The approach of the entire project is specific to the 6 Sigma optimization process, by applying the DMAIC cycle integrated in a robust engineering approach for rendering lean the final product assembly process. According to the improvement cycle, the aspects specific for such a process are presented sequentially starting with the “Define” phase for presenting the encountered problem and continuing with the presentation of the scope of the project and its objectives. The “Improvement” cycle phase is applied by the analysis of the monitored 6 Sigma metrics (defined during the previous “Measure” phase and the cause and effect analysis, done during a brainstorming meeting developed during the “Analyze” phase). There follows a proposal for the innovative robust solution by which the assembly process is optimized.
Technical Paper

Internal Pressure Measurement for Sealed Electrical Connectors on Automotive Wire Harnesses: A method to improve Seal Plug Design

2013-04-08
2013-01-0398
Real-time pressure measurement inside sealed electrical connectors has been achieved using a new experimental approach. This approach has significant benefits to designers of connectors and the seals used to waterproof the connectors. The seal designer needs to know what pressure is in the connector but until now, pressure measurements were inaccurate due to the slow response time of the equipment. The result was that a peak in pressure of less than 1 second duration would be not recorded. This lack of accurate pressure data has resulted in overdesigned seal plugs - to compensate for the unknowns in testing - and potentially connectors that do not seal as well as required. With the new experimental technique described in this paper, data sampling rates have been increased to 100 samples per second with high accuracy. The new technique uses a portable micro pressure transducer that has been repackaged to fit where a connector wire normally fits.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Responsesof Generic Steel Front Bumper Crush Can Assemblies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0550
The present investigation details an experimental procedure for frontal impact responses of a generic steel front bumper crush can (FBCC) assembly subjected to a rigid full and 40% offset impact. There is a paucity of studies focusing on component level tests with FBCCs, and of those, speeds carried out are of slower velocities. Predominant studies in literature pertain to full vehicle testing. Component level studies have importance as vehicles aim to decrease weight. As materials, such as carbon fiber or aluminum, are applied to vehicle structures, computer aided models are required to evaluate performance. A novel component level test procedure is valuable to aid in CAE correlation. All the tests were conducted using a sled-on-sled testing method. Several high-speed cameras, an IR (Infrared) thermal camera, and a number of accelerometers were utilized to study impact performance of the FBCC samples.
Journal Article

Modeling of an Advanced Steering Wheel and Column Assembly for Frontal and Side Impact Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0803
This paper presents the final phase of a study to develop the modeling methodology for an advanced steering assembly with a safety-enhanced steering wheel and an adaptive energy absorbing steering column. For passenger cars built before the 1960s, the steering column was designed to control vehicle direction with a simple rigid rod. In severe frontal crashes, this type of design would often be displaced rearward toward the driver due to front-end crush of the vehicle. Consequently, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged to address this type of kinematics. These safety-enhanced steering columns allow frontal impact energy to be absorbed by collapsing or breaking the steering columns, thus reducing the potential for rearward column movement in severe crashes. Recently, more advanced steering column designs have been developed that can adapt to different crash conditions including crash severity, occupant mass/size, seat position, and seatbelt usage.
Technical Paper

Benefit of Structural Adhesives in Full Car Crash Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-0811
Structural adhesives are widely used across the automotive industry for several reasons like scale-up of structural performance and enabling multi-material and lightweight designs. Development engineers know in general about the effects of adding adhesive to a spot-welded structure, but they want to quantify the benefit of adding adhesives on weight reduction or structural performance. A very efficient way is to do that by applying analytical tools. But, in most of the relevant non-linear load cases the classical lightweight theory can only help to get a basic understanding of the mechanics. For more complex load cases like full car crash simulations, the Finite Element Method (FEM) with explicit time integration is being applied to the vehicle development process. In order to understand the benefit of adding adhesives to a body structure upfront, new FEM simulation tools need to be established, which must be predictive and efficient.
Journal Article

Hot Stamping of a B-Pillar Outer from High Strength Aluminum Sheet AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0981
This work demonstrates the feasibility of hot stamping a B-pillar outer panel from aluminum alloy 7075. AA7075 is characterized by a high strength to weight ratio with yield strengths comparable to those of DP and TRIP advanced high strength steels. Applications using AA7075 have typically been limited to the aerospace industry due to the high variable cost associated with forming and joining of these materials. A primary key to implementation in the automotive industry is the development of metal forming methods that produce non-compromised stamped parts at automotive manufacturing volumes and costs. This work explores the feasibility of die quenching a hot blank within a cold die as a means of delivering high strength aluminum sheet parts. A die made from kirksite was used to evaluate the hot stamping process for a B-pillar outer. After the forming/quenching operation, the parts were subjected to an artificial aging process to regain the properties of the T6-temper.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Quench Rate of AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0984
The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
Technical Paper

On Modeling the Hot Stamping of High Strength Aluminum Sheet

2014-04-01
2014-01-0983
This paper documents the finite element (FE) analysis of a hot stamping process for high strength aluminum sheet. In this process a 7075 blank, heated above its solvus temperature, was simultaneously die quenched and stamped in a room temperature die to form a B-pillar outer reinforcement. Two modeling approaches have been investigated: an isothermal mechanical model and a non-isothermal coupled thermo-mechanical model. The accuracy of each approach was assessed by comparing the predicted strain and thickness distributions to experimental measurements from a formed panel. The coupled thermo-mechanical model provided the most accurate prediction.
Technical Paper

Friction Stir Spot Welding of a High Ductility Aluminum Alloy

2014-04-01
2014-01-0793
High ductility cast aluminum alloys are seeing more use in vehicles as a greater effort is made to replace components made from heavier steel and iron alloys with lighter weight alloys such as aluminum. High ductility cast aluminum has significant advantages by allowing for complex shape and considerable consolidation of parts in body structures. However, joining can be a challenge because one popular method for aluminum joining, self-piercing riveting (SPR), requires a ductility of greater than 10%, forcing the common high ductility Al alloys to undergo a T6 heat treatment which adds cost and potential distortion issues to Al component. In this study, friction stir spot welding was investigated as a potential joining technique for this material in the as-cast condition. Samples of as-cast Aural-2™ alloy were joined to Aural-2™, 5754, and 6061 alloys, to determine the manufacturing feasibility, weld strength, and fatigue strength using this joining technique.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Journal Article

Deformation Analysis of Incremental Sheet Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0991
Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is an emerging sheet metal prototyping technology where a part is formed as one or more stylus tools are moving in a pre-determined path and deforming the sheet metal locally while the sheet blank is clamped along its periphery. A deformation analysis of incremental forming process is presented in this paper. The analysis includes the development of an analytical model for strain distributions based on part geometry and tool paths; and numerical simulations of the forming process with LS-DYNA. A skew cone is constructed and used as an example for the study. Analytical and numerical results are compared, and excellent correlations are found. It is demonstrated that the analytical model developed in this paper is reliable and efficient in the prediction of strain distributions for incremental forming process.
Technical Paper

Problem Analysis with the Aid of Cause and Effect Diagrams in the Automobile Industry

2010-04-12
2010-01-0914
Nature does not know any problems! All problems are created by people who either know or do not know what they are doing. Therefore problems can only be solved by humans. Modern vehicles consist of more than 10.000 single parts which are connected by a huge amount of interfaces. In order to fulfill the lifetime requirement for all systems many theoretical and physical investigations are required in the development phase. The task of this article is to describe a simple analysis method - the Cause and Effect Diagram (CE Diagram) to identify and visualize problems during the product development as well as during the manufacturing process. The original application of the forties will be enhanced by some new aspects.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

New Methodology to Improve the Engine Oil Level Indication in Commercial Trucks Assembly at End of Production Line

2011-10-04
2011-36-0164
This article is a new methodology to create a strong and reliable procedure to measure oil level at dealers. Most of time, commercial trucks run full loaded. Engine oil level indication systems are designed to measure oil level at that condition. However commercial trucks are assembled and sold empty and without bodies for trucks. In result of this condition, vehicles with a false indication of low engine oil level are detected at dealers' pre-delivery inspection, resulting in oil addition. This oil addition causes unnecessary costs, since vehicles are produced with maximum oil level. The methodology presented in this study analyzes and treats all variables involved in engine oil level measurements from engine production line until dealers' pre-delivery inspection
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Journal Article

Finite Element Modeling of Dissimilar Metal Self-piercing Riveting Process

2014-04-01
2014-01-1982
In present paper, the process of joining aluminum alloy 6111T4 and steel HSLA340 sheets by self-piercing riveting (SPR) is studied. The rivet material properties were obtained by inverse modeling approach. Element erosion technique was adopted in the LS-DYNA/explicit analysis for the separation of upper sheet before the rivet penetrates into lower sheet. Maximum shear strain criterion was implemented for material failure after comparing several classic fracture criteria. LS-DYNA/implicit was used for springback analysis following the explicit riveting simulation. Large compressive residual stress was observed near frequent fatigue crack initiation sites, both around vicinity of middle inner wall of rivet shank and upper 6111T4 sheet.
Journal Article

Influence of Test Procedure on Friction Behavior and its Repeatability in Dynamometer Brake Performance Testing

2014-09-28
2014-01-2521
The efforts of the ISO “Test Variability Task Force” have been aimed at improving the understanding and at reducing brake dynamometer test variability during performance testing. In addition, dynamometer test results have been compared and correlated to vehicle testing. Even though there is already a vast amount of anecdotal evidence confirming the fact that different procedures generate different friction coefficients on the same brake corner, the availability of supporting data to the industry has been elusive up to this point. To overcome this issue, this paper focuses on assessing friction levels, friction coefficient sensitivity, and repeatability under ECE, GB, ISO, JASO, and SAE laboratory friction evaluation tests.
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