Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-05-29
Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Technology Assessment of Boosted Direct Injection Stratified Charge Gasoline Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0249
Direct injection stratified charge gasoline engines are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential for improved fuel economy and emissions. However, the benefits are restricted to low speed and load conditions due to the large air requirements during stratified operation. With boost, the air flow can be increased, extending the stratified operating regime and potentially the fuel economy and emissions benefits as well. This study assesses the feasibility of this technology using a variable geometry turbocharger and a supercharger as boost devices. The effect of boost on fuel economy, delivery of recirculated exhaust gas, and exhaust gas temperature are considered.
Technical Paper

Coordinated EGR-VGT Control for Diesel Engines: an Experimental Comparison

2000-03-06
2000-01-0266
This paper describes and experimentally compares various strategies to control the gas flows of a high speed automotive diesel engine equipped with external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve and variable geometry turbocharger (VGT). The strategies differ in their choice of controlled variables and design approaches. Some of the strategies rely on standard measurements such as intake manifold pressure and compressor mass air flow. Others measure or estimate less readily available quantities such as exhaust manifold pressure and EGR flow fraction. The focus of this paper is on the experimental details of controller implementation. The control schemes are evaluated on their emissions and fuel economy over the extra urban part of the new European drive cycle. The implementation effort and chronometric load are also compared.
Technical Paper

Improved P/M Stainless Steel Exhaust Flanges Based on Innovative Design Concepts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0336
Powder metal (P/M) stainless steel exhaust flanges have been qualified for a number of passenger cars and trucks in recent years. These flanges are currently being produced in high volumes to supply those vehicles. The requirements for these applications will continue to change over time as federal and state governmental mandates for improved emissions become effective. Lower leak rate limits, higher engine operating temperatures, and extended service life for components, are among the consequences of the search for improved emissions. The P/M process offers a high degree of flexibility with product design and related materials development, thus being able to meet these challenges. P/M stainless steel exhaust flanges' performance can be enhanced by 1. optimal design using finite element analysis and 2. modifying alloy compositions to improve strength.
Technical Paper

An Artificial UEGO Sensor for Engine Cold Start - Methodology, Design, and Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-0541
The AFR control accuracy in the cold start is crucial to lowering emissions from IC-engine vehicles. An artificial UEGO “sensor” for estimating the real-time AFR during the engine cold start has been developed on the basis of a fuel-perturbation algorithm at Ford Scientific Research Labs. The AFR values calculated by the artificial UEGO sensor have been used in the closed-loop fuel control. Considering that the engine cold start AFR is an uncertain, non-linear problem, some other techniques for optimizing the input stimulation signal and the output-filtering model are integrated together with the fuel perturbation. This artificial sensor was realized and its performance was tested on a Ford vehicle for EPA75 cold 505 test. The assessment of the artificial sensor was quite different in comparison with that of a real UEGO sensor.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Pd-only, Pd/Rh, and Pt/Rh Catalysts in TLEV, LEV Vehicle Applications - Real Vehicle Data versus Computer Modeling Results

2000-03-06
2000-01-0501
The following paper highlights the results of a vehicle emission improvement program with emphasis on two main points: In the initial phase, various combinations of Pd and Pt-based three-way catalyst technologies were evaluated on a TLEV and a LEV calibrated vehicle in order to generate ULEV exhaust gas levels. One goal in this portion of the study was to achieve technical equivalence between a viable Pd-based technology and a newly developed Pt-based technology. A combination of the Pd- and Pt-based technologies was able to meet the ULEV and part of the ULEV II regulations in the test vehicle after a catalyst aging cycle that resembles 50,000 miles of vehicle driving. In the later phase, a mathematical algorithm based on the original TLEV and LEV vehicle data was developed in order to conduct computer modeling of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. This algorithm described the kinetic behavior of the individual catalysts over a broad range of reaction conditions.
Technical Paper

Improved Three-Way Catalyst Performance Using an Active Bias Control Regeneration System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0499
A method for improving three-way catalyst (TWC) performance by superimposing a low frequency lean air-to-fuel ratio (AFR)bias perturbation onto the standard AFR oscillations is described. This observation of Catalyst Regeneration (CatRegen) has been attributed to a reactivation of poisoned precious metal sites on the catalyst surface. Preliminary tests under steady-state conditions show that there is a gradual reduction in TWC activity for NOx after a lean-rich transition, suggesting a temporary poisoning of the active precious metal sites on the TWC under rich conditions. This deactivation can be prevented by periodically exposing the catalyst to lean exhaust gas; which has led to the development of the CatRegen system.
Technical Paper

Throttle Flow Characterization

2000-03-06
2000-01-0571
A time-efficient throttle flow data collection method is described. It uses a sonic nozzle flow bench to measure air flow as a function of throttle angle and pressure in a manner analogous to on-engine dynamometer throttle flow characterization. Opening each sonic nozzle combination, then recording throttle downstream pressure and computed nozzle flow allows data to be taken in a fraction of the time normally needed. Throttle flow modeling considerations are then discussed.
Technical Paper

The Development of Ford's P2000 Fuel Cell Vehicle

2000-03-06
2000-01-1061
As a first step towards the development of a fuel cell powered production vehicle, Ford Motor Company has developed the P2000 fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). This prototype fuel cell powered vehicle achieves full passenger car performance and is truly a zero emission vehicle with the only by-product being pure water. Road and dynamometer driving tests show excellent performance results, which supports the continued interest in the realization of a production fuel cell vehicle. However, a significant amount of R&D remains to be done before fuel cells can achieve the levels of reliability and cost of internal combustion engines (ICE).
Technical Paper

Effect of Strain Rate in Full Vehicle Frontal Crash Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0625
The effect of strain rate in a full vehicle frontal crash analysis is investigated. The strain rate properties obtained from the Auto-Steel Partnership (A/S P) project are utilized in this investigation. Johnson-Cook material model that incorporates strain rate was used in the analysis. The analysis was done with and without strain rate using two vehicle front impact models. Results of the analysis were compared to the test data for deceleration and dynamic crush. The results from this study indicate that incorporating strain rate in the frontal crash analysis yields dynamic crush estimates that are closer to test results. Therefore, strain rate material coefficients should be considered for frontal crash analysis application.
Technical Paper

Automotive Software Development Evaluation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0712
As vehicle manufactures continue to increase electronic functional content on vehicles; there is an increased demand on software to support these new features. These new features assist the driver in making vehicle operation simpler, more convenient and safer. An example of this is automatic turning on and off of the headlamps. To the human this is a simple task. To a microprocessor this posses some challenges to do the function correctly and not introduce unanticipated behavior. This paper discusses some of the problems observed with automotive embedded software development and suggests simple methods of handling them.
Technical Paper

Use of Raman Spectroscopy to Identify Automotive Polymers in Recycling Operations

2000-03-06
2000-01-0739
To support its recycling efforts, Ford Motor Company is using a Raman based instrument, the RP-1, co-developed with SpectraCode Inc. to identify unknown polymeric parts. Our recycling initiative involves detailed dismantling of our vehicles into individual parts, calculating the percentage recyclability and making recommendations for the future use of recycled polymers. While Ford has voluntarily adopted the SAE J1344 marking protocol for identifying part material composition, a large number of unmarked parts still exist and require identification. This identification is being done with the help of RP-1. To facilitate this identification, we have generated an accurate reference library of Raman spectra for comparison to those of unknown materials. This paper will describe the techniques that were used to develop and refine the RP-1 reference library to identify automotive polymers, especially black/dark plastics.
Technical Paper

Formability of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2000-03-06
2000-01-0772
The use of tailor welded blanks (TWBs) in automotive applications is increasing due to the potential of weight and cost savings. These blanks are manufactured by joining two or more sheets of dissimilar gauge, properties, or both, to form a lighter blank of desired strength and stiffness. This allows an engineer to “tailor” the properties of the blank to meet the design requirements of a particular panel. TWBs are used in such places as door inner panels, lift gates, and floor pans. Earlier investigations of the use of TWBs targeted steel alloys, but the potential of further weight savings with aluminum TWBs is gaining interest in the automotive industry. Unlike steel TWBs, the welds in aluminum TWBs are not significantly stronger than the base material and are occasionally the fracture site. Additionally, the reduced formability of aluminum, as compared with drawing-quality steels, makes the application of aluminum TWBs more difficult than steel TWBs.
Technical Paper

Effect of Desiccant on the Stability of Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0983
Desiccant materials are commonly used in the automotive industry to reduce the level of moisture in vehicle air conditioning systems. The primary purpose for removing moisture from these systems is to avoid corrosion of metals, compatibility problems with polymeric materials, and possible freeze-up associated with free water. In nonpolar R-12/mineral oil systems with low solubility for water, moisture levels are usually controlled to 25 ppm or less. However, R-134a and PAG are highly polar and have good solubility for moisture, thus presenting reduced risk of free water in the air-conditioning systems. This paper addresses the questions of whether desiccants are required in air conditioning systems using R- 134a/PAG, and if required, what is the optimum quantity of desiccant for system stability and long-term system reliability Tests were conducted in the laboratory (accelerated sealed tube aging according to ASHRAE standard 97- 1989) as well as in the field (vehicle fleet tests).
Technical Paper

Design through Collaboration: A Supplier Partnership Paradigm

2000-03-06
2000-01-1389
New supplier / manufacturer relationship are necessary to produce products quickly, cost-effectively, and with features expected by the customer. However, the need for a new relationship is not universally accepted and endorsed. Resistance can be minimized through supplier self-assessment (such as Ford Motor Company's web-based instruments), management initiatives, and incentives. Trust and sharing are hallmarks. This strategy requires a new workplace paradigm affecting culture and people issues. Teams, extend across companies, share ideas and innovations. Decisions need to be mutually beneficial and the long-term value, for supplier and manufacturer, needs to be considered.
Technical Paper

Multiple Coherence Analysis on Engine Degree of Freedom Study for Exhaust System Testing

2000-03-06
2000-01-1193
An Automotive Exhaust System Structural Key Life Test has been successfully developed, in part, due to investigations into the boundary conditions of powertrain input. The powertrain (engine and trans-mission) degree-of-freedom study (here after referred to as engine) was investigated in order to determine the sensitivity of the exhaust system to engine motion. Understanding engine motion was necessary in order to establish proper control strategy in the laboratory simulation process. Accurate reproduction of exhaust system response to input road load events was crucial to reproducing known exhaust system fracture modes in early life wear-out conditions. A method multiple coherence analysis has been used to analytically measure the degree of severity between engine input motion and exhaust system output response by analyzing dynamic strain and acceleration. Removing one engine control input at a time, a multiple coherence function was calculated and the exhaust response computed.
Technical Paper

Fuel Transport to the Crankcase, Oil Dilution and HC Return with Breather Flow During the Cold Operation of a SI Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1235
Fuel losses to the crankcase, fuel/oil interactions, and fuel return as unburned hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been investigated. Hydrocarbons in the breather flow have been measured during motored and firing engine operation over a range of temperatures. Fuel desorption from the sump oil accounts for a small proportion of this. The major source is hydrocarbons transported past the piston with blowby. After a cold start, around 85% of these are retained in oil films below the ring pack. The recirculation of oil from the films to the sump contributes to bulk oil dilution. This appears to be the prime mechanism by which fuel is lost to oil dilution during cold operation. The mechanism becomes less effective as engine warm-up progresses. At fully-warm oil temperatures (∼100°C), only about 5% are removed from the blowby.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Gas/Fuel Ratio on Combustion Stability and Misfire Limits of Spark Ignition Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-1208
The deterioration of combustion stability as lean operating limits and misfire conditions are approached has been investigated experimentally. The study has been carried out on spark ignition engines with port fuel injection and four-valves-per-cylinder. Test conditions cover fully-warm and cold operation, and ranges of air/fuel ratio, exhaust gas recirculation rates and spark timing. An approximate method of calculating gas/fuel ratio is described. This is used to show that combustion stability, characterised by the coefficient of variation of i.m.e.p., is a function of calculated gas/fuel ratio and spark timing until near to the limit of stability. A rapid deterioration in stability and the onset of weak, partial burning occurs at a gas/fuel ratio between 24:1 and 26:1 under fully-warm operating conditions, and around one gas/fuel ratio lower under cold operating conditions.
Technical Paper

On the Suitability of Low-Voltage (42 V) Electrical Power System for Traction Applications in the Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2000-04-02
2000-01-1558
There is a clear trend towards Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) due to the environmental concerns. On the other hand, with increasing hotel and ancillary loads and replacement of more engine driven mechanical and hydraulic loads with electrical loads, automotive systems are becoming more electric. This is the concept of More Electric Cars (MEC) which necessitates going to a higher voltage such as 42V for conventional cars. Can the evaluation of the 42V MEC smoothly lead to the Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and More Electric Hybrid Vehicles (MEHV)? In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of 42V & 14+42V electrical power systems for MEHV. Technical issues of such a solution are explored in detail.
Technical Paper

Redesign of an Exhaust Manifold Outlet Fastener Using Robust Design Techniques

2000-03-06
2000-01-0917
An L16 orthogonal array parameter Design of Experiment (DOE) evaluated six design parameters of the mating thread interface between the exhaust manifold outlet flange and jointing stainless steel fastener. The objective of this study was to identify optimal parameters for the redesign the thread interface by ensuring 100% seating of the fastener into the manifold flange (here after referred to as stud seating). Since the current fastener and manifold outlet flange interface threads do not always achieve the design objectives, due in part to a form of abrasive wear, consideration was given to develop a testing strategy that would quantify the amount of remaining thread engagement for a given stud length. This testing strategy ensured that the control parameters considered in this experiment would reveal main effects and interactions between the stud and tapped hole threads thus providing the necessary parameters for the redesign on the joint threads.
X