Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Control Oriented Model and Dynamometer Testing for a Single-Cylinder, Heated-Air HCCI Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1129
In recent years, HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion concept has attracted attention due to its potential for high fuel efficiency and low emissions. The essence of HCCI combustion is auto ignition of a very lean, homogeneous air-fuel mixture. However it leads to a major challenge for control engineers – controlling combustion timing to achieve required torque and optimal fuel consumption. There is a need for a simplified HCCI engine model to guide control strategy development. This paper presents such a control oriented model for a “heated intake air” HCCI engine concept that uses two streams of air (cold and hot) to achieve a variable temperature at intake valve closing.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Globalization and New Materials on the Transition to a Fully Digital Tool and Die

2009-04-20
2009-01-0979
Until recently, tool & die making was a very traditional industry, relying on extensive know-how accumulated over decades of practice. Essentially, it remained a two stage-process: engineering/manufacture, followed by tryout/productionization. Improvements focused on engineering and production methods, but tryout remained the exclusive domain of the die maker. At last, advances in computer modeling methods and the adoption of aggressive lean management principles have brought transformational changes to the tryout phase. At the same time, new safety and weight imperatives have increased the penetration of advanced materials, whose formability characteristics are quite different from mild steels. This paper will explore how these advanced materials affect this transformation.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Journal Article

Applications of CFD Modeling in GDI Engine Piston Optimization

2009-06-15
2009-01-1936
This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
Journal Article

Spray Pattern Optimization for the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1916
A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system, with focus on the optimization of the combustion system including injector spray pattern, intake port design, piston geometry, cylinder head geometry. The development methodology was led by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modeling together with a testing program that uses optical, single-cylinder, and multi-cylinder engines. The current study shows the effect of several spray patterns on air-fuel mixing, in-cylinder flow development, surface wetting, and turbulence intensity. A few sets of injector spray patterns are studied; some that have a wide total cone angle, some that have a narrow cone angle and a couple of optimized injector spray patterns. The effect of the spray pattern at part load, full load and cold start operation was investigated and the methodology for choosing an optimized injector is presented.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Study to Determine Impact of Na and K Exposure on the Durability of DOC and SCR Catalyst Formulations

2009-11-02
2009-01-2823
A laboratory flow reactor study was utilized to determine the durability impact of alkali metal (Na and K) exposure on three Pt/Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), two vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and two Cu/zeolite-based SCR catalysts. All catalyst samples were contaminated by direct deposition of Na or K by an incipient wetness technique. The activity impact on the contaminated DOCs was accomplished by evaluating for changes in CO and HC light-off. The activity impact on the contaminated SCR catalysts was accomplished by evaluating for changes in the Standard SCR Reaction, the Fast SCR Reaction, the Ammonia Oxidation Reaction, and the Ammonia Storage Capacity. Contamination levels of 3.0 wt% Na was found to have a higher negative impact on Pt-based and zeolite containing DOCs for T-50 CO and HC light-off.
Technical Paper

Potential for Commonization of Brake Testing for Globally Marketed Vehicles

2009-10-11
2009-01-3031
From the brake system point of view the world can be split into comfort and performance markets. This market split evolved historically and reflects local legal requirements, driving style and the customer expectations. Noise, cold judder and brake dust play the dominant role in the perception of the customer on the comfort market. The performance markets call for high friction level and good fade performance. Currently these customer needs can only be satisfied by usage of different pad materials: NAO and Semi Met materials for comfort markets and generally Low Met materials for performance markets. Due to the differences mentioned above, additional brake system development and testing is done (different testing locations for the same brake attribute). Harmonizing testing, usage of the same test location and same test method could save not only the human resources but also decrease the number of prototypes used in the development phases.
Technical Paper

Constrained Control of UAVs Using Adaptive Anti-windup Compensation and Reference Governors

2009-11-10
2009-01-3097
Gliders can climb to substantial altitudes without employing any on-board energy resources but using proper piloting skills to utilize rising air currents called thermals. Recent experiments on small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) indicate a significant potential to increase both the flight velocity and the range of gliders by means of such maneuvers. In these experiments the velocity to approach a thermal has been recognized as a critical performance factor, and is chosen as the controlled variable. Accurate longitudinal controllers are required to track the optimal flight trajectories generated using path planning algorithms. These controllers are challenged by the presence of uncertain and time-varying aircraft dynamics, gust disturbances, and control actuator limitations.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Analysis of Crash Sensor Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0372
Understanding the variation in the deployment times for crash sensor systems is important to ensure robust performance of a crash sensor system. Increases in both the numbers of crash modes and deployable devices have reduced the margins for the decisions about when to deploy any given device. Currently, the industry practice is to run a sweep over the potential sources of variation, recording the minimum and maximum deployment time. Questions such as: “How often do the extremes occur?” or “Are there multiple peaks in the deployment time?” can not be answered. This work uses numerical analysis methods to build on the current sweep methodology to obtain information on the distribution of the deployment times so that questions such as these can be answered when evaluating sensor calibrations. The end result is better informed engineering decisions during the calibration development.
Technical Paper

Initial Assessment of the Next-Generation USA Frontal NCAP: Fidelity of Various Risk Curves for Estimating Field Injury Rates of Belted Drivers

2009-04-20
2009-01-0386
Various frontal impact risk curves were assessed for the next-generation USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). Specifically, the “NCAP risk curves” — those chosen by the government for the 2011 model year NCAP — as well as other published risk curves were used to estimate theoretically the injury rates of belted drivers in real-world frontal crashes. Two perspectives were considered: (1) a “point” estimate of NCAP-type events from NCAP fleet tests, and (2) an “aggregate” estimate of 0 ≤ ΔV ≤ 56 km/h crashes from a modeled theoretical vehicle whose NCAP performance approximated the average of the studied fleet. Four body regions were considered: head, neck, chest, and knee-thigh-hip complex (KTH). The curve-based injury rates for each body region were compared with those of real-world frontal crashes involving properly-belted adult drivers in airbag-equipped light passenger vehicles. The assessment yielded mixed results.
Journal Article

Development of a Full Vehicle Electrocoat Paint Simulation Tool

2009-04-20
2009-01-0468
The primary coating layer that inhibits salt spray induced corrosion on vehicle bodies is electrocoat. The application of electrocoat involves the electrodeposition of a polymer film on all metallic components of the vehicle body after body construction. Particularly challenging in the electrocoat process is the deposition of the coating in recessed areas of the vehicle due to material and electrical current access constraints to those regions. Currently the verification of correct electrocoat coverage requires the use of costly tear-down prototypes. A simulation tool, called EPD, has been developed that predicts the electrocoat coverage on the full vehicle body. The tool allows engineers to identify areas where there may be issues with electrocoat coverage and to see the effect of vehicle design or process modifications on coverage. A challenge in the development of any simulation tool is computational speed.
Technical Paper

A Practical Approach to Consider Forming Effects for Full Vehicle Crash Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-0471
The forming effects along with strain rate, actual material properties and weld effects have been found to be very critical for accurate prediction of crash responses especially the prediction of local deformation. As a result, crash safety engineers started to consider these factors in crash models to improve the accuracy of CAE prediction and reduce prototype testing. The techniques needed to incorporate forming simulation results, including thickness change, residual stresses and strains, in crash models have been studied extensively and are well known in automotive CAE community. However, a challenge constantly faced by crash safety engineers is the availability of forming simulation results, which are usually supplied by groups conducting forming simulations. The forming simulation results can be obtained by either using incremental codes with actual stamping processes or one-step codes with final product information as a simplified approach.
Journal Article

Using DCOV Methodology for Virtual Hydrogen Concentration Sensor Development (for use in the fuel cell electric vehicle)

2009-04-20
2009-01-0568
Accounting for more than 90% of the molecules and more than 75% of the mass [1], hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Due to the small molecule size and high buoyancy, it is not available in it’s free form on Earth. In recent years, hydrogen has gained the attention of the automotive industry [2–12] as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel. As a fuel, hydrogen is unique - it is odorless, colorless, tasteless, and burns invisibly in sunlight. Detection solutions such as the odorants used in natural gas are not yet feasible for automotive hydrogen because the available additives can poison the fuel cell catalyst. Additionally, the lower flammability limit of hydrogen is lower, and the flammability range wider, than fuels such as gasoline [13]. Hydrogen detection and its concentration measurement is usually done using hydrogen concentration sensors [13].
Journal Article

Development and Validation of an Analytical Seal Bead Design Model for Automotive Superplastic Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0979
With the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles, technologies like superplastic forming (SPF) are being developed and implemented to allow for the utilization of lightweight automotive sheet materials. While forming under superplastic conditions leads to increased formability in lightweight alloys, such as aluminum, the slower forming times required by the technology can limit the technology to low to mid production levels. One problem that can increase forming time is the reduction of forming pressure due to pressurizing (forming) gas leaks, during the forming cycle, at the die/sheet/blankholder interface. Traditionally, such leaks have been successfully addressed through the use of a seal bead. However, for advanced die technologies that result in reduced cycle times (such as hot draw mechanical performing, which combine aspects of mechanical preforming of the sheet metal followed by SPF), the use of seal beads can restrict the drawing of sheet material into the forming die.
Technical Paper

Pricing of Renewable Gasoline and Its Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Planning for Automakers and Electricity Generators

2016-04-05
2016-01-0295
Abstract With increasing evidence for climate change in response to greenhouse gasses (GHG) emitted by human activities, pressure is growing to reduce fuel consumption via increased vehicle efficiency and to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels. While real-world experience with bio-ethanol and a growing body of research on many other renewable fuel pathways provide some guidance as to the cost of renewable transportation fuel, there has been little work comparing that cost to alternative means for achieving equivalent GHG reductions. In earlier work, we developed an optimization model that allowed the transportation and electricity generation sectors to work separately or jointly to achieve GHG reduction targets, and showed that cooperation can significantly reduce the society cost of GHG reductions.
Journal Article

Methods to Find Best Designs Among Infeasible Design Data Sets for Highly Constrained Design Optimization Problems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0299
Abstract In recent years, the use of engineering design optimization techniques has grown multifold and formal optimization has become very popular among design engineers. However, the real world problems are turning out to be involved and more challenging. It is not uncommon to encounter problems with a large number of design variables, objectives and constraints. The engineers’ expectation, that an optimization algorithm should be able to handle multi-objective, multi-constrained data is leading them to apply optimization techniques to truly large-scale problems with extremely large number of constraints and objectives. Even as newer and better optimization algorithms are being developed to tackle such problems, more often than not, the optimization algorithms are unable to find a single feasible design that satisfies all constraints.
Journal Article

Predicting Stress vs. Strain Behaviors of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Cast Magnesium Alloy with Actual Pore Distribution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0290
Abstract In this paper, a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure-based finite element modeling method (i.e., extrinsic modeling method) is developed, which can be used in examining the effects of porosity on the ductility/fracture of Mg castings. For this purpose, AM60 Mg tensile samples were generated under high-pressure die-casting in a specially-designed mold. Before the tensile test, the samples were CT-scanned to obtain the pore distributions within the samples. 3D microstructure-based finite element models were then developed based on the obtained actual pore distributions of the gauge area. The input properties for the matrix material were determined by fitting the simulation result to the experimental result of a selected sample, and then used for all the other samples’ simulation. The results show that the ductility and fracture locations predicted from simulations agree well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Water Condensation inside the Tubes of an Automotive Compact Charge Air Cooler

2016-04-05
2016-01-0224
Abstract To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
Journal Article

Vehicle Powertrain Thermal Management System Using Model Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0215
Abstract An advanced powertrain cooling system with appropriate control strategy and active actuators allows greater flexibility in managing engine temperatures and operating near constraints. An organized controls development process is necessary to allow comparison of multiple configurations to select the best way forward. In this work, we formulate, calibrate and validate a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for temperature regulation and constraint handling in an advanced cooling system. A model-based development process was followed; where the system model was used to develop and calibrate a gain scheduled linear MPC. The implementation of MPC for continuous systems and the modification related to implementing switching systems has been described. Multiple hardware configurations were compared with their corresponding control system in simulations.
X