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Journal Article

Pulley Optimization for Improved Steering Pump Airborne Noise Performance

2011-05-17
2011-01-1568
This paper discusses the optimization of an automotive hydraulic steering pump pulley design for improved in-vehicle pump NVH performance. Levels of steering pump whine noise heard inside a vehicle were deemed objectionable. Vehicle and component transfer path analyses indicated that the dominant noise path for the whine noise was airborne in nature. Subsequent experimental modal analysis indicated that the steering pump pulley was a major contributor to the amount of radiated noise produced by the pump/pulley system. CAE analysis was used to further analyze the dynamic behavior of the pulley and develop an optimized design with decreased noise radiation efficiency. The results predicted with the CAE analysis were verified in-vehicle, resulting in a vehicle with acceptable steering pump whine noise performance.
Technical Paper

Effect of Road Excitations on Driveline Output Torque Measurements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1538
This paper presents the characterization of the random noise in driveline output shaft torque measurements that is commonly induced by road disturbances. To investigate the interaction between the shaft torque and road side excitation, torque signals are measured using a magnetoelastic torque sensor, as well as a conventional strain gauge sensor, under various types of road surfaces and conditions such as unevenness. A generalized de-trending method for producing a stationary random signal is first conducted. Statistical methods, in particular the probability density function and transform technique, are utilized to provide an evident signature for identifying the road excitation effect on the vehicle output shaft torque. Analysis results show how the road surface can act as a disturbance input to the vehicle shaft torque.
Journal Article

An Advanced and Comprehensive CAE Approach of Piston Dynamics Studies for Piston Optimal and Robust Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-1404
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
Journal Article

Applications of CFD Modeling in GDI Engine Piston Optimization

2009-06-15
2009-01-1936
This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
Journal Article

Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers

2009-06-15
2009-01-1939
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
Journal Article

Spray Pattern Optimization for the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1916
A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system, with focus on the optimization of the combustion system including injector spray pattern, intake port design, piston geometry, cylinder head geometry. The development methodology was led by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modeling together with a testing program that uses optical, single-cylinder, and multi-cylinder engines. The current study shows the effect of several spray patterns on air-fuel mixing, in-cylinder flow development, surface wetting, and turbulence intensity. A few sets of injector spray patterns are studied; some that have a wide total cone angle, some that have a narrow cone angle and a couple of optimized injector spray patterns. The effect of the spray pattern at part load, full load and cold start operation was investigated and the methodology for choosing an optimized injector is presented.
Technical Paper

Separation of Transmission and Driveline Imbalances and Its Application

2009-05-19
2009-01-2061
Imbalances of an automatic transmission have a direct impact on NVH. To measure those imbalances, one needs to overcome two hurdles: (1) Phase uncertainty of individual component imbalance due to clutch indexing; (2) Imbalance separation of transmission from other systems, such as driveshaft and engine crank, connected to the transmission. To attack those issues, an algorithm has been developed which can deal with the phase issue caused by clutch engagement, and separate transmission imbalance at the system level without individually measuring other system imbalances. The method has been verified with several vehicle programs in both vehicle and dynamometer tests.
Technical Paper

A/C Moan - its Diagnostics and Control

2009-05-19
2009-01-2054
Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.
Journal Article

Investigation of Compressor Whoosh Noise in Automotive Turbochargers

2009-05-19
2009-01-2053
With swelling gasoline prices, automotive OEMs have taken different approaches to improve vehicle fuel economy. One trend is to down-size the engine and to add turbo charging. One of the challenges in utilizing the turbocharger in passenger cars is to control the added NVH issues associated with this hardware, especially for the North American market where turbocharger use is scarce in gasoline engines. In this paper, the authors review an investigation on turbocharger related “whoosh” noise on a V6 engine. The whoosh noise, also called surge noise, is caused by the compressor working at or near surge conditions. Whoosh noise is a broad frequency band flow noise typically found during throttle tip-in conditions, but sometimes found even at steady state driving conditions. The root cause of whoosh noise and the detection methods are discussed in this paper. The countermeasures to reduce whoosh noises are also discussed.
Technical Paper

A Test-Based Procedure for the Identification of Rack and Pinion Steering System Parameters for Use In CAE Ride-Comfort Simulations

2009-05-19
2009-01-2090
Current CAE modeling and simulation techniques in the time domain allow, by now, very accurate prediction of many ride-comfort performances of the cars. Nevertheless, the prediction of the steering wheel rotation vibration excited by, for instance, wheel unbalance or asymmetric obstacle impact, often runs into the difficulty of modeling the steering line with sufficient accuracy. For a classic rack and pinion, hydraulic assisted steering line, one of the challenges is to model the complex and non linear properties - stiffness, friction and damping - of the rack-rack case system. This paper proposes a rack model, thought for easy implementation in complex multi-body models, and an identification procedure of its parameters, based on measurements, in the operational range of the wheel unbalance excitation. The measurements have been gathered by specific tests on the components and the test set-up is also shown here.
Technical Paper

Optimizing R&H and NVH Performances Early in the Design Process via Multi Body Simulation

2009-05-19
2009-01-2087
This paper presents a CAE based approach to accurately simulate and optimize Ride and Handling metrics. Because of the wide range of vehicle phenomena involved, across the variety of frequency ranges, it is essential that the vehicle model includes proper representation of the dynamic properties of the various subsystems (e.g. tires, steering, PT, etc.) Precise correlation between test and simulation for standalone vehicle components and systems is achieved by replicating in the MBS (Multi-body Simulation) the same tests and boundary conditions. This allows the analyst to correctly define those crucial elements and parameters which have the greatest effect on the R&H attribute to be investigated. Setting up the simulation to correctly represent only one single maneuver simulation at a time would not allow the analyst to consider how the dynamic properties of the chassis design variables should be tuned to achieve to best balance and trade-offs.
Technical Paper

Steering Grunt Noise Robustness Improvement

2009-05-19
2009-01-2095
Grunt is a structure-born noise caused by resonance of the steering gear torsion bar (T-bar) in an HPAS (Hydraulic Power Assist Steering) system. The goal of this work was to develop techniques to quantify and predict grunt in a RV (rotary valve) steering gear system. First, vehicle testing was used to identify an objective metric for grunt: y = dynamic pressure in the return line. Then, a computer simulation was developed to predict y as a function of two known control factors. The simulation results were correlated to measurements on a test vehicle. Finally, the simulation was expanded to include two additional control factors, and grunt predictions were demonstrated on a different test vehicle.
Journal Article

Modeling and Experimental Investigation of Tire Cavity Noise Generation Mechanisms for a Rolling Tire

2009-05-19
2009-01-2104
Tire cavity noise refers to the excitation of the acoustic mode of a tire cavity. The noise exhibits itself as sharp resonance-like peaks with frequencies typically in the range of 190-250Hz. For a rolling tire, the tire contact with the road moves relative to the tire. Furthermore, the load on the tire breaks the circular symmetry of the tire. Consequently, the peak frequency of the cavity noise shows dependence on the tire load and the vehicle speed. There are no models that simultaneously take these two factors into consideration. In this paper, we propose an analytical model and present experimental verifications of predictions on the noise peak frequency and its dependence on the tire load and vehicle speed. A wireless experimental measurement system is also presented which enables the measurement of tire cavity frequency for both non-rolling and rolling conditions.
Journal Article

Pressure Based Sensing Approach for Front Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1443
This study demonstrates the use of pressure sensing technology to predict the crash severity of frontal impacts. It presents an investigation of the pressure change in the front structural elements (bumper, crush cans, rails) during crash events. A series of subsystem tests were conducted in the laboratory that represent a typical frontal crash development series and provided empirical data to support the analysis of the concept. The pressure signal energy at different sensor mounting locations was studied and design concepts were developed for amplifying the pressure signal. In addition, a pressure signal processing methodology was developed that relies on the analysis of the air flow behavior by normalizing and integrating the pressure changes. The processed signal from the pressure sensor is combined with the restraint control module (RCM) signals to define the crash severity, discriminate between the frontal crash modes and deploy the required restraint devices.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Performance Evaluation on E0 and E85 Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0904
The differences in hydrocarbons (HCs) emitted by gasoline (E0) and ethanol (EtOH) blend fuels from flex-fuel capable engines can lead to differences in the performance of aftertreatment devices. Vehicle emission results have shown either better performance on E0 compared to E85 or vice versa, dependent on the vehicle calibration. In order to separate the impact of the vehicle and the catalyst, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate performance on a pulse-flame (pulsator) reactor and compare reactivity towards E0 and E85 (85% EtOH-15% E0) exhaust. The catalysts evaluated were substrate-only, washcoat-only and fully formulated catalysts that had been aged either on a pulsator reactor or dynamometer engine. Catalyst performance was evaluated with light-off tests utilizing both slow and fast temperature ramp rates.
Technical Paper

Using Virtual Seat Prototyping to Understand the Influence of Craftsmanship on Safety, and Seating Comfort

2011-04-12
2011-01-0805
Traditional automotive seat development has relied on a series of physical prototypes that are evaluated and refined in an iterative fashion. Costs are managed by sharing prototypes across multiple attributes. To further manage costs, many OEMs and Tier 1s have, over the past decade, started to investigate various levels of virtual prototyping. The change, which represents a dramatic paradigm shift, has been slow to materialize since virtual prototyping has not significantly reduced the required number of physical prototypes. This is related to the fact virtual seat prototyping efforts have been focused on only selected seat attributes - safety / occupant positioning and mechanical comfort are two examples. This requires that physical prototypes still be built for seat attributes like craftsmanship, durability, and thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

2011-04-12
2011-01-0875
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Journal Article

Test Correlation Framework for Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0881
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system model, which directly simulates vehicle drive cycles with interactions among driver, environment, vehicle hardware and vehicle controls, is a critical CAE tool used through out the product development process to project HEV fuel economy (FE) capabilities. The accuracy of the model is essential and directly influences the HEV hardware designs and technology decisions. This ultimately impacts HEV product content and cost. Therefore, improving HEV system model accuracy and establishing high-level model-test correlation are imperative. This paper presents a Parameter Diagram (P-Diagram) based model-test correlation framework which covers all areas contributing to potential model simulation vs. vehicle test differences. The paper describes each area in detail and the methods of characterizing the influences as well as the correlation metrics.
Journal Article

Purge Modeling for New Propulsion System Technology Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0858
This paper presents a purge system model developed for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Assessment of purge capability is critical to HEV vehicles due to frequent engine off operation which limits carbon canister purging. The purge model is comprised of subsystems representing purge control strategy, carbon canister and engine plant. The paper is focused on modeling of the engine purge control feature. The purge model validation and purge capability predictions for an example HEV vehicle are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EEARTH) Metric and Calibration Process

2011-04-12
2011-01-0245
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.
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