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Technical Paper

Further Experiments on the Effects of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting on HC Emissions from Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

A recently developed in-cylinder fuel injection probe was used to deposit a small amount of liquid fuel on various surfaces within the combustion chamber of a 4-valve engine that was operating predominately on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A fast flame ionization detector (FFID) was used to examine the engine-out emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs). Injector shut-off was used to examine the rate of liquid fuel evaporation. The purpose of these experiments was to provide insights into the HC formation mechanism due to in-cylinder wall wetting. The variables investigated were the effects of engine operating conditions, coolant temperature, in-cylinder wetting location, and the amount of liquid wall wetting. The results of the steady state tests show that in-cylinder wall wetting is an important source of HC emissions both at idle and at a part load, cruise-type condition. The effects of wetting location present the same trend for idle and part load conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Composition on Mixture Formation in a Firing Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) Engine: An Experimental Study using Mie-Scattering and Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) Techniques

Two-dimensional Mie-scattering and laser-induced fluorescence techniques were applied to investigate the effects of fuel composition on mixture formation within a firing direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. A comparison was made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions resulting from the use of a typical multi-component gasoline (European specification premium-grade unleaded), a single-component research fuel (iso-octane), and a three-component research fuel (iso-pentane, iso-octane and n-nonane). Studies were performed at three different injection timings under cold and part-warm conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition affects both the initial spray formation and the subsequent mixture formation process. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the mixing process to the effects of fuel volatility was shown to depend on injection timing.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for DISI Combustion Systems

This paper presents results from a comprehensive experimental study of high-pressure pressure-swirl gasoline injectors tested under a range of simulated operating conditions. This study encompassed photographic analysis of single spray sequences and simultaneous measurement of axial velocity, radial velocity and diameter at point locations using the phase-doppler technique. The combination of these measurement techniques permitted an insight into the fluid dynamics of the injected spray and its development with time. Five primary stages in the spray-history were identified and numerated with experimental data.