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Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

A New Responsive Model for Educational Programs for Industry: The University of Detroit Mercy Advanced Electric Vehicle Graduate Certificate Program

Today's automotive and electronics technologies are evolving so rapidly that educators and industry are both challenged to re-educate the technological workforce in the new area before they are replaced with yet another generation. In early November 2009 Ford's Product Development senior management formally approved a proposal by the University of Detroit Mercy to transform 125 of Ford's “IC Engine Automotive Engineers” into “Advanced Electric Vehicle Automotive Engineers.” Two months later, the first course of the Advanced Electric Vehicle Program began in Dearborn. UDM's response to Ford's needs (and those of other OEM's and suppliers) was not only at the rate of “academic light speed,” but it involved direct collaboration of Ford's electric vehicle leaders and subject matter experts and the UDM AEV Program faculty.
Journal Article

Model-Based Design Case Study: Low Cost Audio Head Unit

The use of model-based software development in automotive applications has increased in recent years. Current vehicles contain millions of lines of code, and millions of dollars are spent each year fixing software issues. Most new features are software controlled and many times include distributed functionality, resulting in increased vehicle software content and accelerated complexity. To handle rapid change, OEMs and suppliers must work together to accelerate software development and testing. As development processes adapt to meet this challenge, model-based design can provide a solution. Model-based design is a broad development approach that is applied to a variety of applications in various industries. This paper reviews a project using the MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow environment to complete a functional model of a low cost radio.
Technical Paper

SEA Model Development Considerations for Cost-Driven or Developing Market Vehicles

In South America and other developing markets the NVH development of a vehicle is often limited by the cost of the sound package components. In an era where cost reduction is crucial not only in developing markets, but also in developed markets where any cost or weight savings is a large competitive advantage, lessons learned from considerations for NVH analysis for vehicle design in developing markets can be applied to vehicle NVH design everywhere. A Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model was used to target and identify the dominant paths in need of sound package modifications to decrease the over sound pressure levels and also to identify paths in which sound package (and cost) could be reduced or deleted with no discernable degradation to the overall interior levels. This model will be used to support or challenge ongoing proposed sound package modifications to the vehicle and serve as a baseline template for design phase work for other vehicles of a similar body style.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Dependable Systems of Systems

As systems necessarily become more integrated and increasingly complex through market demands for more features, technical risks and therefore business risks increase. It becomes correspondingly harder to show that the properties desired of these Systems of Systems (SoS) actually hold under normal or abnormal operation. In particular, it is hard to detect emergent properties of a SoS because properties of individual systems are not necessarily compositional, especially during failure. This paper describes the objectives of a project addressing the problem of Dependable System of Systems and other related research in the field of Automotive Electronics. The capability being developed is based upon the scalable ‘Assumption-Commitment’[1] paradigm so that it can be applied to large and complex systems of systems.
Technical Paper

A Generic Teaching Case Study for Teaching Design for Six Sigma

There are several reasons why it can be daunting to apply Six Sigma to product creation. Foremost among them, the functional performance of new technologies is unknown prior to starting a project. Although, Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) was developed to overcome this difficulty, a lack of applicable in-class case studies makes it challenging to train the product creation community. The current paper describes an in-class project which illustrates how Six Sigma is applied to a simulated product creation environment. A toy construction set (TCS) project is used to instruct students how to meet customer expectations without violating cost, packaging volume and design-complexity constraints.
Technical Paper

Understanding Through-Thickness Integration in Springback Simulation

The “adequate” number of integration points (NIP) required to achieve accurate springback simulation results is studied in this paper in an effort to clarify confusions reported in the literature and shed light on the origin of the confusion. A bending-under-tension model is adopted where springback solution can be obtained with analytical integration through metal thickness. Numerical integrations are then performed and compared with analytical solution to assess associated errors. A crucial distinction is made in the paper that, the model can be posed either as a displacement-value problem where both tension strain and bending radius are prescribed or as a mixed-value problem where the tension force and bending radius are prescribed. Although they are physically equivalent due to the uniqueness of solution, the numerical solutions are different. The associated errors in springback respond differently to the number of integration points employed.
Technical Paper

Detailed Hydrocarbon Species and Particulate Emissions from a HCCI Engine as a Function of Air-Fuel Ratio

Concentrations of individual species in the engine-out exhaust gas from a gasoline-fueled (101.5 or 91.5 RON), direct-injection, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine have been measured by gas chromatography over the A/F range 50 to 230 for both stratified and nearly homogeneous fuel-air mixtures. The species identified include hydrocarbons, oxygenated organic species, CO, and CO2. A single-cylinder HCCI engine (CR = 15.5) with heated intake charge was used. Measurements of the mass and size distribution of particulate emissions were also performed. The 101.5 RON fuel consisted primarily of five species, simplifying interpretation of the exhaust species data: iso-pentane (24%), iso-octane (22%), toluene (17%), xylenes (10%), and trimethylbenzenes (9%).
Technical Paper

The Handling of Non-Uniform Parts and Peak Hand Forces

Due to the challenges in quantifying hand loads in manufacturing environments it is often assumed that the load is evenly distributed between the hands, even when handling parts with non-uniform mass distribution. This study estimated hand loads for six female subjects, when handling a custom part in 8 different configurations (2 weights, 4 CofM locations). The calculated hand loads varied from 20 to 50% of the weight being handled. The magnitude of asymmetrical hand loading depended on both the part orientation and the location of the CoM. Based on this study the knowledge of part weight, CofM location and hand positioning will allow the users of digital human models to perform more realistic and reliable task analysis assessments as the force distributions will be more representative of the actual loading rather than simply assuming the load is evenly distributed between the hands.
Technical Paper

Use of SEA to Support Sound Package Design Studies and Vehicle Target Setting

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) vehicle models are well-accepted tools for predicting the high-frequency interior acoustic effects of a design change to the structure or sound package of the vehicle. [1] SEA models do not strongly depend on geometric details, which allows SEA to be uniquely used as an analysis tool very early in the vehicle design phase to identify potential Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) issues caused by proposed changes to acoustic or vibration source levels, component materials, construction details, or sound package details of the vehicle. SEA models can also be used to suggest alternatives while the vehicle is still in the development stages to compensate for a predicted or known degradation to NVH in a vehicle due to a design or source level change. This paper presents a case study in which validation testing and an SEA model were combined to obtain recommendations for the most effective sound package changes to meet NVH targets.
Journal Article

Design Considerations for Hydrogen Management System on Ford Hydrogen Fueled E-450 Shuttle Bus

As part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines since 1997. Ford has recently designed and built an Econoline (E-450) shuttle bus with a 6.8L Triton engine that uses gaseous hydrogen fuel. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential for the widespread public and commercial acceptance of hydrogen vehicles. Hazards and risks inherent in the application of hydrogen fuel to internal combustion engine vehicles are explained. The development of a Hydrogen Management System (H2MS) to detect hydrogen leaks in the vehicle is discussed, including the evolution of the H2MS design from exploration and quantification of risks, to implementation and validation of a working system on a vehicle. System elements for detection, mitigation, and warning are examined.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Design and Appraisal System for Vehicle Interior Packaging

Static seating bucks have long been used as the only means to subjectively appraise the vehicle interior packages in the vehicle development process. The appraisal results have traditionally been communicated back to the requesting engineers either orally or in a written format. Any design changes have to be made separately after the appraisal is completed. Further, static seating bucks lack the flexibility to accommodate design iterations during the evolution of a vehicle program. The challenge has always been on how to build a seating buck quickly enough to support the changing needs of vehicle programs, especially in the early vehicle development phases. There is always a disconnect between what the seating buck represents and what is in the latest design (CAD), since it takes weeks or months to build a seating buck and by the time it is built the design has already been evolved. There is also no direct feedback from seating buck appraisal to the design in CAD.
Technical Paper

Combining Flow Losses at Circular T-Junctions Representative of Intake Plenum and Primary Runner Interface

The interface between a plenum and primary runner in log-style intake manifolds is one of the dominant sources of flow losses in the breathing system of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). A right-angled T-junction is one such interface between the plenum (main duct) and the primary runner (sidebranch) normal to the plenum's axis. The present study investigates losses associated with the combining flow through these junctions, where fluid from both sides of the plenum enters the primary runner. Steady, incompressible-flow experiments for junctions with circular cross-sections were conducted to determine the effect of (1) runner interface radius of 0, 10, and 20% of the plenum diameter, (2) plenum-to-runner area ratio of 1, 2.124, and 3.117, and (3) runner taper area ratio of 2.124 and 3.117. Mass flow rate in each branch was varied to obtain a distribution of flow ratios, while keeping the total flow rate constant.
Technical Paper

Method Development for Evaluating Microbiological Growth on and Attachment to Aluminum Air Conditioner Evaporator Core Surfaces

Corrosion failures of aluminum air conditioner evaporator cores have been reported in regions where the climate is relatively warm and humid. Microbiologically-influenced corrosion [MIC] has been implicated in these failures. Application of surface-treatment chemicals may inhibit microbiological (bacterial) growth and/or attachment, thereby reducing the potential for MIC. In this study, two laboratory methods were developed to evaluate selected surface-treatment chemicals for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and reduce bacterial attachment to treated surfaces. Using the developed methods, two controlled-atmosphere brazed aluminum core materials and three surface-treatment chemicals were evaluated. Neither of the untreated core materials was found to inhibit the growth of the bacteria tested.
Technical Paper

Automotive Audio System Development

Vehicle audio system performance is an important attribute for final costumers. In this sense, its evaluation is an important aspect for selecting the design and validation process for automobile manufacturers. Usually the vehicle audio system performance is evaluated only by subjective judgment. However the design requirements demands objective measurements to set targets establish benchmarking and apply refinements to the design. Thus, in order to evaluate and improve sound system performance, it has been established a subjective evaluation process on reproducing and analyzing customer perception in a more reliable way. To support this information, objective evaluations have been used based on total harmonic distortion (THD), normalized frequency response (NFR) methods and spectrogram, which have been shown as straight and fast objective tools. Reinforcing the objective evaluations, qualitative time-frequency spectrogram has been used.
Technical Paper

Correlation between vehicle interior noise and alternator radiated noise measured on bench test

In automotive industry, the interior quietness is a task that manufacturers are constantly improving for passenger comfort. In order to improve the interior quietness there are considered the contribution of structure borne and airborne noise. An alternator used in vehicles for generation of electricity can be considered as a contributor of airborne noise. Due to the characteristics of an alternator, it could radiate mechanical, aerodynamic and electromagnetic noise. The last two characteristics are normally perceived by customer during powertrain and idle evaluation. In this paper is presented correlation between interior noise measured on road test and alternator radiated noise measured on bench test.
Technical Paper

Engine Idle Combustion Stability Evaluation Using Calibration Parameters

Vehicle idle quality has become an increasing quality concern for automobile manufacturers because of its impact on customer satisfaction. As demand for better fuel economy increases, automobile manufacturers are continuously looking for any benefits from different driving conditions. One area is lowering the idle speed at both drive and neutral idles. This typically has adverse impact on vehicle idle quality for the two reasons. First, lowering the idle speed generally degrades the engine combustion stability, which typically increases the excitation forces (0.5th, 1.0th, 1.5th, etc combustion torques). Second, lowering idle speed will cause modal alignment issues (i.e. combustion and inertia forces align with Powertrain rigid body modes, body modes, etc.).
Technical Paper

Die Wear Severity Diagram and Simulation

Die wear is a significant issue in sheet metal forming particularly for stamping Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) because of their higher strength and microstructure composition. Reliable predictions of the magnitude and distribution of die wear are essential if cost-effective wear-protection strategies are desired in the early stages of tooling development. A die Wear Severity Index (WSI) is introduced in this paper to quantify the magnitude of die wear, which in essence characterizes the frictional energy dissipation per unit area on the die surface throughout the entire forming cycle. It can be readily obtained as part of any finite element simulation of stamping process utilizing incremental solution techniques.