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Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1097
Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
Journal Article

Pulley Optimization for Improved Steering Pump Airborne Noise Performance

2011-05-17
2011-01-1568
This paper discusses the optimization of an automotive hydraulic steering pump pulley design for improved in-vehicle pump NVH performance. Levels of steering pump whine noise heard inside a vehicle were deemed objectionable. Vehicle and component transfer path analyses indicated that the dominant noise path for the whine noise was airborne in nature. Subsequent experimental modal analysis indicated that the steering pump pulley was a major contributor to the amount of radiated noise produced by the pump/pulley system. CAE analysis was used to further analyze the dynamic behavior of the pulley and develop an optimized design with decreased noise radiation efficiency. The results predicted with the CAE analysis were verified in-vehicle, resulting in a vehicle with acceptable steering pump whine noise performance.
Journal Article

Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Turbocharger Performance on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0920
For diesel engines to meet current and future emissions levels, the amount of EGR required to reach these levels has increased dramatically. This increased EGR has posed big challenges for conventional turbocharger technology to meet the higher emissions requirements while maintaining or improving other vehicle attributes, to the extent that some OEMs resort to multiple turbocharger configurations. These configurations can include parallel, series sequential, or parallel - series turbocharger systems, which would inevitably run into other issues, such as cost, packaging, and thermal loss, etc. This study, as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (USDoE) sponsored research program, is focused on the experimental evaluation of the emission and performance of a modern diesel engine with an advanced single stage turbocharger.
Journal Article

Thermo-Viscoelastic Model for Shrinkage and Warpage Prediction During Cooling and Solidification of Automotive Blow Molded Parts

2013-04-08
2013-01-1397
Blow moulding is one of the most important polymer processing methods for producing complex thermoplastic automotive parts. Contrary to injection molding, little attention has focused on process control and simulation of blow molding processes. Yet, there are still several problems that affect the overall success of forming these parts. Among them are thermally induced stresses, relevant shrinkage and part warpage deformations caused by inappropriate mold design and/or processing conditions. Tolerance issues are critical in automotive applications and therefore part deformation due to solidification needs to be controlled and optimized accordingly. The accurate prediction tool of part deformation due to solidification, under different cooling conditions in automotive formed parts, is important and highly suited for part designers to help achieve an efficient production.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of an Analytical Seal Bead Design Model for Automotive Superplastic Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0979
With the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles, technologies like superplastic forming (SPF) are being developed and implemented to allow for the utilization of lightweight automotive sheet materials. While forming under superplastic conditions leads to increased formability in lightweight alloys, such as aluminum, the slower forming times required by the technology can limit the technology to low to mid production levels. One problem that can increase forming time is the reduction of forming pressure due to pressurizing (forming) gas leaks, during the forming cycle, at the die/sheet/blankholder interface. Traditionally, such leaks have been successfully addressed through the use of a seal bead. However, for advanced die technologies that result in reduced cycle times (such as hot draw mechanical performing, which combine aspects of mechanical preforming of the sheet metal followed by SPF), the use of seal beads can restrict the drawing of sheet material into the forming die.
Technical Paper

Bending Process Optimization of Dual Phase 780 (DP780) Tubes for Body Structural and Chassis Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0230
To reach safety, emissions, and cost objectives, manufacturers of automotive body structural and chassis components shape thin gauge, high strength steel tube with a bending, pre-forming and hydroforming process. Challenging grades and bend severity require a careful optimization of the bending procedure. A joint project between Ford and ArcelorMittal Tubular Products investigated suitable bending parameters for severe bends using commercially available thin-walled DP780 and HSLA350 tubes. This paper summarizes the measurement methods found to be capable of capturing small differences in bending formability and details the influence of bender variables such as boost, pressure die, center-line bend radius and bend angle on the wrinkling, thinning and springback of these tubes. As a result of this work, recommendations were made as to effective bender set-ups for these tubes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Liquid Spray Penetration Fluctuations under Vaporizing Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0455
Diesel combustion and emissions formation is largely spray and mixing controlled and hence understanding spray parameters, specifically vaporization, is key to determine the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, an eight-hole common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel at charge gas conditions typical of full load boosted engine operation. Liquid penetration of the eight sprays was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with 0% oxygen. Conditions investigated included a charge temperature sweep of 800 to 1300 K and injection pressure sweep of 1034 to 2000 bar at a constant charge density of 34.8 kg/m₃.
Technical Paper

Automotive Interior Injection Molded Parts Using Microcellular Foaming Technology

2014-09-30
2014-36-0172
The microcellular foam injection molding process for thermoplastic materials provides design flexibility and cost savings opportunities not found in conventional injection molding. This process allows for plastic part design with material wall thickness optimized for functionality. The combination of density reduction and design for functionality can result in material and weight savings of up to 20%. With the correct equipment configuration, mold design, and processing conditions, these microcellular voids are uniform in size and distribution. The use of microcellular foam molding provides significant reductions in cycle time, material consumption, injection pressure, and clamp tonnage. In this work, a physical foam molding process, MuCell, is applied to a polypropylene (PP) composite.
Technical Paper

Analytical Benchmarking of Body Architectural Efficiency of Competitive Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0357
Hardware benchmarking of body overall stiffness and joint stiffness of the best-in-class competitive vehicles is a common practice in the automobile industry. However, this process does not provide design insights of competitive body structures, which relate stiffness performance to key architectural designs. To overcome this drawback, a CAD body-in-prime model of a competitive vehicle is developed using laser/optical scanning technology and a corresponding CAE model is built based on the CAD data. A deep-dive structural efficiency study is conducted using this model and “pros” and “cons” of the architectural design of each individual joint and each section of major load-carrying members of this body structure are identified. This analytical benchmarking (or reverse engineering) process enables a company to adopt best-in-class design practices and achieve competitive advantages in vehicle designs.
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach for Vehicle Frame Structure Dynamics Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2335
The capability to drive NVH quality into vehicle frame design is often compromised by the lack of available predictive tools that can be developed and applied within the timeframe during which key architectural design decisions are required. To address this need, a new parametric frame modeling approach was developed and is presented in this paper. This fully parameterized model is capable of fast modal, static stiffness & weight assessments, as well as DSA/optimization for frame design changes. This tool has been proven to be effective in improving speed, quality and impact of NVH hardware decisions.
Technical Paper

A Three-Dimensional Design Tool for Crescent Oil Pumps

2008-04-14
2008-01-0003
Due to complexities of interaction among gears and crescent-shaped island, a crescent oil pump is one of the most difficult auto components to model using three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) method. This paper will present a novel approach to address the challenges inherent in crescent oil pump modeling. The new approach is incorporated into the commercial pump design tool PumpLinx from Simerics, Inc.. The new method is applied to simulate a production crescent oil pump with inlet/outlet ports, inner/outer gears, irregular shaped crescent island and tip leakages. The pump performance curve, cavitation effects and pressure ripples are studied using this tool and will be presented in this paper. The results from the simulations are compared to the experiment data with excellent agreement. The present study shows that the proposed computational model is very accurate and robust and can be used as a reliable crescent pump design tool.
Technical Paper

Improving Robustness Assessment Quality Via Response Decomposition

2006-04-03
2006-01-0760
Response surface methods have been widely used in robust design for reducing turn-around time and improving quality. That is, from a given set of CAE data (design-of-experiments results), many different robust optimization studies can be performed with different constraints and objectives without large, recurring, computation costs. However, due to the highly nonlinear and non-convex nature of occupant injury responses, it is difficult to generate high quality response surface models from them. In this paper, we apply a cross validation technique to estimate the accuracy of response surface models, particularly in the context of robustness assessment. We then decompose selected occupant injury responses into more fundamental signals before fitting surfaces to improve the predictivity of the response surface models. Real-world case studies on an occupant restraint system robust design problem are used to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Authenticity of FE Modeling for Fatigue Assessment of Welds in Automotive Structures

2006-04-03
2006-01-0772
MIG (Metal Inert Gas or Gas Metal Arc welding) and spot welding are the most common way of joining steel components in automotive body, and frame structures. The main design benefits of MIG welding are however the ability to join the parts with single side access and the reduction or elimination of flanges. Different finite element based methodologies exist for predicting the durability of welds. These methodologies are being used in the automotive industry to resolve potential and current durability issues in spot and MIG welded steel components and also to reduce expensive testing practices. However, the analysis results highly depend on the finite element modeling and the accuracy of weld data. This paper briefly describes some of the lessons learned while applying the weld life prediction technology for MIG and spot welds in automotive steel structural components.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Planetary Gear Fatigue Behavior in Automatic Transmission

2006-10-16
2006-01-3243
An automatic transmission planetary gear fatigue test is used to screen lubricant performance of various automatic transmission fluids. The key use of this test is to assess the ability of a lubricant to extend or limit planetary gear system fatigue life. We study the fatigue behavior in this test and find the major failure modes are tooth macropitting, and macropitting-related tooth fracture of the sun and planetary gears (short and long pinion gears). Micropitting appears to be responsible for these gear failure modes. Macropitting is also seen on the shafts and needle rollers of the bearings. Gear tooth fracture appears to have originated from the surface as a secondary failure mode following macropitting. Bearing macropitting is initiated by geometric stress concentration. Bending fatigue failure on the sun and planetary gears also occurs but it is not a micropitting-initiated failure mode.
Technical Paper

Freeze Protection of Onboard Urea Co-Fueling System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0645
The urea co-fueling approach to refilling a urea storage container onboard a vehicle is based on the design of a two-fluid dispensing nozzle. With a single refueling operation the nozzle enables an independent delivery of two fluids, diesel fuel and urea, into two separate containers. The person refueling the vehicle needs no new skills or knowledge. But most importantly, the co-fueling method eliminates a separate and a critical action of keeping up with timely refills of the urea as the condition for emissions compliance for the vehicle. However, freezing of aqueous solution of urea below -11.5°C puts additional demands on the design of the two-fluid nozzle and the vehicle fill pipe receptacle, so that a reliable co-fueling process is assured at these cold weather conditions. The paper describes the methods that prevent formation of ice in the co-fueling fill pipe, which would enable refilling of urea during continuous use of the vehicle at temperatures below urea freezing point.
Technical Paper

Objective Metrics for Automotive Refrigerant System Induced Transients

2005-05-16
2005-01-2501
Automotive refrigerant system induced noise and vibration transients usually accompany A/C compressor engagement/disengagement. These transients include audible/perceivable metallic impact/slip (clink, chirp, etc.), engagement thump, delayed accumulator thump, orifice tube/TXV induced hiss, and occasionally very loud slugging. In this paper, the inherent noise source mechanisms of these transients are described, and a set of psychoacoustics based objective metrics quantifying these transients in terms of loudness and sharpness is developed. Some of the recommended design-fixes and noise control approaches for the related transient noises are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Characterization of Wet Friction Component under Realistic Transmission Shift Conditions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0151
A wet friction component continues to play a critical role in a step-ratio automatic transmission (AT) system. It is hydraulically actuated to alter planetary gear configurations for automatic shifting. During a shift event, its engagement torque is transmitted to AT output shaft, directly affecting vehicle shift quality. The friction component behaviors vary widely under different conditions. In a vehicle development process, unanticipated behaviors often lead to an inefficient trial-and-error approach for adjusting shift feel. Thus, a shift improvement process can benefit from upfront characterization of friction component behaviors. The so-called SAE#2 test system has served as the industry-standard since 1960's for evaluating friction components. It provides a useful means for evaluating friction component design variables. However, its standardized test conditions do not adequately capture dynamic effects of AT shift control variables.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

2005-11-01
2005-01-3568
In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
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