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Technical Paper

Simultaneous Real-Time Measurements of NO and NO2 in Medium Duty Diesel Truck Exhaust

2007-04-16
2007-01-1329
The goal of the present work was to investigate the ability of the SEMTECH®-D Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) to provide simultaneous, accurate, real-time (1Hz) measurements of NO and NO2 in vehicle exhaust. Extensive chassis dynamometer laboratory evaluation studies of the SEMTECH® system were conducted. The instantaneous (1Hz) NOx emissions were measured using a conventional chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) and were compared to the sum of the instantaneous NO and NO2 measurements from the SEMTECH®-D. The sum of the NO and NO2 emissions measured by the SEMTECH® were in excellent agreement (within 95% in most cases) with the total NOx measurements from the conventional CLA. During the laboratory evaluation studies, several Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycles were conducted. Examples of the NO and NO2 concentration and mass emissions measured using the SEMTECH®-D are presented along with the corresponding SEMTECH®-D detection limits.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of EGR Treatment on the Emission and Operating Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1083
Tests are conducted to improve the use of exhaust gas recirculation on a single cylinder diesel engine with EGR stream treatment techniques that include intake heating, combustible substance oxidation, catalytic fuel reforming, and partial bypass-flow control. In parallel with the empirical work, theoretical modeling analyses are performed to investigate the effectiveness of the reforming process and the combined effects on the overall system efficiency. The research is aimed at stabilizing and expanding the limits of heavy EGR during steady and transient operations so that the individual limiting conditions of EGR can be better identified. Additionally, the heavy EGR is applied to enable in-cylinder low temperature combustion. The effectiveness of EGR treatment on engine emission and operating characteristics are therefore reported.
Technical Paper

Effects of MMT® Fuel Additive on Emission System Components: Comparison of Clear- and MMT®-fueled Escort Vehicles from the Alliance Study

2004-03-08
2004-01-1084
Emission studies were carried out on clear-fueled and MMT®-fueled 100,000-mile Escort vehicles from the Alliance study [SAE 2002-01-2894]. Alliance testing had revealed substantially higher emissions from the MMT-fueled vehicle, and the present study involved swapping the engine cylinder heads, spark plugs, oxygen sensors, and catalysts between the two vehicles to identify the specific components responsible for the emissions increase. Within 90% confidence limits, all of the emissions differences between the MMT- and Clear-vehicles could be accounted for by the selected components. NMHC emission increases were primarily attributed to the effects of the MMT cylinder head and spark plugs on both engine-out and tailpipe emissions. CO emission increases were largely traced to the MMT cylinder head and its effect on tailpipe emissions. NOx emission increases were linked to the MMT catalyst.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Design Optimization of a Vehicle Exhaust System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1128
This paper focuses on the methodology development and application of reliability-based design optimization to a vehicle exhaust system under noise, vibration and harshness constraints with uncertainties. Reliability-based design optimization provides a systematic way for considering uncertainties in product development process. As traditional reliability analysis itself is a design optimization problem that requires many function evaluations, it often requires tremendous computational resources and efficient optimization methodologies. Multiple functional response constraints and large number of design variables add further complexity to the problem. This paper investigates an integrated approach by taking advantages of variable screening, design of experiments, response surface model, and reliability-based design optimization for problems with functional responses. A typical vehicle exhaust system is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Transfer Functions for Predicting the Deterioration of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-1282
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts have the capability to deliver the high NOx conversion efficiencies required for future emission standards. However, the potential for the occasional over-temperature can lead to the irreversible deactivation of the SCR catalyst. On-board diagnostics (OBD) compliance requires monitoring of the SCR function to make sure it is operating properly. Initially, SCR catalyst performance metrics such as NOx conversion, NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage capacity, and BET surface area are within normal limits. However, these features degrade with high temperature aging. In this work, a laboratory flow reactor was utilized to determine the impact on these performance metrics as a function of aging condition. Upon the completion of a full time-at-temperature durability study, four performance criteria were established to help determine a likely SCR failure.
Technical Paper

Cu/Zeolite SCR on High Porosity Filters: Laboratory and Engine Performance Evaluations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0897
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is expected to be used extensively in the U.S. for diesel vehicle NOx control. Much progress has been made on improving performance and reducing complexity of SCR systems for vehicles in the past several years. SCR system complexity can be reduced further by implementation of SCR-coated diesel particulate filters (SCRFs). In this system, a high porosity (> 50%) filter substrate is coated with an SCR formulation, ideally in the pores of the filter walls, so that the DPF and SCR functions can be combined into a single catalyst. Two state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite SCR formulations and three types of high porosity filter substrates were included in this study. Laboratory and engine-dynamometer tests were performed to measure NOx conversion under a variety of conditions to assess the impact of ammonia oxidation, inlet NO2/NOx ratio, ammonia/NOx ratio, oxygen level, space velocity, soot loading, and ammonia loading level.
Technical Paper

Ford's Facility Climate Change Initiatives: Lessons Learned From Early Action

2008-04-14
2008-01-0680
Climate change initiatives such as carbon dioxide (CO2) inventory reporting, emissions trading, and carbon offsets projects are receiving increased public and corporate attention worldwide. Through early, voluntary actions, Ford Motor Company's manufacturing operations have gained first-hand experience with these emerging policy tools and our global, centralized approach has supported our participation in facility CO2 initiatives in a more cost-effective and operationally-efficient manner. Ford's early action has also developed internal expertise which enables us to share our lessons learned with others beginning to investigate climate change initiatives.
Technical Paper

The Particle Emission Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine by Using Different Pilot Injections

2010-10-05
2010-01-1959
Pilot injection has been used widely in diesel engines for its NOx and noise reducing characteristics. In this paper, its impacts to the particle emissions were studied using a light-duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine with different pilot injection strategies. Three steady-state engine modes were selected from the EU legislative diesel engine test cycle to represent low, medium and high engine speeds and loads. The quantities and injection timings of the pilot injection strategies were then varied. The particle number concentration and size distributions were investigated along with the smoke and regulated gas emissions such as the NOx trade-off. These results indicate how a pilot injection alongside a main injection can increase the particle size compared to a single main injection event. Furthermore, the split injection was closely related to the engine mode.
Technical Paper

Study of Particle Number Emissions from a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine Including Data from a Fast-Response Particle Size Spectrometer

2011-04-12
2011-01-1224
A study has been conducted to measure the particle number emissions from a current-generation 1.6-liter, Euro IV-compliant turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. A fast-response particle size spectrometer was used along with a PMP-compliant particulate measurement system to measure the effect of various engine parameters on the particulate emissions during the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). Overall particle number is shown along with further analysis of the transient particle emissions. The cold start clearly affects particle formation with approximately 50% of the cumulative particle number being emitted within 200 seconds of the start. Even beyond 200 seconds, the particle number emissions fall as the test progresses and are generally consistent with increases in engine coolant temperature indicating that cold engine fuel preparation issues are contributing to the particle number count.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Air intake Temperature Reduction for Euro V Gaseous Emissions Regulation Compliance

2010-10-06
2010-36-0185
Changes in diesel engine design and calibration contributed to emissions reduction, mainly from Euro III to Euro V the algorithms for the control of smoke and transient response had substantial impact in the calibration concept. In order to follow the diesel engine emissions, the air intake system and air intake cooler must be optimized. The objective of this paper is to show the development of the new air intake package devices design - combined with new CAC (charge air cooler) optimization and new air intake system AIS position in vehicle - to allow intake manifold temperature compliance, using DOE method to the decision.
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

1964-01-01
640119
This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Emission Indexes within a Turbine Combustor Operated on Diesel Fuel or Methanol

1973-02-01
730669
The emission index (grams of species per kilogram of fuel) field within a regenerative turbine combustor has been mapped using a water-cooled sampling probe. The probe employed a choked orifice to simultaneously determine the local temperature. Derived from measurements are: air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, average fuel velocity and fuel distribution factor. Methods of averaging the discrete data are developed. A comparison of the data obtained when the combustor was operated on each of two fuels revealed that the use of methanol leads to lower nitric oxide but higher carbon monoxide emission than does the use of diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Impacts of WLTP Test Procedure on Fuel Consumption Estimation of Common Electrified Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0306
The new European test procedure, called the worldwide harmonized light vehicle test procedure (WLTP), deviates in some details from the current NEDC-based test which will have an impact on the determination of the official EU fuel consumption values for the new vehicles. The adaptation to the WLTP faces automakers with new challenges for meeting the stringent EU fuel consumption and CO2 emissions standards. This paper investigates the main changes that the new test implies to a mid-size sedan electrified vehicle design and quantifies their impact on the vehicles fuel economy. Three common electrified powertrain architectures including series, parallel P2, and powersplit are studied. A Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle (PMP) optimization-based energy management control strategy is developed to evaluate the energy consumption of the electrified vehicles in both charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes.
Technical Paper

On the Robustness of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-1360
In order to improve the vehicle’s fuel economy while in cruise, the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology has been adopted utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. In this paper, a focus is on robustness study of delivered fuel economy benefit of Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier in the literature to several noise factors, e.g. vehicle weight, fuel type etc. Further, the vehicle position is obtained via GPS with finite precision and source of road grade preview might be inaccurate. The effect of inaccurate information of the road grade preview on the fuel economy benefits is studied and a remedy to it is established.
Technical Paper

Virtual Temperature Controlled Seat Performance Test

2018-04-03
2018-01-1317
The demand for seating comfort is growing - in cars as well as trucks and other commercial vehicles. This is expected as the seat is the largest surface area of the vehicle that is in contact with the occupant. While it is predominantly luxury cars that have been equipped with climate controlled seats, there is now a clear trend toward this feature becoming available in mid-range and compact cars. The main purpose of climate controlled seats is to create an agreeable microclimate that keeps the driver comfortable. It also reduces the “stickiness” feeling which is reported by perspiring occupants on leather-covered seats. As part of the seat design process, a physical test is performed to record and evaluate the life cycle and the performance at ambient and extreme temperatures for the climate controlled seats as well as their components. The test calls for occupied and unoccupied seats at several ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Particulate Filter Efficiency and Backpressure at Very Low Mileage

2018-04-03
2018-01-1259
The need for gasoline particulate filter (GPF) technology is expected to grow with increasingly tight particle emissions standards being implemented in US, EU, China and elsewhere. Derived from the successful experience with diesel particulate filters (DPF), GPFs adopted the characteristic alternately plugged honeycomb structure that provides a large area of porous cordierite wall for filtering particles with minimal additional backpressure. However, unlike DPFs, continuous soot regeneration in GPFs makes it difficult to grow and sustain the soot cake on the filter wall that gives DPFs their high filtration efficiency. Therefore, filtration performance of low mileage GPFs relies heavily on the porous structure of filter media, which depends on both the substrate and the applied washcoat. In this work, a blank, two fresh washcoated filters and two washcoated filters with 3000 km mileage accumulation were characterized to compare their filtration performance.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1014
Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for Gasoline Particulate Filters

2017-03-28
2017-01-0931
While not commonly in production today, Gasoline Particulate Filters (GPFs) are likely to see widespread deployment to meet stringent EU6.2 and China particulate number (PN) standards. In many ways the operating conditions for GPFs are orthogonal to those of their diesel counterparts, and this leads to different and interesting requirements for the control strategy. We will present some generic system architectures for exhaust systems containing a GPF and will lay out an architecture for the GPF control strategy components which include: regeneration assist feature, soot estimation algorithm, GPF protection. The regeneration assist feature uses spark retard to increase exhaust temperature. The soot estimation algorithm describes how we can estimate soot from an open loop model or from a normalized pressure metric. The GPF protection feature controls oxygen flow to limit the soot burn rate. We will show validation data of the control strategy under different operating conditions.
Technical Paper

CO2 Concentration in the Cabin in the Event of a Leak: CFD Simulation and Testing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1444
CO2 is an alternative to replace the conventional refrigerant (R134a) for the air-conditioning system, due to the high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of R134a. There are concerns with the use of CO2 as a refrigerant due to health risks associated with exposure to CO2, if the concentration of CO2 is over the acceptable threshold. For applications with CO2 as the refrigerant, the risk of CO2 exposure is increased due to the possibility of CO2 leakage into the cabin through the duct system; this CO2 is in addition to the CO2 generated from the respiration of the occupants. The initiation of the leak could be due to a crash event or a malfunction of the refrigerant system. In an automobile, where the interior cabin is a closed volume (with minimal venting), the increase in concentration can be detrimental to the customer but is hard to detect.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Impact Time Estimate based on Vehicle Geometric Parameters

2017-03-28
2017-01-1453
Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Hood surfaces are often lifted up by using pyrotechnic devices to create more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Assessment methods for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic devices must also validate that the hood deployment occurs prior to head impact event. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
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