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Technical Paper

Investigations into the Effects of Thermal and Compositional Stratification on HCCI Combustion – Part I: Metal Engine Results

This study utilized a 4-valve engine under HCCI combustion conditions. Each side of the split intake port was fed independently with different temperatures and reactant compositions. Therefore, two stratification approaches were enabled: thermal stratification and compositional stratification. Argon was used as a diluent to achieve higher temperatures and stratify the in-cylinder temperature indirectly via a stratification of the ratio of specific heats (γ = cp/cv). Tests covered five operating conditions (including two values of A/F and two loads) and four stratification cases (including one homogeneous and three with varied temperature and composition). Stratifications of the reactants were expected to affect the combustion control and upper load limit through the combustion phasing and duration, respectively. The two approaches to stratification both affect thermal unmixedness. Since argon has a high γ, it reached higher temperatures through the compression stroke [1].
Technical Paper

Cell Balancing Algorithm Verification through a Simulation Model for Lithium Ion Energy Storage Systems

To support the market introduction of lithium ion energy storage systems for HEV and EREV applications, a process and tool was developed to expedite the verification of the lithium-ion cell balancing system across differing usage scenarios and cell imbalance rates. Presented is an overview of the cell imbalance analysis methodology and tool used in the development and verification of General Motors cell balancing systems. The use of this analysis methodology and tool has allowed for a cell balancing system optimization that would not have been possible with the use of actual energy storage systems because of the magnitude of lab or vehicle time required to execute the array of tests necessary to comprehend the large number of factors than can influence balancing.
Journal Article

Calculation of Heating Value for Gasoline Containing Ethanol

Ethanol for use in automotive fuels can be made from renewable feedstocks, which contributes to its increased use in recent years. There are many differences in physical and chemical properties between ethanol and petrochemicals refined from fossil oil. One of the differences is its energy content. The energy content, or heating value, is an important property of motor fuel, since it directly affects vehicle fuel economy. While the energy content can be measured by combustion of the fuel in a bomb, the test is time-consuming and expensive. It is generally satisfactory and more convenient to estimate that property from other commonly-measured fuel properties. Several standardized empirical methods have been developed in the past for estimating the energy content of hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Evaluating Electronic Control System Architecture Alternatives

Current development processes for automotive Electronic Control System (ECS) architectures have certain limitations in evaluating and comparing different architecture design alternatives. The limitations entail the lack of systematic and quantitative exploration and evaluation approaches that enable objective comparison of architectures in the early phases of the design cycle. In addition, architecture design is a multi-stage process, and entails several stakeholders who typically use their own metrics to evaluate different architecture design alternatives. Hence, there is no comprehensive view of which metrics should be used, and how they should be defined. Finally, there are often conflicting forces pulling the architecture design toward short-term objectives such as immediate cost savings versus more flexible, scalable or reliable solutions. In this paper, we propose the usage of a set of metrics for comparing ECS architecture alternatives.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Application of CAEBAT System Approach for a Liquid-Cooled Automotive Battery Pack

Abstract As one of many pack-level battery simulation approaches developed within the General Motors-led Computer-Aided Engineering of Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) Phase 1 project, the system approach treats the entire battery pack as a dynamic system which includes multiple engineering disciplines for simulation. It is the most efficient approach of all the CAEBAT battery pack-level approaches in terms of computational time and resources. This paper reports the application of the system approach for a 24-cell liquid-cooled prototype battery pack. It also summarizes the verification of the approach by comparing the simulation results with the measurement data. The results using the system approach are found to have a very good agreement with the measurements.
Technical Paper

Effects of Altitude and Road Gradients in Boosted Hydraulic Brake Systems

Abstract Brake systems are strongly related with safety of vehicles. Therefore a reliable design of the brake system is critical as vehicles operate in a wide range of environmental conditions, fulfilling different security requirements. Particularly, countries with mountainous geography expose vehicles to aggressive variations in altitude and road grade. These variations affect the performance of the brake system. In order to study how these changes affect the brake system, two approaches were considered. The first approach was centered on the development of an analytical model for the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle during braking maneuvers. This model was developed at system-level, considering the whole vehicle. This allowed the understanding of the relation between the braking force and the altitude and road grade, for different fixed deceleration requirement scenarios. The second approach was focused on the characterization of the vacuum servo operation.
Journal Article

Virtual Tire Data Influence on Vehicle Level Handling Performance

Abstract This study presents the comparison of vehicle handling performance results obtained using physical test tire data and a tire model developed by means of Finite Element Method. Real tires have been measured in laboratory to obtain the tire force and moment curves in terms of lateral force and align torque as function of tire slip angle and vertical force. The same tire construction has been modeled with Finite Element Method and explicit formulation to generate the force and moment response curves. Pacejka Magic Formula tire response models were then created to represent these curves from both physical and virtual tires. In the sequence, these tire response models were integrated into a virtual multibody vehicle model developed to assess handling maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Integration of Independent Front Axles for Gear Mesh Energy

The need for improved axle NVH integration has increased significantly in recent years with industry trends toward full-time and automatic four wheel drive (4wd) systems. Along with seamless 4wd operation, quiet performance has become a universal expectation. Axle gear-mesh noise can be transmitted to the vehicle passenger compartment through airborne paths (not discussed in this paper) and structure-borne paths (the focus of this paper.) A variety of mounting configurations are used in an attempt to provide improved axle isolation and reduce structure-borne transmission of gear-mesh noise. The configuration discussed in this paper is a 4-point vertical mount design for an Independent Front Drive Axle (IFDA). A significant benefit of this configuration is improved isolation in the range of drive torques where axle-related NVH issues typically exist.
Technical Paper

Using the Hybrid FE-SEA Method to Predict and Diagnose Component Transmission Loss

This paper investigates the application of the Hybrid FE-SEA method to the prediction of the Transmission Loss (TL) of a front-of-dash component. SEA subsystems are used to represent the source and receiving chambers of a TL test suite and an FE structural subsystem is used to represent the dash component. The potential advantages of the Hybrid FE-SEA method for this application are that: (i) it can provide detailed narrowband predictions of the radiation efficiency and TL of a given component across a broad frequency range and (ii) the computational cost of the approach is typically several orders of magnitude less than that of traditional low frequency FE/BEM/IEM methods. The approach is also potentially well suited to existing analysis processes since information from detailed component level models can be used to update and refine targets obtained from system level SEA models (the use of a common environment for such models simplifies model management).
Technical Paper

Active Fuel Management™ Technology: Hardware Development on a 2007 GM 3.9L V-6 OHV SI Engine

In the North American automotive market, cylinder deactivation by means of engine valve deactivation is becoming a significant enabler in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of large displacement engines. This allows for the continued market competitiveness of large displacement spark ignition (SI) engines that provide exceptional performance with reduced fuel consumption. As an alternative to a major engine redesign, the Active Fuel Management™ (AFM™) system is a lower cost and effective technology that provides improved fuel economy during part-load conditions. Cylinder deactivation is made possible by utilizing innovative new base engine hardware in conjunction with an advanced control system. In the GM 3.9L V-6 Over Head Valve (OHV) engine, the standard hydraulic roller lifters on the engine's right bank are replaced with deactivating hydraulic roller lifters and a manifold assembly of oil control solenoids.
Journal Article

A Study on Monetary Cost Analysis for Product-Line Architectures

We present a cost model that analyzes monetary costs for a product-line architecture to help the optimization of the architecture. The paper illustrates the usefulness of this methodology in a case study based upon the design exploration of a product-line architecture for an active safety system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of the Unsteady Flow Field behind Two outside Rear View Mirrors

The unsteady flow fields behind two different automobile outside side rear view mirrors were examined experimentally in order to obtain a comprehensive data base for the validation of the ongoing computational investigation effort to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to the outside rear view mirrors. This study is part of a larger scheme to predict the aero-acoustic noise due to various external components in vehicles. To aid with the characterization of this complex flow field, mean and unsteady surface pressure measurements were undertaken in the wake of two mirror models. Velocity measurements with particle image velocimetry were also conducted to develop the mean velocity field of the wake. Two full-scale mirror models with distinctive geometrical features were investigated.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 8 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. J2578 is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that it will continue to be relevant and useful in the future. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to revising SAE J2578 and J1766, the Working Group is also developing a new Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Journal Article

Gasoline Anti-Knock Index Effects on Vehicle Net Power at High Altitude

Abstract Automakers are designing smaller displacement engines with higher power densities to improve vehicle fuel economy, while continuing to meet customer expectations for power and drivability. The specific power produced by the spark-ignited engine is constrained by knock and fuel octane. Whereas the lowest octane rating is 87 AKI (antiknock index) for regular gasoline at most service stations throughout the U.S., 85 AKI fuel is widely available at higher altitudes especially in the mountain west states. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of gasoline octane rating on the net power produced by modern light duty vehicles at high altitude (1660 m elevation). A chassis dynamometer test procedure was developed to measure absorbed wheel power at transient and stabilized full power operation. Five vehicles were tested using 85 and 87 AKI fuels.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Ductile Cast Iron Conrods through Different Heat Treatments

Abstract The Austempering heat treatment is a well-known solution to improve the mechanical properties of ductile cast irons, therefore being referred as 'ADI' (Austempered Ductile Iron). The improved mechanical properties of ADI's with respect to conventional ductile iron is attributed to its resulting microstructure, which contains mainly carbide-free bainite with stabilized retained austenite. More recently, ductile cast irons were submitted to another heat treatment, known as 'Quenching and Partitioning' (Q&P). In this case, the ductile cast iron is austenitized, quenched to a temperature between Mf and Ms temperatures and subsequently heated to a temperature above Ms in order to partition the carbon from the martensite to the remaining austenite. The resulting microstructure comprises mainly low carbon martensite, austenite (stabilized by the carbon partition) and carbide-free bainite. Such microstructure resulted in equal or better properties than ADI.
Technical Paper

Un-Controlled Generation Modelling and Analysis for Hybrid Vehicles

Abstract Interior permanent magnet machines are being widely used in hybrid vehicles owing to their compact size and high power density. Vehicle level application requires the motor to operate at high speed beyond the base speed of the motor. This is accomplished through flux weakening control. Nonfunctioning of inverter switches and/or gate driver circuit during flux weakening could give rise to a potential fault scenario called Un-Controlled Generation (UCG). This paper gives a detailed background of UCG and its impact on the high voltage and propulsion systems. In further sections the details related to modelling and analysis of UCG will be discussed. Finally, the paper will conclude with simulation results and comparison of the results with motor dynamometer test data.
Technical Paper

A Robust Preignition Rating Methodology: Evaluating the Propensity to Establish Propagating Flames under Real Engine Conditions

Abstract In this work, an experimental and analysis methodology was developed to evaluate the preignition propensity of fuels and engine operating conditions in an SI engine. A heated glow plug was introduced into the combustion chamber to induce early propagating flames. As the temperature of the glowplug varied, both the fraction of cycles experiencing these early flames and the phasing of this combustion in the engine cycle varied. A statistical methodology for assigning a single-value to this complex behavior was developed and found to have very good repeatability. The effects of engine operating conditions and fuels were evaluated using this methodology. While this study is not directly studying the so-called stochastic preignition or low-speed preignition problem, it studies one aspect of that problem in a very controlled manner.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounting Robust Evaluation Methodology Utilizing Minimal Hardware Resources

Abstract Powertrain mounting systems design and development involves creating and optimizing a solution using specific mount rates and evaluation over multiple operating conditions. These mount rates become the recommended “nominal” rates in the specifications. The powertrain mounts typically contain natural materials. These properties have variation, resulting in a tolerance around the nominal specification and lead to differences in noise and vibration performance. A powertrain mounting system that is robust to this variation is desired. The design and development process requires evaluation of these mounts, within tolerance, to ensure that the noise and vibration performance is consistently met. During the hardware development of the powertrain mounting system, a library of mounts that include the range of production variation is studied. However, this is time consuming.