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Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.

The Utility and Fuel Consumption of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

There are now a wide variety of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in or near production. They reduce or displace petroleum consumption with of various combinations of conventional IC engine, mechanical transmission, liquid fuel storage, electrical energy storage, electrical and electro-mechanical energy conversion, and vehicle-to-grid energy interface. These Electrified types of vehicles include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid, Extended Range Electric, and Battery Electric. Some types differ in their actual usability for the real mixes of driving trips, and further that differ in their effectiveness to reduce or displace fuel in actual real world driving use. Vehicle size is also a factor in total vehicle utility in transporting people. If we may segment drivers by their driving needs, in each segment, we see a particular type of electrified vehicle that is better suited than others at minimizing fuel cost and petroleum consumption for the purposes of transporting people.
Technical Paper

Conductive Polyphenylene Ether/Polyamide Blend for Saturn Exterior Body Panels

The evolution toward the use of electrostatic painting processes has been driven primarily by environmental legislation and efforts to improve efficiencies in the painting process. The development of conductive substrate material compliments the industry trend toward a green environment through further reductions in emissions of volatile organic compounds during the painting process. Traditionally, electrostatic painting of thermoplastics requires that a conductive primer be applied to the substrate prior to topcoat application. The conductive polymer blend of polyphenylene ether and polyamide provides sufficient conductivity to eliminate usage of conductive primers. Additional benefits include improved transfer efficiencies of the primer and top coat systems, uniform film builds across the part, and improved painting of complex geometries.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Ignition Hazard Posed by Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery Canisters

ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) canisters trap vapors during normal operations of a vehicle's engine, and during refueling. This study evaluates the relative risks involved should a canister rupture in a crash. A canister impactor was developed to simulate real-world impacts and to evaluate the canisters' rupture characteristics. Numerous performance aspects of canisters were evaluated: the energy required to rupture a canister; the spread of carbon particles following rupture; the ease of ignition of vapor-laden particles; the vapor concentration in the area of ruptured, vapor-laden canisters; and the potential of crashes to rupture and ignite canisters. Results from these five items were combined into a risk analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of Transmission Hardware-in-the-Loop Test System

The automotive industry has long relied on vehicle testing to evaluate drive train components for new vehicle applications. In the past it has been impossible to fully evaluate components such as transmissions in a laboratory environment using electric motors as prime movers and absorbers. Although some durability and performance testing can be accomplished on such test stands it is impossible to perform high fidelity controller calibrations, durability tests, and NVH evaluations. Since the electric motors on these test stands cannot duplicate the exact characteristics of an engine such as inertia and firing pulses many manufacturers have resorted to vehicle testing or engine driven testing. Vehicle and engine based tests have many downfalls that could be avoided through the use of a laboratory based test system with electric prime movers. Vehicle testing with human drivers is often subjectively controlled and the exact test conditions are often unrepeatable.
Technical Paper

Mercury Switches in Underhood and Trunk Lamp Applications: A Detailed Environmental and Economic Analysis of Alternatives

The largest application of mercury in automotive applications occurs in underhood and trunk lamp activation switches. A reduction of mercury in this application will have a significant impact on automotive mercury usage. Using environmentally conscious design and manufacturing principles, this paper will investigate functional alternatives for the activation of underhood (U/H) and trunk lamp applications. Five alternatives to perform the activation function will be analyzed in four areas over their life cycles: Environmental Economic Engineering Manufacturing Each alternative will be ranked on criteria in each of these four areas using documented LCA processes. Totals will be generated for each area, then weighted and added to arrive at an overall score. Four groups of weightings will be used based on the vehicle type: small cars, mid-size cars, large/luxury cars, and trucks.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Evaluating Spot Welds for Automotive Durability

The need for accurate virtual prototyping prediction is well documented in the literature. For welded body structures one notable shortcoming has been the ability for finite element analysis (FEA) to accurately predict the failure of welded joints due to cyclic loading. A new approach to representing spot-welds for durability evaluation in automotive sheet metal structures is presented here. Excellent correlation with spot-weld failures in actual tests have been observed through this modeling approach. We present a method of representing spot-welds using the finite element method. This method has shown to be able of predicting the behavior of spot-welds prior to the build of any prototypes or testing. Further, for spot-weld failures we present evidence that reveals which radial quadrant of the spot-weld will contain the failure. This method also allows engineers to determine the mechanism of failure. This paper describes in detail the spot-weld modeling method.
Technical Paper

Objective Characterization of Vehicle Brake Feel

Historically, vehicle brake feel has usually been evaluated in a subjective manner. If an objective measure was used, it was pedal force versus the deceleration rate of the vehicle. Stopping distance is almost always used to characterize vehicle braking performance by the automotive press. This represents limit braking performance, but ignores braking performance under normal driving conditions experienced by customers most of the time. Evaluation of pedal feel by the press is generally limited to subjective adjectives such as “mushy”, “positive”, and “responsive”. A method will be presented, which is being used by General Motors, to translate customer brake feel expectations into objective performance metrics. These metrics are correlated to actual subjective ratings and are used to set objective, measurable requirements for performance.
Technical Paper

Mercury in Automotive Systems - A White Paper

Mercury is a naturally occurring element and therefore neither created nor destroyed, but pushed and pulled throughout the biosphere. Mercury released in vapor form to the atmosphere can be transported and redeposited via atmospheric deposition. Recent international, federal and state regulatory initiatives have been directed toward effective use management and minimization of toxic substances in manufacturing and commerce. The concern is that these substances bioaccumulate in the food chain, posing a threat to human health and the environment. The most significant human health exposure to mercury is the dietary intake of fish and fish products, since mercury biomagnifies in aquatic species. The Michigan Environmental Science Board (MESB), a task force formed by the state of Michigan, has found a small margin of safety between background (i.e., natural) levels of mercury exposure and concentrations that can cause harm to humans. At the national level, the U.S.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Control Systems Approach to Steering Shudder

Historically, power steering shudder, a vibration which occurs while steering a vehicle at low speeds, has been approached with systematic component-swapping experiments. This approach was time consuming and did not necessarily yield satisfactory results. In this paper it is shown that steering shudder can be analytically approached as a control system with a closed-loop limit cycle caused by the interaction of the chassis and the steering system. This approach provides a metric for determining a vehicle's propensity to shudder and allows quick predictions of the results of changing components. The approach is model-based, and incorporates chassis and hydraulic system components. Results obtained from the control systems analysis have been validated by a vehicle study, which showed a strong correlation between subjective evaluations and the stability metric provided by the analysis.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time-Averaged Piston Temperatures and Surface Heat Flux Between a Direct-Fuel Injected and Carbureted Two-Stroke Engine

Time-averaged temperatures at critical locations on the piston of a direct-fuel injected, two-stroke, 388 cm3, research engine were measured using an infrared telemetry device. The piston temperatures were compared to data [7] of a carbureted version of the two-stroke engine, that was operated at comparable conditions. All temperatures were obtained at wide open throttle, and varying engine speeds (2000-4500 rpm, at 500 rpm intervals). The temperatures were measured in a configuration that allowed for axial heat flux to be determined through the piston. The heat flux was compared to carbureted data [8] obtained using measured piston temperatures as boundary conditions for a computer model, and solving for the heat flux. The direct-fuel-injected piston temperatures and heat fluxes were significantly higher than the carbureted piston. On the exhaust side of the piston, the direct-fuel injected piston temperatures ranged from 33-73 °C higher than the conventional carbureted piston.
Technical Paper

Method to Calculate Percent Recyclable

A method has been developed to calculate the percent of a vehicle that is recyclable consistent with Federal Trade Commission (FTC) guidelines. The percent of the vehicle that has been designed for ease of recycling is also calculated. The flow chart and worksheets necessary for the calculation are included.
Technical Paper

Overview - Painted Aluminum Wheels

This paper discusses the recent growth in aluminum wheel popularity and the problems associated with maintaining the wheel's appearance and corrosion protection. The various options in wheel coatings are then described as well as the adverse wheel environment. Finally, the variables affecting wheel corrosion resistance are explained and the testing that is undertaken to evaluate the performance characteristics of the wheel coating.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning PID Design for Slip Control of Wedge Clutches

The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
Journal Article

Integration of Component Design Data for Automotive Turbocharger with Vehicle Fault Model Using JA6268 Methodology

Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modeling and integration processes.
Technical Paper

TECH 1 Interactive Diagnostic Tester

Automotive electronic systems are becoming increasingly complex and servicing these systems is difficult and costly. These same electronics, however, when coupled with interactive diagnostic testers can provide opportunities for not only self-diagnosis but also for significantly improved overall vehicle diagnostic testing. General Motors has established a three-tiered system of diagnostic testing with Level I testing accomplished by on-board diagnostics and Levels II and III employing external test equipment utilizing a high degree of interactive diagnostic testing. A low cost handheld diagnostic tester called the TECH 1 has been developed to support Level II testing of GM vehicles by technicians in dealerships and aftermarket service centers.
Technical Paper

Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Stochastic Preignition

In this multi-part effort, fuel and lubricant effects on stochastic preignition (SPI) were examined. First, the behavior of fuels for which SPI data had previously been collected were characterized in terms of their combustion and emissions behavior, and correlations to their SPI behavior were examined. Second, new SPI data was collected for a matrix of fuels that was constructed to test and confirm hypotheses that resulted from interpretation of the earlier data in the study and from data in open literature. Finally, the interaction of select fuels with lubricants that were expected to exhibit varying SPI propensities was examined. Although this final dataset did not yield conclusive results, it suggests that additional factors such as engine condition can have a very significant effect of SPI propensity.
Technical Paper

Alternate Solution for EV Charge Point Infrastructure in Crowded Urban Areas Along the Shore

Many countries including India have aggressively aimed to implement electric vehicles (EVs) usage from 2030 onwards. Companies such as General Motors, Uber, Waymo and Nissan etc. are exploring the realm of autonomous vehicles (AV) for use as taxis as early as 2019. Above facts logically arrive at the solution of Autonomous EVs as taxis. With the commitment towards enabling an all-electric future, there exists a need to provide suitable infrastructure for recharging. Major urban cities located by the shoreline such as New York, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Los Angeles etc. have been facing the space crunch, with real estate prices sky-rocketing exponentially. With this premise, the operating company would need a large amount of space to store their EVs for charging which attributes to a longer downtime. This brings a need for an economical charging location that has a reduced usage of urban infrastructure and energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as it caters to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and Optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update to carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier Staking Groove for Durability

Planetary gears are widely used in automobile industry due to their compact design and high power density. A simple planetary gear set consists of a Sun gear, Ring gear, Planets and Carrier which houses planet gears. Planetary gears are mounted on pinion pins and the process of assembling the pinion pins onto the carrier is called staking. Pinion pins have a staking region which after assembly expands outward into staking groove on the carrier to prevent axial movement of the pins. Planetary carrier staking grooves are designed to meet pinion pin retention and stress targets. In this study, an Isight work flow will be developed using an automated end-to-end FEA process to find out the effect of various groove design parameters on the stresses at staking groove location. Developed Isight workflow involves parametrically updating groove geometry, FE model setup, analysis and post-processing of the results. Commonly used staking groove shapes will be considered for this study.