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Technical Paper

Failure Evaluation of Clinched Thin Gauged Pedestrian Friendly Hood by Slam Simulation

In order to reduce the number of head injuries sustained by pedestrian accidents, safety engineers are developing pedestrian friendly hood systems through gauge optimization of the hood inner panel. In this study, the clinch method was employed to assemble a pedestrian friendly hood with a 0.5mm thick inner panel. Static and dynamic analyses were carried out to determine the clinch experiencing the highest loads and to understand the fatigue behavior of a clinched hood during a slam event. The macroscopic failure modes of clinched joints by hood slam were studied by means of a scanning electron microscope. A simple equation was derived to correlate the hexahedron spot weld model as a substitute for clinching in order to obtain an equivalent stiffness for a clinched joint within the linear region of an F-D curve. The F-D curve was obtained by lap shear testing.
Technical Paper

Mercury Switches in Underhood and Trunk Lamp Applications: A Detailed Environmental and Economic Analysis of Alternatives

The largest application of mercury in automotive applications occurs in underhood and trunk lamp activation switches. A reduction of mercury in this application will have a significant impact on automotive mercury usage. Using environmentally conscious design and manufacturing principles, this paper will investigate functional alternatives for the activation of underhood (U/H) and trunk lamp applications. Five alternatives to perform the activation function will be analyzed in four areas over their life cycles: Environmental Economic Engineering Manufacturing Each alternative will be ranked on criteria in each of these four areas using documented LCA processes. Totals will be generated for each area, then weighted and added to arrive at an overall score. Four groups of weightings will be used based on the vehicle type: small cars, mid-size cars, large/luxury cars, and trucks.
Technical Paper

GM's Evolving Epsilon Midsize Car Platform

This paper reviews the history of the General Motor's Epsilon Platform from a Body Structure perspective. From the time that it was conceived in 1996 to the present, the platform has evolved to meet many changing requirements. The focus of this paper will cover basic body requirements such as crash performance, modal requirements, packaging issues, changes for wheelbase and powertrains, mass, different body styles, etc, including the differences between European and US requirements. It will demonstrate that this globally developed platform met all its initial requirements and continued to evolve over time to meet additional changing requirements.
Technical Paper

Conductive Polyphenylene Ether/Polyamide Blend for Saturn Exterior Body Panels

The evolution toward the use of electrostatic painting processes has been driven primarily by environmental legislation and efforts to improve efficiencies in the painting process. The development of conductive substrate material compliments the industry trend toward a green environment through further reductions in emissions of volatile organic compounds during the painting process. Traditionally, electrostatic painting of thermoplastics requires that a conductive primer be applied to the substrate prior to topcoat application. The conductive polymer blend of polyphenylene ether and polyamide provides sufficient conductivity to eliminate usage of conductive primers. Additional benefits include improved transfer efficiencies of the primer and top coat systems, uniform film builds across the part, and improved painting of complex geometries.
Technical Paper

Structural and Cost Evaluation of Snap Fits used in Connections of Vehicle Door Trim Panel Components with FEA Assist

Abstract Among the most important finishing structures of a vehicle interior, the door trim panels reduce external noises, present ergonomic concepts generating comfort, improve appearance, and provide objects storage, knobs and buttons. The panels usually composed of several molded parts (trim, armrest, etc.) connected to each other also have structural function as support closing loads, protect occupants of door internal mechanisms, energy absorption in side impacts and resist misuse conditions. Therefore, these trims usually made of polymeric materials must to present good structural integrity, demanding appropriate connections between components to have good load distribution. The connections between parts can be made using bolts, interference fits (like self-locking), welding tubular plastic towers (heat stakes), or clips (such as snap fits) and last two are the most common due to be cheap and with good retention.