Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Development of the ASTM Sequence IIIE Engine Oil Oxidation and Wear Test

1988-10-01
881576
The ASTM Sequence IIID engine-dynamometer test has been used to evaluate the high-temperature protection provided by engine oils with respect to valve train wear, viscosity increase (oil thickening), deposits, and oil consumption. The obsolescence of the engine used in this test along with the need to define even higher levels of performance associated with a new oil category (SG) prompted efforts at developing a replacement test. This paper describes the hardware and procedure development of this replacement test, the ASTM Sequence IIIE test. Test precision and correlation with field and Sequence IIID results on a series of reference oils is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Wind Speed and Longitudinal Direction on Fire Patterns from a Vehicle Fire in a Compact Car

2017-03-28
2017-01-1353
This paper compares the material consumption and fire patterns which developed on four nearly identical compact sedans when each was burned for exactly the same amount of time, but with different wind speed and direction during the burns. This paper will also compare the effects of environmental exposure to the fire patterns on the vehicles. The burn demonstrations were completed at an outdoor facility in southeast Michigan on four late model compact sedans. The wind direction was controlled by placing the subject vehicle with either the front facing into the wind, or rear facing into the wind. Two of the burns were conducted when the average observed wind speed was 5-6kph and two of the burns were conducted at an average observed wind speed of 19kph.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) on Passenger Cars to Improve Emission Robustness

2015-04-14
2015-01-1013
Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
Technical Paper

Power Capability Testing of a Lithium-ion Battery Using Hardware in the Loop

2010-04-12
2010-01-1073
The energy storage system (ESS) is the key enabler to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that offer improved fuel economy and reduced vehicle emissions. The power capability of a battery has significant impact on the fuel economy of HEVs. This paper presents the power capability testing of a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode using the hardware in the loop (HIL) at a wide range of charge/discharge conditions and at different temperatures. The achieved test results provide critical data of battery power characteristics and effectively accelerate the development of battery power prediction algorithm.
Technical Paper

Rationale for and Dimensions of Impact Surfaces for Biofidelity Tests of Different Sizes of Frontal and Side Impact Dummies

2010-11-03
2010-22-0002
The biofidelity impact response corridors that were used to develop the Hybrid III family of dummies were established by scaling the various biofidelity corridors that were defined for the Hybrid III mid-size, adult male dummy. Scaling ratios for the responses of force, moment, acceleration, velocity, deflection, angle, stiffness and time were developed using dimensions and masses that were prescribed for the dummies. In addition, an elastic modulus ratio for bone was used to account for the differences between child and adult bone elastic properties. A similar method is being used by ISO/TC22/SC12/WG 5 to develop biofidelity guidelines for a family of side impact dummies based on scaling the biofidelity impact response corridors that are prescribed for WorldSID, a mid-size, adult male dummy.
Technical Paper

Internal Heat Exchanger Design Performance Criteria for R134a and HFO-1234yf

2010-04-12
2010-01-1210
This paper will examine the various design and performance criteria for optimized internal heat exchanger performance as applied to R134a and HFO-1234yf systems. Factors that will be considered include pressure drop, heat transfer, length, internal surface area, the effect of oil in circulation, and how these factors impact the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. The paper describes the test facility used and test procedures applied. Furthermore, some design parameters for the internal heat exchanger will be recommended for application to each refrigerant.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Correction of Sheet Metal Distortion in Draw Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0985
Surface distortions are frequently introduced into the Class “A” surfaces during various sheet metal forming operations such as drawing, trimming and flanging. The origins of those surface distortions have not been well understood. The scope of this research is to investigate the distortion that occurs in draw operation and to find effective and practical corrective methods. Five geometric parameters are first identified to represent a typical depression feature in automobile outer panels. Experimental dies are then designed to reflect various combinations of these five geometric parameters with the assistance of numerical simulations to ensure that the dies can make parts free of major defects like splits and wrinkles. Surface distortions are observed in our stamping experiments and various techniques are used to measure and record the distortions for further mathematical analysis.
Technical Paper

Signal Age Fault Detection in Distributed Embedded Automotive Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0205
More and more advanced features such as adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance are being adopted in road vehicles and these features are usually implemented as distributed systems across multiple ECU nodes that are connected by communication busses. In order to tolerate transient faults affecting a safety critical signal transmitted via bus in such distributed systems, the last used value or a default safe value for a safety critical signal is usually used among different ECU nodes on the bus for a pre-defined time interval before taking some other fault mitigation actions such as disabling a feature. Thus it becomes very important to monitor a signal's age and detect any signal age fault, where a signal age fault is defined as the use of an older or default signal value for longer than or equal to the pre-defined time interval.
Technical Paper

Algorithm-in-the-Loop with Plant Model Simulation, Reusable Test Suite in Production Codes Verification and Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Bench Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-0367
In a math-based control algorithm design, model-based simulation and testing are very important as an integral part of design process. There are many advantages of using modeling and simulation in the algorithm design. In this paper, Algorithm-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop approaches are adopted for a transmission control algorithm development. A practical approach is introduced on how to test the control algorithms with a reliable plant (virtual engine, transmission, and vehicle) model in the closed-loop simulation. In using combination of open-loop and closed-loop simulations, various key behavior test cases are developed and documented for the success of control algorithms development. Secondly, the same test cases are reused and verified against the production codes, which are automatically generated from the math-based control algorithm models.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Estimation of Wheel Imbalances for Chassis Prognosis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0245
“Wheel balancing” is one of the common automotive repairs that the owners of an automobile usually experience. An unbalanced set of a tire and a rim or wheel on which the tire is mounted could cause vibration while driving. Such vibrations may be sensed by the driver at the steering wheel (known as smooth road shake). If left untreated for a long period of time, the vibration, induced by the imbalance, may propagate to chassis components such as bearing and bushing. This in turn causes excessive wear that eventually leads to a premature failure. Therefore, an early detection of wheel imbalances can not only significantly reduce the cost and time for diagnosis and repair of the wheel, but also prevent further damage to chassis components. This paper studies the feasibility of real-time detection of wheel imbalances in real world driving conditions, using recursive least square estimation method. The simulation study shows promising results for implementation in a real vehicle.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Quantify Sine with Dwell Maneuver Test Metric Variability

2008-04-14
2008-01-0590
The Sine with Dwell (SWD) maneuver is the basis for the NHTSA FMVSS-126 regulation. When put into effect, all vehicles under 10,000 lbs GVWR will need to pass this test. Understanding the variability in the yaw rate ratio and lateral displacement test metrics is important for vehicle design. Anything that influences vehicle handling can affect test metric variability. Vehicle handling performance depends largely on vertical tire patch loads, tire force and moment behavior, on slip angle, and camber angle. Tire patch loads are influenced, among other things, by weight distribution and (quasi-static and dynamic) roll-couple distribution. Tire force and moment relationships have a distinct shapes, but they all commonly rise to a peak value at a given slip angle value and then fall off with increasing slip angle. Severe handling maneuvers, like the SWD operate at slip angles that are at, or above, the peak lateral force.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-treatment on Corrosion Performance of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Panel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0725
AZ31B Mg sheet is being considered for automotive applications. This study investigates the effect of pre-treatments, such as heat-treatments and surface treatments, on the corrosion performance of AZ31B sheet, with a goal of learning which pre-treatment can improve corrosion resistance of the sheet material in production. It is found that the heat-treatment and oxidation during a warm and hot forming (WHF) process will not deteriorate the corrosion performance of the AZ31B sheet; polishing and acid etching can clean the surface and significantly increase the corrosion resistance, but corrosion can be accelerated by sandblasting which contaminates the surface. The change in corrosion performance can be associated with surface cleaning or contamination of the sheet by these pre-treatments. Furthermore, the influence of a pre-treatment on the uncoated AZ31B sheet may affect its corrosion behavior after coating.
Technical Paper

Self-deposited E-coating for Mg Alloys

2010-04-12
2010-01-0727
Magnesium alloys are not corrosion resistant in many applications and they require coating protection. In this study, we developed an electroless E-coating technique for magnesium alloys and discussed a cathodic E-coating deposition mechanism for the electroless E-coating process. This coating can be formed within a few seconds by dipping a magnesium alloy (i.e., AZ91D) in an E-coat bath without applying a current or voltage. The deposited electroless coat can offer good protection to the AZ91D magnesium alloy in 5 wt% NaCl corrosive solution as well as in a phosphating bath. The most interesting finding is that the electroless coating is not sensitive to local damage. No preferential corrosion attack occurred along the scratches made on the coating.
Technical Paper

B-Pillar Intrusion and Velocity Sensitivity Study for Side Impact Load Case

2011-10-06
2011-28-0109
In the early vehicle design stage math model, subsystems such as dummies, airbags and interior trims are generally not considered for structural evaluation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the B-pillar intrusion and velocity sensitivity in a side impact load case with respect to the dummies, airbags and interior trim. In this study four different vehicles were used to understand the B-pillar intrusion and velocity sensitivity trends. US NCAP lateral impact load case is used in this study. Five side impact load case analyses iterations, with different combinations of subsystems, were completed. Dummy inertia and interior trims play an important role for B-Pillar intrusion and velocity in side impact load case (USLINCAP). If the dummy and interior trim is not well defined in the CAE model, higher B-pillar intrusion and velocity will be predicted. This could vary from 10 to 25 %.
Technical Paper

Performance Equivalent Thickness of a Sound Insulation System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1981
Vehicle sound insulation systems, such as front of dash mats or carpet assemblies, etc. play a key role in controlling vehicle interior noise. However, dash and carpet insulators are often designed to have varied thickness in compliance with packaging constraints or to fulfill manufacturing clearance requirements. While it is obvious to NVH engineers that thinned-down areas would significantly affect the insulation performance, design engineers would benefit from a quick tool to flag any design details that may negatively impact the performance. This paper therefore proposes a concept called the performance equivalent thickness for the sound insulation system. The aim is to link acoustic performance of an insulator layer to a geometric measure so that the component performance can be easily monitored and preserved at the design stage.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Validation of the Thermal Stratification Analysis: A post-processing methodology for determining temperature distributions in an experimental HCCI engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1276
Refinements were made to a post-processing technique, termed the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA), that couples the mass fraction burned data to ignition timing predictions from the autoignition integral to calculate an apparent temperature distribution from an experimental HCCI data point. Specifically, the analysis is expanded to include all of the mass in the cylinder by fitting the unburned mass with an exponential function, characteristic of the wall-affected region. The analysis-derived temperature distributions are then validated in two ways. First, the output data from CFD simulations are processed with the Thermal Stratification Analysis and the calculated temperature distributions are compared to the known CFD distributions.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption Evaluation of Cooled External EGR for a Downsized Boosted SIDI DICP Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1235
A 2.0L twin-scroll turbocharged SIDI engine was used to evaluate low-pressure loop water-cooled external EGR at operating conditions between 1000 rpm 75 Nm and 3000 rpm 250 Nm. The engine compression ratio was increased from 9.3 to 10.9. The maximum fuel consumption reduction potential, the boost pressure requirements, and the optimized external EGR calibration were determined. Combination of higher compression ratio and external EGR achieved 5-7% better fuel economy over mid-load region when using the twin-scroll turbocharger. A similar (4-6%) better fuel economy was observed over much of the higher-load region, including peak torque condition at 1000rpm, when the required boost pressure was provided by an externally-driven auxiliary boost system (not connected to the engine). The power consumption of auxiliary boost system (supercharger loss) was estimated and considered in fuel economy assessment. The fuel consumption reduction mechanisms of EGR were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Effect of High Levels of Boost and Recirculated Exhaust Gas on Diesel Combustion Characteristics at Part Load

2014-04-01
2014-01-1245
Future diesel combustion systems may operate with significantly higher levels of boost and EGR than used with present systems. The potential benefits of higher boost and EGR were studied experimentally in a single-cylinder diesel engine with capability to adjust these parameters independently. The objective was to study the intake and exhaust conditions with a more optimum combustion phasing to minimize fuel consumption while maintaining proper constraints on emissions and combustion noise. The engine was tested at four part-load operating points using a Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. Two of the operating points correspond to low-speed and low-load conditions relevant for the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The other two points focus on medium load conditions representative of the World-wide harmonized Light-duty Test Procedures (WLTP).
Technical Paper

Comparison of Femur Moments and Forces of EEVC WG17 Upper Leg Impactor, FlexPLI and Human Body Finite Element Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0515
EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactors have been used to assess the risk of pedestrian upper leg injuries with respect to regulatory and consumer metric rating requirements. The paper compares the femur injury responses between the finite element models of the EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactor, the FlexPLI and the 50th percentile male GM/UVa pedestrian model on two sample vehicle architectures, for a sedan and a sports utility vehicle. The study shows that the peak femur load and maximum bending moment response are higher in the EEVC WG17 Upper Leg impactor than the FlexPLI and the human body model. Variation studies are carried out to study the influence of impact location on the vehicle, impactor knee height, additional upper body mass and human body model size on the femur injury responses.
Technical Paper

Passive Pedestrian Protection Approach for Vehicle Hoods

2014-04-01
2014-01-0513
Global regulations intended to enhance pedestrian protection in a vehicle collision, thereby reducing the severity of pedestrian injuries, are presenting significant challenges to vehicle designers. Vehicle hoods, for example, must absorb a significant amount of energy over a small area while precluding impact with a hard engine compartment component. In this paper, a simple passive approach for pedestrian protection is introduced in which thin metal alloy sheets are bent to follow a C-shaped cross-sectional profile thereby giving them energy absorbing capacity during impact when affixed to the underside of a hood. Materials considered were aluminum (6111-T4, 5182-O) and magnesium (AZ31-O, AZ61-O, ZEK100) alloys. To evaluate the material effect on the head injury criterion (HIC) score without a hood, each C-channel absorber was crushed in a drop tower test using a small dart.
X