Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Refinement and Validation of the Thermal Stratification Analysis: A post-processing methodology for determining temperature distributions in an experimental HCCI engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1276
Refinements were made to a post-processing technique, termed the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA), that couples the mass fraction burned data to ignition timing predictions from the autoignition integral to calculate an apparent temperature distribution from an experimental HCCI data point. Specifically, the analysis is expanded to include all of the mass in the cylinder by fitting the unburned mass with an exponential function, characteristic of the wall-affected region. The analysis-derived temperature distributions are then validated in two ways. First, the output data from CFD simulations are processed with the Thermal Stratification Analysis and the calculated temperature distributions are compared to the known CFD distributions.
Journal Article

Localized Cooling for Human Comfort

2014-04-01
2014-01-0686
Traditional vehicle air conditioning systems condition the entire cabin to a comfortable range of temperature and humidity regardless of the number of passengers in the vehicle. The A/C system is designed to have enough capacity to provide comfort for transient periods when cooling down a soaked car. Similarly for heating, the entire cabin is typically warmed up to achieve comfort. Localized heating and cooling, on the other hand, focuses on keeping the passenger comfortable by forming a micro climate around the passenger. This is more energy efficient since the system only needs to cool the person instead of the entire cabin space and cabin thermal mass. It also provides accelerated comfort for the passenger during the cooling down periods of soaked cars. Additionally, the system adapts to the number of passengers in the car, so as to not purposely condition areas that are not occupied.
Technical Paper

Rapid Residual Stress and Distortion Prediction in Cast Aluminum Components Using Artificial Neural Network and Part Geometry Characteristics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0755
Heat treated cast aluminum components like engine blocks and cylinder heads can develop significant amount of residual stress and distortion particularly with water quench. To incorporate the influence of residual stress and distortion in cast aluminum product design, a rapid simulation approach has been developed based on artificial neural network and component geometry characteristics. Multilayer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) models were trained and verified using FEA residual stress and distortion predictions together with part geometry information such as curvature, maximum dihedral angle, topologic features including node's neighbors, as well as quench parameters like quench temperature and quench media.
Journal Article

Vehicle Spaciousness and Packaging Efficiency

2014-04-01
2014-01-0348
With the ever increasing pressure to improve the fuel economy of vehicles, there has been a corresponding interest in reducing the mass and size of vehicles. While mass is easily quantifiable, vehicle size, particularly the notion of “interior space” as perceived by the customer, is not. This paper explores different ways in which vehicle spaciousness can be quantified and explores new metrics based on customer verbatims. A novel ‘spaciousness calculator’ combines individual metrics to provide a singular holistic rating for spaciousness, useful during vehicle development. Beyond spaciousness, the paper discusses techniques to quantify the ‘packaging efficiency’ of a vehicle; this allows engineers to maximize the interior space for a given exterior size.
Technical Paper

Integrated CAE Methods for Perceived Quality Assurance of Vehicle Outer Panels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0366
Oil canning and initial stiffness of the automotive roofs and panels are considered to be sensitive customer ‘perceived quality’ issues. In an effort to develop more accurate objective requirements, respective simulation methods are continuously being developed throughout automotive industries. This paper discusses a latest development on oil canning predictions using LS-DYNA® Implicit, including BNDOUT request, MORTAR contact option and with the stamping process involved, which resulted in excellent correlations especially when it comes to measurements at immediate locations to the feature lines of the vehicle outer panels. Furthermore, in pursuit of light-weighting vehicles with thinner roofs, a new CAE method was recently developed to simulate severe noise conditions exhibited on some of developmental properties while going through a car wash.
Technical Paper

Tensile and Fatigue Behaviors of Two Thermoplastics Including Strain Rate, Temperature, and Mean Stress Effects

2014-04-01
2014-01-0901
An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate tensile and fatigue behaviors of two thermoplastics, a neat impact polypropylene and a mineral and elastomer reinforced polyolefin. Tensile tests were performed at various strain rates at room, −40°C, and 85°C temperatures with specimens cut parallel and perpendicular to the mold flow direction. Tensile properties were determined from these tests and mathematical relations were developed to represent tensile properties as a function of strain rate and temperature. For fatigue behavior, the effects considered include mold flow direction, mean stress, and temperature. Tension-compression as well as tension-tension load-controlled fatigue tests were performed at room temperature, −40°C and 85°C. The effect of mean stress was modeled using the Walker mean stress model and a simple model with a mean stress sensitivity factor.
Journal Article

Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0791
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
Technical Paper

Algorithm-in-the-Loop with Plant Model Simulation, Reusable Test Suite in Production Codes Verification and Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Bench Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-0367
In a math-based control algorithm design, model-based simulation and testing are very important as an integral part of design process. There are many advantages of using modeling and simulation in the algorithm design. In this paper, Algorithm-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop approaches are adopted for a transmission control algorithm development. A practical approach is introduced on how to test the control algorithms with a reliable plant (virtual engine, transmission, and vehicle) model in the closed-loop simulation. In using combination of open-loop and closed-loop simulations, various key behavior test cases are developed and documented for the success of control algorithms development. Secondly, the same test cases are reused and verified against the production codes, which are automatically generated from the math-based control algorithm models.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Correction of Sheet Metal Distortion in Draw Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0985
Surface distortions are frequently introduced into the Class “A” surfaces during various sheet metal forming operations such as drawing, trimming and flanging. The origins of those surface distortions have not been well understood. The scope of this research is to investigate the distortion that occurs in draw operation and to find effective and practical corrective methods. Five geometric parameters are first identified to represent a typical depression feature in automobile outer panels. Experimental dies are then designed to reflect various combinations of these five geometric parameters with the assistance of numerical simulations to ensure that the dies can make parts free of major defects like splits and wrinkles. Surface distortions are observed in our stamping experiments and various techniques are used to measure and record the distortions for further mathematical analysis.
Technical Paper

Self-deposited E-coating for Mg Alloys

2010-04-12
2010-01-0727
Magnesium alloys are not corrosion resistant in many applications and they require coating protection. In this study, we developed an electroless E-coating technique for magnesium alloys and discussed a cathodic E-coating deposition mechanism for the electroless E-coating process. This coating can be formed within a few seconds by dipping a magnesium alloy (i.e., AZ91D) in an E-coat bath without applying a current or voltage. The deposited electroless coat can offer good protection to the AZ91D magnesium alloy in 5 wt% NaCl corrosive solution as well as in a phosphating bath. The most interesting finding is that the electroless coating is not sensitive to local damage. No preferential corrosion attack occurred along the scratches made on the coating.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-treatment on Corrosion Performance of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Panel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0725
AZ31B Mg sheet is being considered for automotive applications. This study investigates the effect of pre-treatments, such as heat-treatments and surface treatments, on the corrosion performance of AZ31B sheet, with a goal of learning which pre-treatment can improve corrosion resistance of the sheet material in production. It is found that the heat-treatment and oxidation during a warm and hot forming (WHF) process will not deteriorate the corrosion performance of the AZ31B sheet; polishing and acid etching can clean the surface and significantly increase the corrosion resistance, but corrosion can be accelerated by sandblasting which contaminates the surface. The change in corrosion performance can be associated with surface cleaning or contamination of the sheet by these pre-treatments. Furthermore, the influence of a pre-treatment on the uncoated AZ31B sheet may affect its corrosion behavior after coating.
Technical Paper

Performance Equivalent Thickness of a Sound Insulation System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1981
Vehicle sound insulation systems, such as front of dash mats or carpet assemblies, etc. play a key role in controlling vehicle interior noise. However, dash and carpet insulators are often designed to have varied thickness in compliance with packaging constraints or to fulfill manufacturing clearance requirements. While it is obvious to NVH engineers that thinned-down areas would significantly affect the insulation performance, design engineers would benefit from a quick tool to flag any design details that may negatively impact the performance. This paper therefore proposes a concept called the performance equivalent thickness for the sound insulation system. The aim is to link acoustic performance of an insulator layer to a geometric measure so that the component performance can be easily monitored and preserved at the design stage.
Journal Article

Response Surface Generation for Kinematics and Injury Prediction in Pedestrian Impact Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0216
This study concerns the generation of response surfaces for kinematics and injury prediction in pedestrian impact simulations using human body model. A 1000-case DOE (Design of Experiments) study with a Latin Hypercube sampling scheme is conducted using a finite element pedestrian human body model and a simplified parametric vehicle front-end model. The Kriging method is taken as the approach to construct global approximations to system behavior based on results calculated at various points in the design space. Using the response surface models, human lower limb kinematics and injuries, including impact posture, lateral bending angle, ligament elongation and bone fractures, can be quickly assessed when either the structural dimensions or the structural behavior of the vehicle front-end design change. This will aid in vehicle front-end design to enhance protection of pedestrian lower limbs.
Technical Paper

AUTOSAR Software Platform Adoption: Systems Engineering Strategies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0289
AUTOSAR(AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) establishes an industry standard for OEMs and the supply chain to manage growing complexity to the automotive electronics domain. Increased focus on software based features will prove to be a key differentiator between vehicle platforms. AUTOSAR serves to standardize automotive serial data communication protocols, interaction with respect to hardware peripherals within an ECU and allow ECU implementer to focus on development of unique customer focused features that distinguish product offerings. Adoption strategy and impact assessment associated with leveraging AUTOSAR for an E/E Architecture and the potential challenges that need to be considered will be described in this publication. This publication will also illustrate development strategies that need to be considered w.r.t deploying AUTOSAR like data exchange, consistency to BSW software implementation, MCAL drivers etc.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) on Passenger Cars to Improve Emission Robustness

2015-04-14
2015-01-1013
Emission compliance at the production level has been a challenge for vehicle manufacturers. Diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) plays a very important role in controlling the emissions for the diesel vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers tend to ‘over design’ the diesel oxidation catalyst to ‘absorb’ the production variations which seems an easier and faster solution. However this approach increases the DOC cost phenomenally which impacts the overall vehicle cost. The main objective of this paper is to address the high variation in CO tail pipe emissions which were observed on a diesel passenger car during development. This variation was posing a challenge in consistently meeting the internal product requirement/specification.
Journal Article

An Algorithm for Identification of Locally Optimal Basins in Large Dimensions on a Multi-Model Response Surface

2015-04-14
2015-01-0480
Response Surface Models are often used as a surrogate for expensive black-box functions during optimization to reduce computational cost. Often, the CAE analysis models are highly nonlinear and multi-modal. A response surface approximation of such analysis as a result is highly multi-modal; i.e. it contains multiple local optima. A gradient-based optimizer working with such a response surface will often converge to the nearest local optimum. There does not exist any method to guarantee a global optima for non-convex multi-modal functions. For such problems, we propose an efficient algorithm to find as many distinct local optima as possible. The proposed method is specifically designed to work in large dimensions (about 100 ∼ 1000 design variables and similar number of constraints) and can identify most of the locally optimal solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Technical Paper

Using Simulation to Quantify Sine with Dwell Maneuver Test Metric Variability

2008-04-14
2008-01-0590
The Sine with Dwell (SWD) maneuver is the basis for the NHTSA FMVSS-126 regulation. When put into effect, all vehicles under 10,000 lbs GVWR will need to pass this test. Understanding the variability in the yaw rate ratio and lateral displacement test metrics is important for vehicle design. Anything that influences vehicle handling can affect test metric variability. Vehicle handling performance depends largely on vertical tire patch loads, tire force and moment behavior, on slip angle, and camber angle. Tire patch loads are influenced, among other things, by weight distribution and (quasi-static and dynamic) roll-couple distribution. Tire force and moment relationships have a distinct shapes, but they all commonly rise to a peak value at a given slip angle value and then fall off with increasing slip angle. Severe handling maneuvers, like the SWD operate at slip angles that are at, or above, the peak lateral force.
Technical Paper

Fixed Weld Reduction Method for Optimal Spot Weld Pattern Design

2003-03-03
2003-01-1304
A new solution methodology for optimal spot-weld pattern design is presented. The objective of the optimization is to minimize the total number of welds in a structure while maintaining structural properties above a required level. Two approaches were developed, based on the representation of welds in a finite element model. In the approach ‘without ranking’ welds are represented in a traditional way, as rigid connections. In ‘with ranking’ approach welds are treated as elastic elements subjected to stresses and deformations under given loading conditions. The information on weld stress is utilized in the solution process to reduce the number of design variables and improve the quality of the solution. The applicability of the method to large automotive structures was demonstrated, as well as the capacity for optimization with respect to multiple load sets.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Friction Stir Linear Welds for Magnesium Alloys

2016-04-05
2016-01-0386
Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
X