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Technical Paper

Passive Pedestrian Protection Approach for Vehicle Hoods

Abstract Global regulations intended to enhance pedestrian protection in a vehicle collision, thereby reducing the severity of pedestrian injuries, are presenting significant challenges to vehicle designers. Vehicle hoods, for example, must absorb a significant amount of energy over a small area while precluding impact with a hard engine compartment component. In this paper, a simple passive approach for pedestrian protection is introduced in which thin metal alloy sheets are bent to follow a C-shaped cross-sectional profile thereby giving them energy absorbing capacity during impact when affixed to the underside of a hood. Materials considered were aluminum (6111-T4, 5182-O) and magnesium (AZ31-O, AZ61-O, ZEK100) alloys. To evaluate the material effect on the head injury criterion (HIC) score without a hood, each C-channel absorber was crushed in a drop tower test using a small dart.
Technical Paper

B-Pillar Intrusion and Velocity Sensitivity Study for Side Impact Load Case

Abstract In the early vehicle design stage math model, subsystems such as dummies, airbags and interior trims are generally not considered for structural evaluation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the B-pillar intrusion and velocity sensitivity in a side impact load case with respect to the dummies, airbags and interior trim. In this study four different vehicles were used to understand the B-pillar intrusion and velocity sensitivity trends. US NCAP lateral impact load case is used in this study. Five side impact load case analyses iterations, with different combinations of subsystems, were completed. Dummy inertia and interior trims play an important role for B-Pillar intrusion and velocity in side impact load case (USLINCAP). If the dummy and interior trim is not well defined in the CAE model, higher B-pillar intrusion and velocity will be predicted. This could vary from 10 to 25 %.
Journal Article

FEA Development of Spot Weld Modeling with Fracture Forming Limit Diagram(FFLD) Failure Criteria and Its Application to Vehicle Body Structure

Abstract Spot weld separation in vehicle development stage is one of the critical phenomena in structural analyses regarding quasi-static test condition, like roof strength or seat/belt pull. It directly reduces structural performance by losing connected load path and occasionally introduces tearing on surrounding sheet metals. Traditionally many efforts have been attempted to capture parent metal ductile fracture, but not applied to spot weld separations in automotive FEA simulations. [1,2,3] This paper introduces how to develop FFLD failure criteria from a series of parametric study on ultra high strength sheet steel and deals with failure criteria around spot weld and parent metal. Once the fracture strains for sheet steels are determined, those developed values were applied to traditional spot weld coupon FEA simulations and tests. Full vehicle level roof strength FEA simulations on a typical automotive body structure were performed and verified to the physical tests.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Performance Evaluation of Hood Liner Constructions

Abstract In automotive noise control, the hood liner is an important acoustic part for mitigating engine noise. The random incidence absorption coefficient is used to quantify the component level acoustic performance. Generally, air gaps, type of substrate materials, density of the substrate materials and Air Flow Resistivity (AFR) of the cover scrim are the dominant control factors in the sound absorption performance. This paper describes a systematic experimental investigation of how these control factors affect flat sample performance. The first stage of this study is full factorial measurement based on current available solutions from sound absorber suppliers. The acoustic absorption of different hood liner constructions, with variations in materials, density, air gaps, and scrims was measured.
Journal Article

Vehicle Spaciousness and Packaging Efficiency

With the ever increasing pressure to improve the fuel economy of vehicles, there has been a corresponding interest in reducing the mass and size of vehicles. While mass is easily quantifiable, vehicle size, particularly the notion of “interior space” as perceived by the customer, is not. This paper explores different ways in which vehicle spaciousness can be quantified and explores new metrics based on customer verbatims. A novel ‘spaciousness calculator’ combines individual metrics to provide a singular holistic rating for spaciousness, useful during vehicle development. Beyond spaciousness, the paper discusses techniques to quantify the ‘packaging efficiency’ of a vehicle; this allows engineers to maximize the interior space for a given exterior size.
Technical Paper

Integrated CAE Methods for Perceived Quality Assurance of Vehicle Outer Panels

Abstract Oil canning and initial stiffness of the automotive roofs and panels are considered to be sensitive customer ‘perceived quality’ issues. In an effort to develop more accurate objective requirements, respective simulation methods are continuously being developed throughout automotive industries. This paper discusses a latest development on oil canning predictions using LS-DYNA® Implicit, including BNDOUT request, MORTAR contact option and with the stamping process involved, which resulted in excellent correlations especially when it comes to measurements at immediate locations to the feature lines of the vehicle outer panels. Furthermore, in pursuit of light-weighting vehicles with thinner roofs, a new CAE method was recently developed to simulate severe noise conditions exhibited on some of developmental properties while going through a car wash.