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Journal Article

Challenges for Tire Noise Evaluation on Common Pavements

2011-05-17
2011-01-1582
Developing common methods of noise evaluation and facilities can present a number of challenges in the area of tire/pavement noise. Some of the issues involved include the design and construction of pavements globally, the change in pavement over time, and variation in the noise produced with standard test tires used as references. To help understand and address these issues for airborne tire/pavement noise, acoustic intensity measurement methods based on the On-board Sound Intensity (OBSI) technique have been used. Initial evaluations have included measurements conducted at several different proving grounds. Also included were measurements taken on a 3m diameter tire noise dynamometer with surfaces replicating test track pavements. Variation between facilities appears to be a function of both design/construction and pavement age. Consistent with trends in the literature, for smooth asphalt surfaces, the newest surface produced levels lower than older surfaces.
Journal Article

Dynamic Torque Characteristics of the Hydrodynamic Torque Converter

2011-05-17
2011-01-1540
The objective of this investigation is to characterize the torsional characteristics of the hydrodynamic torque converter. Analytical and experimental techniques are used to quantify the relationship between torsional oscillations imposed on the pump to those at the turbine as a function of frequency, operating point and design. A detailed model of the hydrodynamic torque converter based upon one-dimensional flow theory is used to establish fundamental torsional behavior independent of the downstream mechanical system. A simplified linear spring-mass-damper representation of the hydrodynamic torque converter is derived whose coefficients are proportional to pump speed for a particular design. A transmission dynamometer test cell with the capability to produce torsional oscillations was used to develop frequency response functions for various torque converters in a transmission, operating at steady state conditions.
Journal Article

VOLTEC Battery System for Electric Vehicle with Extended Range

2011-04-12
2011-01-1373
Mid 2006 a study group at General Motors developed the concept for the electric vehicle with extended range (EREV),. The electric propulsion system should receive the electrical energy from a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and/or an auxiliary power unit (APU) which could either be a hydrogen fuel cell or an internal combustion engine (ICE) driven generator. The study result was the Chevrolet VOLT concept car in the North American Auto Show in Detroit in 2007. The paper describes the requirements, concepts, development and the performance of the battery used as RESS for the ICE type VOLTEC propulsion system version of the Chevrolet Volt. The key requirement for the RESS is to provide energy to drive an electric vehicle with “no compromised performance” for 40 miles. Extended Range Mode allows for this experience to continue beyond 40 miles.
Technical Paper

Gen2 GF6 Transmission Hardware and Controls Updates

2011-04-12
2011-01-1428
In an effort to increase fuel economy and improve shift quality - the GF6 family of General Motors transmissions has been analyzed for potential enhancements. The focus of this analysis was to improve fuel economy, while increasing downshift responsiveness, and manual mode sport delays. This paper describes a variety of the hardware philosophy changes, and control methods which have contributed to the next generation of GM clutch-to-clutch 6-speed transmissions. These changes to hardware and controls have led to a composite fuel economy improvement of 4.5% with no changes to shift or torque-converter scheduling. In addition, the downshift responsiveness has been significantly improved to reduce delay times by approximately 50% while virtually eliminating the dependency on engine torque reductions - ultimately allowing for stacked downshifts to progress with minimal, if any, time between shifts. Additionally, “tap shift” delays have been significantly decreased to levels near 150 ms.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Floating Piston Pin

2011-04-12
2011-01-1407
Presented in the paper is a comprehensive analysis for floating piston pin. It is more challenging because it is a special type of journal bearing where the rotation of the journal is coupled with the friction between the journal and the bearing. In this analysis, the multi-degree freedom mass-conserving mixed-EHD equations are solved to determine the coupled pin rotation and friction. Other bearing characteristics, such as minimum film thickness, pin secondary motions in both connecting-rod small-end bearing and piston pin-boss bearing, power loss etc are also determined. The mechanism for floating pin to have better scuffing resistance is discovered. The theoretical and numerical model is implemented in the GM internal software FLARE (Friction and Lubrication Analysis for Reciprocating Engines).
Technical Paper

Knock Detection and Estimation Based on Heat Release Strategies

2011-04-12
2011-01-1409
Engine knock has been studied extensively over the years. Its undesired effects on drivability, its potential to damage an engine, and its impact on limiting the compression ratio are the main reasons why it remains a current topic of research. This paper focuses on exploiting the connection between auto-ignition and knock. A new method based on the frequency analysis of the heat release traces is proposed to detect and estimate auto-ignition/knock robustly. Filtering the heat release signal with the appropriate bandwidth is crucial to avoid misdetection. The filter settings used in this paper are found using spectral analysis of the heat release signal. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect auto-ignition/knock even under the presence of undesired sensor resonance effects and noise from mechanical and electrical sources.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fretting Corrosion on Lift Glass

2011-04-12
2011-01-1434
The electrical architecture design of a rear back glass defrost grid system encompasses many critical criteria that must be integrated into the design. For example, the defrost clip location and interface to the glass must meet all vehicle performance requirements. If the defrost clip to the glass interface is not resistant to vibration and relative movement, detachment and loss of function can occur. This paper describes a back glass defrost clip with a solder joint that is robust to manufacturing variations and customer usage conditions. A designed experiment using Design for Six Sigma methodologies was performed to understand the effects of the attachment interface to the electrical wiring pigtail, and parameters that affect performance. The working constraints, testing set up, validation, and root cause investigation of the clip detachment phenomenon is covered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of Sensor Attachment Criteria (Immunity) - Side Impact Sensor Mounted on Door Impact Beam

2011-04-12
2011-01-1445
The sensor mounted on the door impact beam plays a major role in side impact events. The accelerations of side impact sensors are processed by sensing algorithms to make a decision on the air bag deployment. The sensing signal criterion for the deployable condition is a well understood process. However, the non-deployment sensing signal for the immunity to abuse conditions is a function of sensor attachment stiffness to the base structure. The base structure can be a door inner panel or door impact beam. In one of the production program, the acceleration based sensor attached to the impact beam showed immunity issues in the abusive door slams/opening to objects. Hence, the computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis was used to develop the sensor attachment criterion.
Technical Paper

Determining Physical Properties for Rotating Components Using a Free-Free Torsional FRF Technique

2011-05-17
2011-01-1663
This paper presents a test methodology to determine the physical properties of stiffness and damping for powertrain rotating components using a free-free torsional frequency response measurement. The test methodology utilizes free-free boundary conditions and traditional modal test techniques applied to symmetric rotating components with substantially large bounding masses of known inertia. A modal test on the rotating component is executed by mounting accelerometers on opposing tangential bosses in the same direction on each of the inertial masses and impacting one of the bosses with a modal hammer to acquire frequency response functions (FRF's). Physical properties are then extracted from the FRF's using fundamental vibration relationships for an assumed two degree of freedom system. Stiffness and damping values for a variety of hollow tube carbon fiber drive shafts and a comparable steel-aluminum shaft are reported using the methodology presented.
Technical Paper

Determining Most Energy Efficient Cooling Control Strategy of a Rechargeable Energy Storage System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0893
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and electric vehicles (EV) are using large lithium ion battery packs to store energy for powering electric traction motors. These batteries, or Rechargeable Energy Storage Systems (RESS), have a narrow temperature operating range and require thermal management systems to properly condition the batteries for use in automotive applications. This paper will focus on energy optimization of a RESS cooling system. The battery thermal management system for the General Motors Chevrolet Volt has three distinct modes for battery cooling: active cooling, passive cooling, and bypass. Testing was conducted on each individual thermal cooling mode to optimize, through control models, the energy efficiency of the system with the goal of maximizing electric vehicle range.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2011-04-12
2011-01-0908
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries. The impact of these inhibitors on spark ignited fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the additive concentrations to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel; and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the CIs impact the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation. Commercially available corrosion inhibitor packages for both gasoline and ethanol blended fuels, specifically E85 fuels, were studied for their chemical compositions, and their impact on valves for a port fuel injection (PFI) engine.
Technical Paper

A Constant Radius Constant Speed Simulation Methodology-Yaw Rate Control

2011-04-12
2011-01-0738
A simulation methodology is developed for the Constant Radius Constant Speed (CRCS) analysis to predict the ISO4138 [1] road test performance. The CRCS analysis can be used to predict the vehicle steady-state handling characteristics such as understeer, rear cornering compliance, and roll gradient, etc. The Yaw-Rate Control methodology is applied to replace the traditional driver-in-the-loop path-following approaches. Comparing to the path-following approaches, the proposed method is simpler to use, more efficient, accurate, and robust.
Technical Paper

Process Automation Wizard for Vehicle Dynamics Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0740
The imperative to get to the market faster with new and better products, has determined all automotive OEM to rethink their product development cycle, and, as a result, many hardware based processes were replaced and/or augmented with virtual, software based ones. However, the virtualization itself does not guaranties better and faster products. In the area of vehicle dynamics, we concentrate on improving the multi-body model development process, facilitating comprehensive virtual testing, and verifying the robustness of the design. The authors present a highly flexible and efficient environment that encourages, enforces, and facilitates model sharing, reusing of components, and parallelization of vehicle dynamics simulations, developed on top of an existing commercial off-the-shelf engineering software application.
Technical Paper

Annular Nozzle in Fixed Displacement Transmission Pump

2011-04-12
2011-01-0723
General Motor's new front wheel drive six speed 6T40 automatic transmission benefits from patented technology to control high speed pump cavitation that is innovative yet cost effective. An annular nozzle is created with careful pump inlet design by integrating a conical section in the filter neck to create a jet pump to prevent high speed cavitation for almost no additional cost. Excess oil from a fixed displacement pump is used to achieve an effective increase in pressure at the inlet of the rotating group during high speed operation. Control of high speed cavitation reduces pump noise and improves line pressure control stability.
Journal Article

Thermal Mapping of an Automotive Rear Drive Axle

2011-04-12
2011-01-0718
In recent years, there has been a sustained effort by the automotive OEMs and suppliers to improve the vehicle driveline efficiency. This has been in response to customer demands for greater vehicle fuel economy and increasingly stringent government regulations. The automotive rear axle is one of the major sources of power loss in the driveline, and hence represents an area where power loss improvements can have a significant impact on overall vehicle fuel economy. Both the friction induced mechanical losses and the spin losses vary significantly with the operating temperature of the lubricant. Also, the preloads in the bearings can vary due to temperature fluctuations. The temperatures of the lubricant, the gear tooth contacting surfaces, and the bearing contact surfaces are critical to the overall axle performance in terms of power losses, fatigue life, and wear.
Journal Article

Optimizing 12 Volt Start - Stop for Conventional Powertrains

2011-04-12
2011-01-0699
A cost effective means of achieving fuel economy gains in conventional powertrain is to utilize a 12 volt start/stop (S/S) system to turn the engine off and on during periods of vehicle idle. This paper presents powertrain integration issues specific to a 12 volt S/S system and the powertrain hardware content and calibration strategies required to execute a 12 volt S/S system for start ability, reduced noise and vibration (N&V) and vehicle launch. A correlated lumped parameter modeling methodology is used to determine engine startup profiles, starter hardware and intake cam park position requirements based upon vehicle level response to the startup event. Optimization of the engine startup is reported for a multitude of powertrain configurations, including transverse and longitudinal arrangements with manual, automatic and dual clutch transmissions.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control Part I: L3 and V6 Engine Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0695
A frequency-domain approach to balancing of air-fuel ratio (A/F) in a multi-cylinder engine is described. The technique utilizes information from a single Wide-Range Air-Fuel ratio (WRAF) or a single switching (production) O₂ sensor installed in the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine to eliminate the imbalances. At the core of the proposed approach is the development of a simple novel method for the characterization of A/F imbalances among the cylinders. The proposed approach provides a direct objective metric for the characterization of the degree of A/F imbalances for diagnostic purposes as well as a methodology for the control of A/F imbalances among various cylinders. The fundamental computational requirement is based on the calculation of a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the A/F signal as measured by a WRAF or a switching O₂ sensor.
Journal Article

Design of Engine-Out Virtual NOx Sensor Using Neural Networks and Dynamic System Identification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0694
Fuel economy improvement and stringent emission regulations worldwide require advanced air charging and combustion technologies, such as low temperature combustion, PCCI or HCCI combustion. Furthermore, NOx aftertreatment systems, like Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or lean NOx trap (LNT), are needed to reduce vehicle tailpipe emissions. The information on engine-out NOx emissions is essential for engine combustion optimization, for engine and aftertreatment system development, especially for those involving combustion optimization, system integration, control strategies, and for on-board diagnosis (OBD). A physical NOx sensor involves additional cost and requires on-board diagnostic algorithms to monitor the performance of the NOx sensor.
Journal Article

Analysis of Pre-Crash Data Transferred over the Serial Data Bus and Utilized by the SDM-DS Module

2011-04-12
2011-01-0809
The primary function of an airbag control module is to detect crashes, discriminate and predict if a deployment is necessary, then deploy the restraint systems including airbags and where applicable, pretensioners. At General Motors (GM), the internal term for airbag control module is Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). In the 1994 model year, GM introduced its SDM on some of its North American airbag-equipped vehicles. A secondary function of that SDM and all subsequent SDMs is to record crash related data. This data can include data regarding impact severity from internal accelerometers and pre-crash vehicle data from various chassis and powertrain modules. Previous researchers have addressed the accuracy of both the velocity change data, recorded by the SDM, and the pre-crash data, but the assessment of the timing of the pre-crash data has been limited to a single family of modules (Delphi SDM-G).
Technical Paper

Interpretation of SAE J1100 Cargo Volume Indices

2011-04-12
2011-01-0779
SAE J1100 - Motor Vehicle Dimensions was first published in September 1973. One of the many significant aspects of this recommended practice is that it provides procedures for estimating cargo/luggage volume in various types of vehicles. Passenger vehicles typically carry cargo in one of two areas: those that are separate from the passenger compartment and those that are open to the passenger compartment. A closed compartment is: An area intended to carry or stow luggage or cargo for personal or commercial purposes that is distinct or enclosed from the area used to transport people. The volume of this area is quantified by a physical stack of simulated luggage pieces, and include the following body types: coupes, sedans, and convertibles. An open compartment is: An area intended to carry or transport luggage or cargo for personal or commercial purposes that is open to the passenger compartment. These areas have the potential to carry people or cargo.
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