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Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Journal Article

Determination of Used Crankcase Oil Condition by Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Extracted Organic Acids

2009-11-02
2009-01-2689
Organic acid degradation products and other anions in engine oil were speciated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) with electrospray ionization. The sample preparation procedure involved selectively extracting the acids and other water soluble salts into 0.05M aqueous potassium hydroxide. Samples of engine-aged mineral oil and synthetic engine oil contained formic acid, acetic acid, and complex mixtures of fatty acid degradation products. CE analysis of formic acid, acetic acid and selected fatty acids is proposed as a new chemical analysis method for evaluating the condition of engine oil and for studying the effects of high temperature-high load (HTHL) oxidation. Because the overall pattern of CE peaks in the electropherogram changes with oil age or condition, CE-fingerprint (i.e., pattern recognition) techniques may also be useful for evaluating an aged oil's condition or remaining service life.
Journal Article

Design of Engine-Out Virtual NOx Sensor Using Neural Networks and Dynamic System Identification

2011-04-12
2011-01-0694
Fuel economy improvement and stringent emission regulations worldwide require advanced air charging and combustion technologies, such as low temperature combustion, PCCI or HCCI combustion. Furthermore, NOx aftertreatment systems, like Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) or lean NOx trap (LNT), are needed to reduce vehicle tailpipe emissions. The information on engine-out NOx emissions is essential for engine combustion optimization, for engine and aftertreatment system development, especially for those involving combustion optimization, system integration, control strategies, and for on-board diagnosis (OBD). A physical NOx sensor involves additional cost and requires on-board diagnostic algorithms to monitor the performance of the NOx sensor.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Control Part I: L3 and V6 Engine Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0695
A frequency-domain approach to balancing of air-fuel ratio (A/F) in a multi-cylinder engine is described. The technique utilizes information from a single Wide-Range Air-Fuel ratio (WRAF) or a single switching (production) O₂ sensor installed in the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine to eliminate the imbalances. At the core of the proposed approach is the development of a simple novel method for the characterization of A/F imbalances among the cylinders. The proposed approach provides a direct objective metric for the characterization of the degree of A/F imbalances for diagnostic purposes as well as a methodology for the control of A/F imbalances among various cylinders. The fundamental computational requirement is based on the calculation of a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of the A/F signal as measured by a WRAF or a switching O₂ sensor.
Journal Article

Optimizing 12 Volt Start - Stop for Conventional Powertrains

2011-04-12
2011-01-0699
A cost effective means of achieving fuel economy gains in conventional powertrain is to utilize a 12 volt start/stop (S/S) system to turn the engine off and on during periods of vehicle idle. This paper presents powertrain integration issues specific to a 12 volt S/S system and the powertrain hardware content and calibration strategies required to execute a 12 volt S/S system for start ability, reduced noise and vibration (N&V) and vehicle launch. A correlated lumped parameter modeling methodology is used to determine engine startup profiles, starter hardware and intake cam park position requirements based upon vehicle level response to the startup event. Optimization of the engine startup is reported for a multitude of powertrain configurations, including transverse and longitudinal arrangements with manual, automatic and dual clutch transmissions.
Journal Article

Boundary Condition Effect on the Correlation of an Acoustic Finite Element Passenger Compartment Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0506
Three different acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different models are a traditional model, an improved model, and an optimized model. The traditional model represents the passenger and trunk compartment cavities and the coupling between them through the rear seat cavity. The improved model includes traditional acoustic models of the passenger and trunk compartments, as well as equivalent-acoustic finite element models of the front and rear seats, parcel shelf, door volumes, instrument panel, and trunk wheel well volume. An optimized version of the improved acoustic model is developed by modifying the equivalent-acoustic properties. Modal analysis tests of a vehicle were conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes and sound pressure response to 500 Hz to assess the accuracy of the acoustic models.
Technical Paper

DFMEA and FTA Applied to Complex Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-0512
One of the keys to a good reliable design is evaluating potential and past issues, ascertaining and then mitigating the risk that past and future issues will potentially occur. This is even more important with the automobile designs of today and for those in the future, specifically the hybrid and fuel cell vehicle. DFMEA and FTA are tools that aid in the understanding of complex design risks, from the system level down to the component level. This session will look at different case studies (from simple to complex) and the strategies used to understand systemic failure modes using both DFMEA and FTA.
Technical Paper

Drive Point Mobility, Transmissibility and Beyond

2011-04-12
2011-01-0502
Drive Point Mobility is commonly used in lab tests and structural analysis for the purposes of measuring and evaluating the N&V performance of a dynamic system. Unless the drive point itself is also the point of interest (for responses), the author finds that it can only provide very limited information about the whole system's dynamic / vibrational characteristics. Thus one should always try to measure, analyze, and then improve, instead of Drive Point Mobility alone, the non-drive point mobility or the generalized transmissibility as well, for their structural N&V performance. A simplified 3-DOF spring/mass/damper system is first used to illustrate the dynamic characters of the system. For more realistic structures, a FE model of the body/floor and (body side) hanger (for exhaust) is used. Then a more complete system model, consisting of a full exhaust, it's hangers/isolators, and part of the vehicle chassis/body/floor structure, is used in this paper to illustrate the above points.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Air Induction Noise Using 1D-3D Coupling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0500
Compartment noise has gained significant importance to meet customer expectation. One of the sources of noise is air intake noise. Intake noise is produced by both opening and closing of the inlet valve. This makes source noise critical to the development of air induction system. The new approach has been thought for noise analysis of Air Induction System (AIS) to identify source noise using 1D-3D coupling. It is very difficult to simulate engine and air induction system in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) due to complexities in geometry. The objective of the present study is to predict the pulsed noise and flow noise using 1D-3D coupling. The engine with 1D code and AIS with 3D CFD code is simulated. Engine pulsation from GT-Power is provided as an input boundary condition to ANSYS Fluent. GT-Power exchanges boundary values to 3D computation domain at each CFD time step through special connections. The CFD code is run with implicit discretisation scheme and SAS turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Structural-Acoustic Analysis of Vehicle Body Panel Participation to Interior Acoustic Boom Noise

2011-04-12
2011-01-0496
A structural-acoustic finite element model of an automotive vehicle is developed and applied to evaluate the effect of structural and acoustic modifications to reduce low-frequency ‘boom’ noise in the passenger compartment. The structural-acoustic model is developed from a trimmed body structural model that is coupled with an acoustic model of the passenger compartment and trunk cavities. The interior noise response is computed for shaker excitation loads at the powertrain mount attachment locations on the body. The body panel and modal participation diagrams at the peak response frequencies are evaluated. A polar diagram identifies the dominant body panel contributions to the ‘boom’ noise. A modal participation diagram determines the body modes that contribute to the ‘boom’ noise. Finally, structural and acoustic modifications are evaluated to determine their effect on reducing the ‘boom’ noise and on the overall lower-frequency sound pressure level response.
Technical Paper

Modeling Dynamic Stiffness of Rubber Isolators

2011-04-12
2011-01-0492
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Radiated Fuel Tank Slosh Noise Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0495
With the introduction of hybrid vehicles and the associated elimination of engine and exhaust masking noises, sounds from other sources is becoming more noticeable. Fuel tank sloshing is one of these sources. Fuel sloshing occurs when a vehicle is accelerated in any direction and can create noise that may be perceived as a quality issue by the customer. To reduce slosh noise, a fuel tank has to be carefully designed. Reduction in slosh noise using test- based methods can be very costly and timely. This paper shows how, using the combination of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic), FE (Finite Element) and Acoustic simulation methods, the radiated fuel tank slosh noise performance can be evaluated using CAE methods. Although the de-coupled fluid /structure interaction (FSI) method was used for the examples in this paper, the acoustic simulation method is not limited to the decoupled FSI method.
Technical Paper

Design, Analysis, and Development Testing of Large Hood Plastic Mounted Trim Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0490
Large hood mounted plastic trim components are subjected to complex and often extreme loading conditions. Typical loading conditions include solar and thermal cycling, as well as road and powertrain induced vibrations, aero lift and buffeting, and mechanical loads such as car wash. For the above components understanding and classifying the typical loading conditions is an essential and important step in achieving long term quality. This paper discusses different approaches to the design, analysis, development, and testing of plastic trim components. Samples of analysis and test results are presented to demonstrate how to identify and prevent the loss of the part function. Some useful guidelines and practices for addressing thermal expansion, dimensional variation, and redundancy in attachments are also discussed.
Journal Article

“Verify-on-Demand” - A Practical and Scalable Approach for Broadcast Authentication in Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication

2011-04-12
2011-01-0584
In general for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication, message authentication is performed on every received wireless message by conducting verification for a valid signature, and only messages that have been successfully verified are processed further. In V2V safety communication, there are a large number of vehicles and each vehicle transmits safety messages frequently; therefore the number of received messages per second would be large. Thus authentication of each and every received message, for example based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard, is computationally very expensive and can only be carried out with expensive dedicated cryptographic hardware. An interesting observation is that most of these routine safety messages do not result in driver warnings or control actions since we expect that the safety system would be designed to provide warnings or control actions only when the threat of collision is high.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crash Rates for Vehicles with Advanced Crash Avoidance Features

2011-04-12
2011-01-0587
This paper describes how information available through the OnStar system represents a unique and powerful mechanism to assess field crash rates. Included within is a description of how vehicle and OnStar information may be gathered, organized and analyzed. The resulting data provides the capability to conducts various studies of field activity and/or events. In this case, a study was conducted to try to determine if certain vehicle equipment might have an impact on field crash rates. The process is exemplified via a description of a study conducted by GM OnStar in 2009. Two analyses were conducted comparing crash rates of selected vehicle models, with and without certain advanced safety sensing and warning features. Specifically, beginning in the 2008 Model Year, General Motors introduced Lane Departure Warning and Side Blind Zone Alert into US/Canada production. Utilizing data on crashes, drawn from OnStar Automatic Crash Response events, analyses of crash rates were conducted.
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