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Video

Monitoring NO2 Production of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

2012-01-24
A combination of laboratory reactor measurements and vehicle FTP testing has been combined to demonstrate a method for diagnosing the formation of NO2 from a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Using small cores from a production DOC and simulated diesel exhaust, the laboratory reactor experiments are used to support a model for DOC chemical reaction kinetics. The model we propose shows that the ability to produce NO2 is chemically linked to the ability of the catalyst to oxidize hydrocarbon (HC). For thermally damaged DOCs, loss of the HC oxidation function is simultaneous with loss of the NO2 production function. Since HC oxidation is the source of heat generated in the DOC under regeneration conditions, we conclude that a diagnostic of the DOC exotherm is able to detect the failure of the DOC to produce NO2. Vehicle emissions data from a 6.6 L Duramax HD pick-up with DOC of various levels of thermal degradation is provided to support the diagnostic concept.
Video

High Load HCCI Operation Using Different Valving Strategies in a Naturally-Aspirated Gasoline HCCI Engine

2012-02-16
This session focuses on kinetically controlled combustion. Experimental and simulation studies pertaining to various means of controlling combustion are welcome. Examples are research studies dealing with temperature and composition distribution inside the cylinder and their impact on heat release process. Studies clarifying the role of fuel physical and chemical properties in autoignition are also welcome. Presenter Hanho Yun, General Motors Company
Video

Technical Keynote: Leading in Crazy Times

2012-02-09
Leading during normal times is plenty challenging. Leading in crazy times requires extra understanding and skill. This presentation explores how you and your team can be your best, regardless of what craziness may be going on around your organization, your team members, and you. Presenter Theresa Rich, General Motors Company
Video

OBD Challenges for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2012-01-30
Plug-In Hybrid and Extended Range Electric Vehicle's have quickly become the focus of many OEM's and suppliers. Existing regulations and test procedures did not anticipate this rapid adoption of this new technology, resulting in many product development challenges. The lack of clear requirements is further complicated by CARBs consideration of CO2 inclusion in their next light duty OBD regulation. This presentation provides an overview of the regulatory requirements for OBD systems on hybrid vehicles that intend to certify in California. Near term challenges for EREV?s and PHEV?s are discussed, including concerns with the existing denominator and warm-up cycle calculations. Some proposals are made to address these concerns. Presenter Andrew Zettel, General Motors Company
Video

Worldwide OBD

2012-01-30
OBD system requirements were first developed by the California Air Resources Board, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the European Commission. New OBD requirements should be as consistent as possible with existing requirements to maximize reliability and to minimize system complexity, proliferation of configurations, and consumer cost. New OBD requirements from around the world are briefly reviewed and most are consistent with the original U.S. and European requirements. Worldwide OBD requirements are being further harmonized under the United Nations, Economic Commission for Europe, World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP29). Presenter David H. Ferris, General Motors Company
Technical Paper

Electronic Data Processing Center for Engine Dynamometers

1966-02-01
660751
The dynamometer evaluation of internal combustion engines has involved a great deal of tedious interpretation and presentation of results. In the past, engine test cells have not been fully utilized, and skilled test engineers have been occupied with routine work, time which could better be spent in actual development work. This paper describes steps taken by Robert Bosch GmbH in its new engine test laboratory, to streamline procedures for observation, computation, plotting, and presentation of results. Measurements from the engine test cell are delivered electrically to a central data processing center. These data are recorded, computed electronically, and plotted on an electric plotting machine functioning from punched paper tape.
Technical Paper

The Fuel Quantity Indicator - A New Measuring Device for Volumetric Evaluation of Individual Fuel Injection Quantities

1966-02-01
660750
The paper describes an instrument developed for the purpose of quantitatively evaluating and registering individual injections in diesel fuel injection systems, and “quantity versus-rack” deliveries by a volumetric measuring method and electronic display or registration. The operating principle and construction of this quantity indicator are explained and the results of pertinent experimental tests are discussed.
Technical Paper

Voltec Battery Design and Manufacturing

2011-04-12
2011-01-1360
In July 2007, GM announced that it would produce the Chevy Volt, the first high-production volume electric vehicle with extended range capability, by 2010. In January 2009, General Motors announced that the Chevrolet Volt's lithium ion Battery Pack, capable of propelling the Chevy Volt on battery-supplied electric power for up to 40 miles, would be designed and assembled in-house. The T-shaped battery, a subset of the Voltec propulsion system, comprises 288 cells, weighs 190 kg, and is capable of supplying over 16 kWh of energy. Many technical challenges presented themselves to the team, including the liquid thermal management of the battery, the fast battery pack development timeline, and validation of an unproven high-speed assembly process. This paper will first present a general overview of the approach General Motors utilized to bring the various engineering organizations together to design, develop, and manufacture the Volt battery.
Technical Paper

Approach to Validation Plan Development for Advanced Battery Systems in Vehicle Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1366
As advanced battery systems become a standard choice for mainstream production vehicle portfolios, comprehensive battery system validation plans are essential to ensure that the battery performance, reliability, and durability targets are met prior to vehicle integration. (Note: Safety and Abuse testing are outside of the scope of this paper.) The validation plan for the Chevrolet Volt Rechargeable_Energy Storage System (RESS), the first lithium-ion battery pack designed and manufactured by General Motors (GM), was developed using a functional silo approach based on the battery design requirements documentation. While the Chevrolet Volt was the lead program at General Motors to use this validation plan development approach, other GM programs with different battery system mounting locations and cooling techniques are now using this method.
Journal Article

Application of System Safety Engineering Processes to Advanced Battery Safety

2011-04-12
2011-01-1369
The battery system in the Chevrolet Volt is very complex and must balance a variety of performance criteria, including the safety of vehicle occupants and other users. In order to assure a thorough approach to battery system safety, a system safety engineering process was applied and found to provide a useful framework. This methodical approach began with the preliminary hazard analysis and continued through requirements definition, design development and, finally, validation. Potentially hazardous conditions related directly to functional safety (for example, charge control) and primary physical safety (for example, short circuit conditions) can all be addressed in this manner. Typical battery abuse testing, as well as newly defined limit testing, supported the effort. Extensive documentation, traceability and peer reviews helped to verify that all issues were addressed.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior Study on HEV Air-Cooled Battery Pack

2011-04-12
2011-01-1368
Recently, an increased emphasis has been seen for improving the cooling uniformity and efficiency of HEV battery pack in an effort to increase the battery performance and life. This study examined the effects of geometry changes in cooling systems of battery packs on thermal behavior of battery cells and pressure drop across the battery pack. Initially, a multi-physics battery thermal model was correlated to physical test data. An analytical design of experiments (DOE) approach using Latin-hypercube technique was then developed by integrating the correlated battery thermal model with a commercial optimization code, iSIGHT, and a morphing code, DEP Morpher. The design concepts of battery pack cooling systems were finally identified by performing analytical DOE/optimization studies to estimate the effects of cooling flow and geometries of cooling ducts on the battery temperature variation and pressure drop across the battery pack.
Journal Article

VOLTEC Battery System for Electric Vehicle with Extended Range

2011-04-12
2011-01-1373
Mid 2006 a study group at General Motors developed the concept for the electric vehicle with extended range (EREV),. The electric propulsion system should receive the electrical energy from a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and/or an auxiliary power unit (APU) which could either be a hydrogen fuel cell or an internal combustion engine (ICE) driven generator. The study result was the Chevrolet VOLT concept car in the North American Auto Show in Detroit in 2007. The paper describes the requirements, concepts, development and the performance of the battery used as RESS for the ICE type VOLTEC propulsion system version of the Chevrolet Volt. The key requirement for the RESS is to provide energy to drive an electric vehicle with “no compromised performance” for 40 miles. Extended Range Mode allows for this experience to continue beyond 40 miles.
Technical Paper

Knock Detection and Estimation Based on Heat Release Strategies

2011-04-12
2011-01-1409
Engine knock has been studied extensively over the years. Its undesired effects on drivability, its potential to damage an engine, and its impact on limiting the compression ratio are the main reasons why it remains a current topic of research. This paper focuses on exploiting the connection between auto-ignition and knock. A new method based on the frequency analysis of the heat release traces is proposed to detect and estimate auto-ignition/knock robustly. Filtering the heat release signal with the appropriate bandwidth is crucial to avoid misdetection. The filter settings used in this paper are found using spectral analysis of the heat release signal. By using the proposed method, it is possible to detect auto-ignition/knock even under the presence of undesired sensor resonance effects and noise from mechanical and electrical sources.
Journal Article

An Analysis of Floating Piston Pin

2011-04-12
2011-01-1407
Presented in the paper is a comprehensive analysis for floating piston pin. It is more challenging because it is a special type of journal bearing where the rotation of the journal is coupled with the friction between the journal and the bearing. In this analysis, the multi-degree freedom mass-conserving mixed-EHD equations are solved to determine the coupled pin rotation and friction. Other bearing characteristics, such as minimum film thickness, pin secondary motions in both connecting-rod small-end bearing and piston pin-boss bearing, power loss etc are also determined. The mechanism for floating pin to have better scuffing resistance is discovered. The theoretical and numerical model is implemented in the GM internal software FLARE (Friction and Lubrication Analysis for Reciprocating Engines).
Technical Paper

Gen2 GF6 Transmission Hardware and Controls Updates

2011-04-12
2011-01-1428
In an effort to increase fuel economy and improve shift quality - the GF6 family of General Motors transmissions has been analyzed for potential enhancements. The focus of this analysis was to improve fuel economy, while increasing downshift responsiveness, and manual mode sport delays. This paper describes a variety of the hardware philosophy changes, and control methods which have contributed to the next generation of GM clutch-to-clutch 6-speed transmissions. These changes to hardware and controls have led to a composite fuel economy improvement of 4.5% with no changes to shift or torque-converter scheduling. In addition, the downshift responsiveness has been significantly improved to reduce delay times by approximately 50% while virtually eliminating the dependency on engine torque reductions - ultimately allowing for stacked downshifts to progress with minimal, if any, time between shifts. Additionally, “tap shift” delays have been significantly decreased to levels near 150 ms.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fretting Corrosion on Lift Glass

2011-04-12
2011-01-1434
The electrical architecture design of a rear back glass defrost grid system encompasses many critical criteria that must be integrated into the design. For example, the defrost clip location and interface to the glass must meet all vehicle performance requirements. If the defrost clip to the glass interface is not resistant to vibration and relative movement, detachment and loss of function can occur. This paper describes a back glass defrost clip with a solder joint that is robust to manufacturing variations and customer usage conditions. A designed experiment using Design for Six Sigma methodologies was performed to understand the effects of the attachment interface to the electrical wiring pigtail, and parameters that affect performance. The working constraints, testing set up, validation, and root cause investigation of the clip detachment phenomenon is covered in this paper.
Technical Paper

Development of Sensor Attachment Criteria (Immunity) - Side Impact Sensor Mounted on Door Impact Beam

2011-04-12
2011-01-1445
The sensor mounted on the door impact beam plays a major role in side impact events. The accelerations of side impact sensors are processed by sensing algorithms to make a decision on the air bag deployment. The sensing signal criterion for the deployable condition is a well understood process. However, the non-deployment sensing signal for the immunity to abuse conditions is a function of sensor attachment stiffness to the base structure. The base structure can be a door inner panel or door impact beam. In one of the production program, the acceleration based sensor attached to the impact beam showed immunity issues in the abusive door slams/opening to objects. Hence, the computer Aided Engineering (CAE) analysis was used to develop the sensor attachment criterion.
Journal Article

Micro-Cooling/Heating Strategy for Energy Efficient HVAC System

2011-04-12
2011-01-0644
Energy efficient HVAC system is becoming increasingly important as higher Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards are required for future vehicle products. The present study is a preliminary attempt at designing energy efficient HVAC system by introducing localized heating/cooling concepts without compromising occupant thermal comfort. In order to achieve this goal of reduced energy consumption while maintaining thermal comfort it is imperative that we use an analytical model capable of predicting thermal comfort with reasonable accuracy in a non-homogenous enclosed thermal environment such as a vehicle's passenger cabin. This study will primarily focus on two aspects: (a) energy efficiency improvements in an HVAC system through micro-cooling/heating strategies and (b) validation of an analytical approach developed in GM that would support the above effort.
Technical Paper

Particle Size and Number Emissions from Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0632
This paper focuses on measuring particle emissions of a representative light-duty diesel vehicle equipped with different engine exhaust aftertreatment in close-coupled position, including one designed to meet the upcoming Euro 6 emission standards. The latter combines a lean NOx trap (LNT) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) in series to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM. Particle Matter (PM) and particle number emissions are measured throughout testing procedure and instrumentation which are compliant with the UN-ECE Regulation 83 proposals. Specifically measuring devices for particle number emissions, provided by two different suppliers, are alternatively used. No significant differences are observed due to the different system employed. On the other hand particle size distributions are measured by means of a specific experimental set-up including a two stage dilution system and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI).
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