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IDB-C Data Bus

2002-04-15
By using descriptive charts and graphs, this report provides an analysis of the IDB-C network at the Subsystem level and at the vehicle level, using data comparison between modeling and simulation of the network and measurement and analysis on physical systems.
Technical Paper

2002 Pontiac Montana Frequency Improvements Employing Structural Foam

2001-04-30
2001-01-1609
This paper documents a joint development process between General Motors and Dow Automotive to improve primary body structure frequencies on the GM family of midsize vans by utilizing cavity-filling structural foam. Optimum foam locations, foam quantity, and foam density within the body structure were determined by employing both math-based modeling and vehicle hardware testing techniques. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the Body-In-White (BIW) and “trimmed body” were used to predict the global body structure modes and associated resonant frequencies with and without structural foam. The objective of the FEA activity was to quantify frequency improvements to the primary body structure modes of matchboxing, bending, and torsion when using structural foam. Comprehensive hardware testing on the vehicle was also executed to validate the frequency improvements observed in the FEA results.
Technical Paper

Advances in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Brake Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1603
Brake squeal has been analyzed by finite elements for some time. Among several methods, complex eigenvalue analysis is proving useful in the design process. It requires hardware verification and it falls into a simulation process. However, it is fast and it can provide guidance for resolving engineering problems. There are successes as well as frustrations in implementing this analysis tool. Its capability, robustness and reliability are closely examined in many companies. Generally, the low frequency squealing mechanism is a rotor axial direction mode that couples the pads, rotor, and other components; while higher frequency squeal mainly exhibits a rotor tangential mode. Design modifications such as selection of rotor design, insulator, chamfer, and lining materials are aimed specifically to cure these noise-generating mechanisms. In GM, complex eigenvalue analysis is used for brake noise analysis and noise reduction. Finite element models are validated with component modal testing.
Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

2001-04-30
2001-01-1554
In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
Technical Paper

Squeak Studies on Material Pair Compatibility

2001-04-30
2001-01-1546
The more noise and vibration improvements are incorporated into our vehicles, the more customers notice squeaks and rattles (S&R). Customers increasingly perceive S&R as a direct indicator of vehicle build quality and durability. The high profile nature of S&R has the automotive industry striving to develop the understanding and technology of how to improve the S&R performance in the vehicle. Squeaks and itches make up a significant amount of Squeak and Rattle complaints found in today's vehicles. Squeaks and itches are the result of stick slip behavior between two interacting surfaces. Squeak itch behavior is dependent upon a large number of parameters including but not limited to: the material itself, temperature, humidity, normal load, system compliance, part geometry, velocity, surface roughness, wear, contaminants, etc. This paper will describe the analysis of sound data and friction data and the relationship between them.
Technical Paper

Automotive A/C System Integrated with Electrically-Controlled Variable Capacity Scroll Compressor and Fuzzy Logic Refrigerant Flow Management

2001-03-05
2001-01-0587
This paper describes the recent efforts on developing an automotive climate control system throughout integrating an electrically-controlled variable capacity scroll compressor with a fuzzy logic control-based refrigerant flow management. Applying electrically-controlled variable capacity compressor technology to climate control systems has a significant impact on improving vehicle fuel economy, achieving higher passenger comfort level, and extending air and refrigerant temperature controllability as well. In this regard, it is very important for automotive climate control engineers to layout a system-level temperature control strategy so that the operation of variable capacity compressor can be optimized through integrating the component control schemes into the system-level temperature control. Electronically controlled expansion devices have become widely available in automotive air conditioning (A/C) systems for the future vehicle applications(1, 2, 3 and 4).
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach for Rapid Design and Analysis of Automotive HVAC Defrost Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0584
The overall vision of this project was to develop a new technology that will be an enabler to reduce design and development time of HVAC systems by an order of magnitude. The objective initially was to develop a parametric model of an automotive HVAC Windshield Defrost Duct coupled to a passenger compartment. It can be used early on in the design cycle for conducting coarse packaging studies by quickly exploring “what-if” design alternatives. In addition to the packaging studies, performance of these design scenarios can be quickly studied by undertaking CFD simulation and analyzing flow distribution and windshield melting patterns. The validated geometry and CFD models can also be used as knowledge building tools to create knowledge data warehouses or repositories for precious lessons learned.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2022
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Child Occupant Safety - What Might We Expect

2000-11-01
2000-01-C039
The air bag safety issues became evident in 1995 and other factors have conjoined to change the climate regarding motor vehicle safety. Traditionally, motor vehicle safety issues have been evaluated based upon the effects upon average adult males. The new climate requires consideration of the effects on persons of differing size and gender. By including consideration of children and women, rulemaking and the applied technologies are able to better optimize safety than is the case when rules are focused only on the average adult male. Automotive electronics serves a key role in the migration from a one-size-fits- all protection to a more customized protection for a variety of occupants. The enhancements have been the most prominent in the area of sensing, be it the sensing and characterization of the crash itself, or the sensing and characterization of occupants in the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Low-Power Flexible Controls Architecture for General Motors Partnership for a New Generation (Pngv) Precept Vehicle

2000-11-01
2000-01-C060
The complexity of designing and implementing a vehicle electrical control system for ultra fuel-efficient hybrid vehicles is significantly greater than that of a conventional vehicle. To quickly demonstrate and iterate capabilities of these vehicles, an efficient and rapid means for developing requirements, mapping these into an electrical control and communications architecture, and developing prototype systems is needed. The General Motors Precept concept vehicle is an example of an energy- efficient vehicular control system developed using a "requirements to software'' development process and electronic controller infrastructure that demonstrates these attributes. The Precept is General Motors Corporation's technology demonstration concept vehicle developed to address General Motors Corporation's commitment to the Partnership for a New Generation (PNGV) program.
Technical Paper

Robust Weld Verification for Chassis Structure

1996-08-01
961776
The development of a major structural welded assembly is a lengthy and expensive project. The design and the development must generate a product that meets requirements and customer expectations. Product engineers and test engineers developing structural weldments are the target audience for this paper. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Design Of Experiments approach that was developed which helps provide qualitative information on a structural weldment's sensitivity to MIG weld variation.
Technical Paper

Washcoat Technology and Precious Metal Loading Study Targeting the California LEV MDV2 Standard

1996-10-01
961904
Meeting the California Medium-Duty truck emissions standards presents a significant challenge to automotive engineers due to the combination of sustained high temperature exhaust conditions, high flow rates and relatively high engine out emissions. A successful catalyst for an exhaust treatment system must be resistant to high temperature deactivation, maintain cold start performance and display high three-way conversion efficiencies under most operating conditions. This paper describes a catalyst technology and precious metal loading study targeting a California Medium-Duty truck LEV (MDV2) application. At the same time a direction is presented for optimizing toward the Federal Tier 1 standard through reduction of precious metal use. The paper identifies catalytic formulations for a twin substrate, 1.23 L medium-coupled converter. Two are used per vehicle, mounted 45 cm downstream of each manifold on a 5.7 L V8 engine.
Technical Paper

Globalization of Automotive Specifications

1997-02-24
970992
The Paint Technology Globalization effort is recognized as an important step of accomplishing the leveraging of worldwide resources of both engineering and purchasing in order to improve General Motor's competitiveness. The process used, the benefits derived, the current status of the effort, and the expected results (deliverables) are discussed. These include common materials, processing, and equipment paint specifications to be included in purchasing bid packages.
Technical Paper

Counter-Gravity Casting Process for Making Thinwall Steel Exhaust Manifolds

1997-02-24
970920
Casting technology developmentshave led to a manufacturing process that allows the casting of thin wall (2-3mm) heat resistant ferritic stainless steel exhaust manifolds which can replace stamped and tubular weldments as well as iron castings where temperature requirements are increased. This casting process combines the thin wall and clean metal benefits of the counter gravity, vacuum-assist casting process using thin, light-weight bonded sand molds supported by vacuum-ridgidized sand. This combination is called the LSVAC (Loose Sand Vacuum Assisted Casting) process, a patented process. This process will significantly contribute to the growth of near-net shape steellstainless steel castings for automotive and allied industries. For exhaust manifolds, a modified grade of ferritic stainless steel with good oxidation resistance to 950°C in high dew point synthetic exhaust gas atmospheres was developed.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis of Airborne and Structure-Borne Automobile Interior Noise

1997-05-20
971970
This paper describes the application of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Experimental SEA (ESEA) to calculating the transmission of air-borne and structure-borne noise in a mid-sized sedan. SEA can be applied rapidly in the early stages of vehicle design where the degree of geometric detail is relatively low. It is well suited to the analysis of multiple paths of vibrational energy flow from multiple sources into the passenger compartment at mid to high frequencies. However, the application of SEA is made difficult by the geometry of the vehicle's subsystems and joints. Experience with current unibody vehicles leads to distinct modeling strategies for the various frequency ranges in which airborne or structure-borne noise predominates. The theory and application of ESEA to structure-borne noise is discussed. ESEA yields loss factors and input powers which are combined with an analytical SEA model to yield a single hybrid model.
Technical Paper

Utilization of a Chassis Dynamometer for Development of Exterior Noise Control Systems

1997-05-20
972012
The development of systems and components for control of exterior noise has traditionally been done through an iterative process of on road testing. Frequently, road testing of vehicle modifications are delayed due to ambient environmental changes that prevent testing. Vehicle dynamometers used for powertrain development often had limited space preventing far field measurements. Recently, several European vehicle manufacturers constructed facilities that provided adequate space for simulation of the road test. This paper describes the first implementation of that technology in the U.S.. The facility is typical of those used world wide, but it is important to recognize some of the challenges to effective utilization of the technique to correlate this measurement to on road certification.
Technical Paper

Computational Flow Analysis of Brake Cooling

1997-02-24
971039
Air flow around the front brake assembly was computed using STAR-CD version 2.300, a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code in order to explore the possibility of using this technique as a design tool. The primary objective in a brake corner assembly design is to maximize air cooling of the brake rotor. It is a very challenging task that requires experiments that are both expensive and time consuming in order to evaluate and optimize the various design possibilities. In this study, it is demonstrated that the design procedure can be shortened and made less expensive and be accurate using flow simulations. Accordingly, the air flow around the front brake assembly was computed for three different designs and for three different car speeds. A computational mesh was built using PROSTAR, the STAR-CD pre and post-processor. The three-dimensional mesh had almost 900,000 cells. All geometrical components were modelled.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA3D Finite Element Model of Side Impact Dummy SID

1997-04-08
971525
Side impact dummy (SID) is a human-like test device used in the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) mandated side impact test of vehicles sold in the USA. A finite element model of SID has been developed at GM as a part of a project to simulate the side impact test. The objective is to better predict physical test results by replacing traditional rigid-body lumped parameter models with a finite element model. The project included, besides mesh generation, the development of new LS-DYNA3D constitutive models for rubber and foam-like materials, and enhancements of contact interface and other algorithms. This paper describes the GM SID finite element model and its performance in side impact test simulations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

1997-04-08
971517
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Tips Design Analysis

1997-04-08
971518
The air passages in tailpipe end geometries are investigated with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. The overall objective of the simulations is to select an optimum design which has a mimimum capacity for noise generation. This is accomplished by comparing pressure drops between inlet and outlet and by examining the turbulent kinetic energy levels in the flow domain. Two designs for the tailpipe end geometries were evaluated. It was found that turbulent kinetic energy levels and pressure drops were lowest in a single pipe design which had relatively smooth internal contours. We conclude that the present CFD approach can provide useful design information in a short time frame (a few weeks) for exhaust pipe tip geometries for reduced pressure drop and noise generation.
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