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Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

Application of a Constrained Layer Damping Treatment to a Cast Aluminum V6 Engine Front Cover

Constrained Layer Damping (CLD) treatments have long provided a means to effectively impart damping to a structure [1, 2 and 3]. Traditionally, CLD treatments are constructed of a very thin polymer layer constrained by a thicker metal layer. Because the adhesion of a thin polymer layer is very sensitive to surface finish, surfaces that a CLD treatment can be effectively applied to have historically been limited to those that are very flat and smooth. New developments in material technology have provided thicker materials that are very effective and less expensive to apply when used as the damping layer in a CLD treatment. This paper documents the effectiveness of such a treatment on a cast aluminum front cover for a V6 engine. Physical construction of the treatment, material properties and design criteria will be discussed. Candidate applications, the assembly process, methods for secondary mechanical fastening will be presented.
Technical Paper

Lead-time Reduction in Stamping CAE and Die Face Development using Massively Parallel Processing in Forming Simulations

Since 1997, General Motors Body Manufacturing Engineering - Die Engineering Services (BME-DES) has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of stamping simulation software for mass production analysis applications. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DMP/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.
Technical Paper

Robust Weld Verification for Chassis Structure

The development of a major structural welded assembly is a lengthy and expensive project. The design and the development must generate a product that meets requirements and customer expectations. Product engineers and test engineers developing structural weldments are the target audience for this paper. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Design Of Experiments approach that was developed which helps provide qualitative information on a structural weldment's sensitivity to MIG weld variation.
Technical Paper

A Bursting Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

Fundamental differences exist between sheet metal forming and hydroforming processes. Sheet metal forming is basically a one step metal fabrication process. Almost all plastic deformation of an originally flat blank is introduced when the punch is moved normal to a clamped sheet metal. Hydroforming, however, consists of multiple steps of tube making, pre-bending, crushing, pressurization, etc. Each of the above mentioned steps can introduce permanent plastic deformations. The forming limit diagram obtained for sheet metal forming may or may not be used in hydroforming evaluations. A failure criterion is proposed for predicting bursting failures in tube hydroforming. The tube material's stress-strain curve, obtainable from uniaxial tensile test and subjected to some postulations under large stress/strain states, is used in judging the failure.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a High Speed, High Resolution Gas Chromatography Instrument for Exhaust Hydrocarbon Speciation

The ozone forming potential (OFP) and specific reactivity (SR) of tailpipe exhaust are among the factors that determine the environmental impact of a motor vehicle. OFP and SR measurements require a lengthy determination of about 190 non-methane hydrocarbon species. A rapid gas chromatography (GC) instrument has been constructed to separate both the light (C2 - C4) and the midrange (C5 - C12) hydrocarbons in less than 10 minutes. The limit of detection is about 0.002 parts per million carbon (ppmC). Thirty exhaust samples from natural gas vehicles (NGV's) were analyzed to compare the rapid GC method with the standard GC method, which required 40-minute analyses on two different instruments. In general, evaluation of the commercial prototype from Separation Systems, Inc., indicates that a high speed, high resolution gas chromatograph can meet the need for fast, efficient exhaust hydrocarbon speciation.
Technical Paper

Multivariate Robust Design

In a complex system, large numbers of design variables and responses are involved in performance analysis. Relationships between design variables and individual responses can be complex, and the outcomes are often competing. In addition, noise from manufacturing processes, environment, and customer misusage causes variation in performance. The proposed method utilizes the two-step optimization process from robust design and performs the optimization on multiple responses using Hotelling's T2 statistic. The application of the T2-statistic allows the use of univariate tools in multiple objective problems. Furthermore, the decomposition of T20 into a location component, T2M and a dispersion component, T2D substitutes a complex multivariate optimization process with the simpler two-step procedure. Finally, using information from the experiment, a multivariate process capability estimates for the design can be made prior to hardware fabrication.
Technical Paper

Robust Process Design for a Four-Bar Decklid Hinge System

Auto components with large manufacturing variation may cause vehicle quality problems after they are assembled. The impact of this variation depends on the assembly process used. If the assembly process is sensitive to the component variation, the impact may be more significant. In this case, an assembly process with lower sensitivity to component variation will solve the problem. This paper presents an example where the component variation largely impacted the quality of the car, and a more robust assembly process solved the problem.
Technical Paper

Application of Variation Simulation in Body Assembly Process Design

Build variation has long been recognized as one of the most important factors in vehicle performance. In this study an elastic assembly simulation program is used to guide a wheelhouse assembly process design to reduce build variation. Five (5) different clamping schemes are evaluated through the simulation program. From the five proposed process design choices, the best assembly process was identified, which results in reduced assembly variation and less tooling and manufacturing costs. Two different variation simulation approaches, one based on perturbation and the other based on Design of Experiments, were used to predict the assembly variation. Good agreement between the two approaches provided a validity check for the simulation tool.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Verification of the Structural Stress Method for Fatigue Life Prediction of Resistance Spot Welds Under Variable Amplitude Loads

The work presented here builds on the practical and effective spot weld fatigue life prediction method, the structural stress method (SSM), that was developed at Stanford University. Constant amplitude loading tests for various spot weld joint configurations have been conducted and the SSM has been shown to accurately predict fatigue life. In this paper refinements to the structural stress approach are first presented, including a variable amplitude fatigue life prediction method based on the SSM and Palmgren-Miner's rule. A test matrix was designed to study the fatigue behavior of spot welds under tensile shear loading conditions. Constant amplitude tests under different R-ratios were performed first to obtain the necessary material properties. Variable amplitude tests were then performed for specimens containing single and multiple welds.
Technical Paper

Application of Hydroformed Aluminum Extrusions to Vehicle Sub-Frame with Varied Wall Thickness

In a typical hydroforming operation, a round tube of constant wall thickness is bent into the overall shape desired for the final part, then placed between a pair of dies. Despite some small percentage of stretch that may occur as the tube expands, the wall thickness in the original tube is therefore substantially constant at all points. In some circumstances, a part is locally thickened or reinforced for extra strength. Normally, this is achieved by using a separate piece of reinforcement at selected location. In this paper, it is intended to present a unique method to achieve an optimal structural design allowing thin or thick gages where required along its cross-section. This is done via hydroforming an aluminum extrusion tube to an optimal frame structure having varied wall thickness to satisfy various loading requirements at a minimum weight. The engine cradle is used as an example to demonstrate this methodology.
Technical Paper

Nylon RIM Development for Automotive Body Panels

The performance and production requirements for future passenger vehicles has increased the efforts to replace metal body panels with plastic materials. This has been accomplished, to a large extent on some production vehicles that have been introduced recently. Unfortunately, these plastic body applications have necessitated special off-line handling or low temperature paint processing. However, the advantages of RIM nylon, offer the potential for uniquely new plastic body designs, that can be processed through existing assembly plants, much like the steel panels they are intended to replace. The intent of this paper is to discuss the rationale for future plastic body panel material selection and related nylon RIM development efforts.
Technical Paper

The Design of Passenger Car Cast Aluminum Wheels

Permanent mold cast aluminum wheels have been widely used as original equipment on passenger cars for a number of years. Testing and field experience together with manufacturing and plant processing experience has resulted in the development of a number of recommended design practices which are outlined in this paper. Methods used to test that design requirements have been met will be presented. Basic wheel designs, rigid and flexible, will be discussed together with the currently used mounting face configurations. Detail design features such as rim contour, nut boss, valve hole, hub pilot, mounting face and window openings will be reviewed. Future design and manufacturing trends will be discussed.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Process for Spring Failure Rates in Automotive Parts Applications

This paper discusses an analytical technique for computing the failure rate of steel springs used in automotive part applications. Preliminary computations may be performed and used to predict spring failure rates quickly at a very early stage of a product development cycle and to establish program reliability impact before commitment. The analytical method is essentially a combination of various existing procedures that are logically sequenced to compute a spring probability of failure under various operational conditions. Fatigue life of a mechanical component can be computed from its S-N curve. For steels, the S-N curve can be approximated by formulae which describe the fatigue life as a function of its endurance limit and its alternating stress. Most springs in service are preloaded and the actual stress fluctuates about a mean level. In order to compute an equivalent alternating stress with zero mean, an analytical method based on the Goodman Diagram is used.
Technical Paper

Keynote Address

Just-In-Time processing is changing the way the automotive industry operates. This paper explains Just-In-Time systems, how they are being applied at General Motors, and how the U.S. auto industry is applying them. The paper is based on three main premises: 1) the design of the product and the design of the process must be integrated, 2) the construction process is critical, and 3) the first day of operation of the process must be the first day efforts are made to improve it.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Trends and Catalytic Devices

In 1968, a major oil company cancelled its annual automobile economy run after sponsoring it for 18 consecutive years -presumably due to lack of interest from the public and the press. Almost coincident with that cancellation was the beginning of production automobile exhaust emission control on a national basis and a downward inflection in the historic trend of automobile fuel economy. In contrast, the past year has seen a major revival of interest, by both the public and the press, in fuel economy. In the next few weeks, the nation will be introduced to a new direction in automotive exhaust emission control which will profoundly affect the fuel economy trend. Perhaps equally, or even more important, the next few months are expected to see major national decisions on future automobile emission control which will likely have a significant influence on the direction taken by automobile fuel economy a few years hence.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a New, Dual-Phase, Cold-Rolled Steel - Mechanical Properties, Aging Responses, and Weldability

Mechanical properties and welding characteristics of a commercial, dual-phase, low-carbon, cold-rolled steel are described. The new steel, HI-FORM 80d, exhibits a total elongation of about 24% as produced and develops a yield strength of about 625 MPa (91 ksi) in a formed and paint-baked part. Property uniformity is excellent and the weldability essentially equivalent to an AISI 1006 steel. In addition, the aging response of HI-FORM 80d is such that yield strengths near 550 MPa (80 ksi) can be achieved with strains of less than 2% and lower paint-bake temperatures than are currently in use.