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Technical Paper

Combining DFSS and Multi-body Dynamics for Vehicle Ride Tuning

2007-04-16
2007-01-0586
A methodology involving Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) and Multi-body dynamic simulation is employed to tune a body-on-frame vehicle, for improved ride (shake) performance. The design space is limited to four sets of symmetric body mounts for a vehicle. The stiffness and damping characteristics of the mounts are the control factors in the virtual experiment. Variation of these design parameters from the nominal settings, as well as axle size, tire and wheel combinations, tire pressure, shock damping, and vehicle speed constitute the noise factors. This approach proves to be an excellent predictor of the vehicle behavior, by which much insight as to influence of each parameter on vehicle performance is gained. Ultimately, specific recommendations for the control factor settings are provided. Subsequent hardware builds show excellent agreement with the analytical model and suggested tuning.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of a Variable Displacement Vane Pump to Engine Lube Oil Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1567
Variable valve actuation has become a very popular feature in today's engines. With many of these systems being hydraulically actuated, the engine lubrication system requires enhancement to support their function. To expand the system's operational range with respect to speed and temperature, a traditional solution has been to increase oil pressure by increasing pump displacement. To better optimize the system, a variable displacement vane pump has been adapted to the engine lube oil system. Based on existing transmission pump technology, a pivoting cam ring design is employed that is able to vary the pump's displacement as a function of pump regulating oil pressure which in-turn provides a net reduction in its drive torque. While others have addressed this issue using complex and expensive pressure regulating systems, this passive solution requires no valves or additional hardware.
Technical Paper

Advances in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis for Brake Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1603
Brake squeal has been analyzed by finite elements for some time. Among several methods, complex eigenvalue analysis is proving useful in the design process. It requires hardware verification and it falls into a simulation process. However, it is fast and it can provide guidance for resolving engineering problems. There are successes as well as frustrations in implementing this analysis tool. Its capability, robustness and reliability are closely examined in many companies. Generally, the low frequency squealing mechanism is a rotor axial direction mode that couples the pads, rotor, and other components; while higher frequency squeal mainly exhibits a rotor tangential mode. Design modifications such as selection of rotor design, insulator, chamfer, and lining materials are aimed specifically to cure these noise-generating mechanisms. In GM, complex eigenvalue analysis is used for brake noise analysis and noise reduction. Finite element models are validated with component modal testing.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-2022
A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

The Bulge of Tubes and a Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2001-03-05
2001-01-1132
The bulge test in hydroforming is a simple fundamental experiment used to obtain basic knowledge in tube expansion. The results can be used to assist design and manufacturing of hydroformed automotive parts. It also can be used to develop a failure criterion for tubes in hydroforming. For these purposes, a section of a long unsupported tube with fixed ends was simulated numerically to obtain the mechanical states of the tube subjected to internal pressure. Steel and aluminum tubes are used. For the bulge tests, the internal pressure reaches a maximum and then decreases in value without failure while the stress, strain and volume of the tube keep increasing. A failure criterion for the bursting of a tube is proposed based on the stress-strain curve of the material.
Technical Paper

Automotive A/C System Integrated with Electrically-Controlled Variable Capacity Scroll Compressor and Fuzzy Logic Refrigerant Flow Management

2001-03-05
2001-01-0587
This paper describes the recent efforts on developing an automotive climate control system throughout integrating an electrically-controlled variable capacity scroll compressor with a fuzzy logic control-based refrigerant flow management. Applying electrically-controlled variable capacity compressor technology to climate control systems has a significant impact on improving vehicle fuel economy, achieving higher passenger comfort level, and extending air and refrigerant temperature controllability as well. In this regard, it is very important for automotive climate control engineers to layout a system-level temperature control strategy so that the operation of variable capacity compressor can be optimized through integrating the component control schemes into the system-level temperature control. Electronically controlled expansion devices have become widely available in automotive air conditioning (A/C) systems for the future vehicle applications(1, 2, 3 and 4).
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Measurements of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-1520
A spectroscopic diagnostic system was designed to study the effects of different engine parameters on the chemiluminescence characteristic of HCCI combustion. The engine parameters studied in this work were intake temperature, fuel delivery method, fueling rate (load), air-fuel ratio, and the effect of partial fuel reforming due to intake charge preheating. At each data point, a set of time-resolved spectra were obtained along with the cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions data. It was determined that different engine parameters affect the ignition timing of HCCI combustion without altering the reaction pathways of the fuel after the combustion has started. The chemiluminescence spectra of HCCI combustion appear as several distinct peaks corresponding to emission from CHO, HCHO, CH, and OH superimposed on top of a CO-O continuum. A strong correlation was found between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

General Motors DEXRON®-VI Global Service-Fill Specification

2006-10-16
2006-01-3242
During early 2005 General Motors released a newly developed ATF for the factory fill of all GM Powertrain stepped gear automatic transmissions. The new fluid provided significantly improved performance in terms of friction durability, viscosity stability, aeration and foam control and oxidation resistance. In addition, the fluid has the potential to enable improved fuel economy and extended drain intervals. Since the performance of the new fluid far exceeded that of the DEXRON®-III service fill fluids available at the time it became necessary to upgrade the DEXRON® service fill specification in order to ensure that similar fluids were available in the market for service and repair situations. This latest upgrade to the service fill specification is designated DEXRON®-VI [1].
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0475
A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Streamlining Chassis Tuning for Chevrolet and GMC Trucks and Vans

2005-04-11
2005-01-0406
This paper describes some methods for greatly reducing or possibly eliminating subjective tuning of suspension parts for ride and handling. Laptop computers can now be used in the vehicle to guide the tuning process. The same tools can be used to select solutions that reduce sensitivity to production and environmental variations. OBJECTIVE Reduce or eliminate time required for tuning of suspension parts for ride characteristics. Improve the robustness of ride performance relative to variations in ambient temperature and production tolerances. PROBLEM REQUIRING SOLUTION AND METHOD OF APPROACH Traditional development programs for new vehicles include time-consuming subjective ride evaluations. One example is shock absorber tuning. Even if sophisticated models define force-velocity curves, numerous hardware iterations are needed to find valvings that will reproduce the curves. Many evaluation rides are needed to modify the valvings to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

Developing Hydrogen (H2) Specification Guidelines for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Vehicles

2005-04-11
2005-01-0011
In 1999, the Society of Automotive Engineers established the Fuel Cell Standards Committee (FCSC). The Committee is organized in subcommittees that address issues such as Interface, Hydrogen (H2) Quality, Safety, Performance, Emissions and Fuel Consumption, Recycling and Terminology. Since its inception the SAE/FCSC has published several recommended practices, which have drawn the attention of national and international organizations. These include SAE J2578 (Fuel Cell Vehicle Safety), SAE J2600 (Compressed H2 Surface Vehicle Refueling Devices), and SAE J2594 (Recyclability of Fuel Cell Systems). The need for having one common grade of hydrogen for all US commercial hydrogen-refueling stations for FCVs was the reason to establish the H2 Quality Task Force (HQTF) in late 2003. At the present time there is no representative US-national or international standard addressing the quality of hydrogen fuel that is acceptable for fuel cell vehicles.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a High Speed, High Resolution Gas Chromatography Instrument for Exhaust Hydrocarbon Speciation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0683
The ozone forming potential (OFP) and specific reactivity (SR) of tailpipe exhaust are among the factors that determine the environmental impact of a motor vehicle. OFP and SR measurements require a lengthy determination of about 190 non-methane hydrocarbon species. A rapid gas chromatography (GC) instrument has been constructed to separate both the light (C2 - C4) and the midrange (C5 - C12) hydrocarbons in less than 10 minutes. The limit of detection is about 0.002 parts per million carbon (ppmC). Thirty exhaust samples from natural gas vehicles (NGV's) were analyzed to compare the rapid GC method with the standard GC method, which required 40-minute analyses on two different instruments. In general, evaluation of the commercial prototype from Separation Systems, Inc., indicates that a high speed, high resolution gas chromatograph can meet the need for fast, efficient exhaust hydrocarbon speciation.
Technical Paper

Rapid Hydrocarbon Speciation and Exhaust Reactivity Measurements using High Speed, High Resolution Gas Chromatography

2000-10-16
2000-01-2950
The ozone forming potential (OFP) and specific reactivity (SR) of tailpipe exhaust are among the regulated factors that determine the environmental impact of a motor vehicle. OFP and SR measurements require a lengthy determination of about 160 non-methane hydrocarbon species. A rapid gas chromatography (GC) instrument has been constructed to separate both the light (C2 - C4) and the midrange (C5 - C12) hydrocarbons in less than 10 minutes. The limit of detection was about 0.002 parts per million carbon (ppmC). Twelve exhaust samples from two vehicles were analyzed to compare the rapid GC method with the standard GC method, which required 40-minute analyses on two different instruments. Speciation and reactivity data from the two methods were comparable. The increased sample throughput of rapid GC promises to improve OFP and SR measurements, particularly when good statistical data are necessary to insure accurate, precise results for low emission vehicles
Technical Paper

Multivariate Robust Design

2005-04-11
2005-01-1213
In a complex system, large numbers of design variables and responses are involved in performance analysis. Relationships between design variables and individual responses can be complex, and the outcomes are often competing. In addition, noise from manufacturing processes, environment, and customer misusage causes variation in performance. The proposed method utilizes the two-step optimization process from robust design and performs the optimization on multiple responses using Hotelling's T2 statistic. The application of the T2-statistic allows the use of univariate tools in multiple objective problems. Furthermore, the decomposition of T20 into a location component, T2M and a dispersion component, T2D substitutes a complex multivariate optimization process with the simpler two-step procedure. Finally, using information from the experiment, a multivariate process capability estimates for the design can be made prior to hardware fabrication.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Analysis Framework; A Comparison of HFC-134a, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152a, R744, R744 Enhanced, and R290 Automotive Refrigerant Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1511
The goal of this study is to assess the total Life Cycle Global Warming Impact of the current HFC-134a (R134a) refrigeration system and compare it with the effect of proposed alternatives, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152 (R152a), R744, R744 Enhanced and R290, based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The enhanced systems include control strategies to elevate the compressor suction pressure as the evaporator load is reduced. The hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134a and HFC-152a are greenhouse gases (GHGs) and are subject to the Kyoto Protocol timetables, which when the treaty takes effect will require participating developed countries to reduce their overall CO2 equivalent emissions of six GHGs by at least 5% by 2012 from 1990 levels.
Technical Paper

From Painted “Scrap” to Painted Production Parts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0024
Saturn currently injection molds and paints PPE+PA66 exterior body panels in its Spring Hill, TN facility. These manufacturing operations result in a continuous stream of waste material that needs to be responsibly and economically managed. This paper will summarize the process that General Motors and Saturn used to evaluate and validate the use of post-industrial painted PPE+PA66 reprocessed material in Saturn and General Motors' wheel trim applications (wheel covers). Not only did this project increase the amount of recycled content in General Motors' vehicles, but it also provided Saturn Corporation with a favored outlet for an internal waste stream.
Technical Paper

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

1947-01-01
470242
THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper

AUTOIGNITION associated with HOT STARTING

1958-01-01
580020
USING a high-speed motion picture camera, flame photographs were taken of the combustion process associated with the starting of hot gasoline engines. Compression ignition at isolated points followed by normal combustion caused peak cylinder pressures to occur prior to top dead-center under some low-speed engine conditions. In addition, an abnormal combustion phenomenon was observed in the last part of the charge to burn. The reaction rate was appreciably faster than normal for the engine speed and much slower than is usually observed in knocking combustion at normal engine speeds.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Odor Its Evaluation and Relation to Exhaust Gas Composition

1957-01-01
570050
TECHNIQUES, based on panel estimates, were developed for evaluating the odor and irritation intensities of undiluted diesel-engine exhaust gases or of various dilutions of these gases in air. Along with the estimates, chemical analyses were made to determine the concentrations of total aldehydes, formaldehyde, and oxides of nitrogen. Statistically significant correlations were found between odor or irritation intensity estimates and the analytical data, but these correlations were too weak to permit accurate prediction of odor or irritation from chemical analyses. Effects of some engine variables on diesel odor were studied. Possible means of reducing diesel odor are discussed.
Technical Paper

Vapor-Locking Tendencies of Fuels A Practical Approach

1958-01-01
580034
THIS paper describes what the authors consider to be a simplified method of determining the vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines. The study of vapor lock was undertaken after they found the Reid vapor pressure method to be inadequate. The result of their work was the development of the General Motors vapor pressure, a single number which predicts vapor-locking tendency. The authors point out the following advantages of the new method: It allows direct comparisons of vapor-lock test results of different reference fuel systems; establishes distribution curves of volatility requirements of cars for vapor-lock free operation and of vapor-locking tendencies of gasolines; is a common reference value for both petroleum and automotive engineers. Finally, it more realistically evaluates the effects of small weathering losses on vapor-locking tendency than does Rvp.
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