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Technical Paper

Simultaneous Real-Time Measurements of NO and NO2 in Medium Duty Diesel Truck Exhaust

2007-04-16
2007-01-1329
The goal of the present work was to investigate the ability of the SEMTECH®-D Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) to provide simultaneous, accurate, real-time (1Hz) measurements of NO and NO2 in vehicle exhaust. Extensive chassis dynamometer laboratory evaluation studies of the SEMTECH® system were conducted. The instantaneous (1Hz) NOx emissions were measured using a conventional chemiluminescence analyzer (CLA) and were compared to the sum of the instantaneous NO and NO2 measurements from the SEMTECH®-D. The sum of the NO and NO2 emissions measured by the SEMTECH® were in excellent agreement (within 95% in most cases) with the total NOx measurements from the conventional CLA. During the laboratory evaluation studies, several Federal Test Procedure (FTP) drive cycles were conducted. Examples of the NO and NO2 concentration and mass emissions measured using the SEMTECH®-D are presented along with the corresponding SEMTECH®-D detection limits.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of EGR Treatment on the Emission and Operating Characteristics of Modern Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1083
Tests are conducted to improve the use of exhaust gas recirculation on a single cylinder diesel engine with EGR stream treatment techniques that include intake heating, combustible substance oxidation, catalytic fuel reforming, and partial bypass-flow control. In parallel with the empirical work, theoretical modeling analyses are performed to investigate the effectiveness of the reforming process and the combined effects on the overall system efficiency. The research is aimed at stabilizing and expanding the limits of heavy EGR during steady and transient operations so that the individual limiting conditions of EGR can be better identified. Additionally, the heavy EGR is applied to enable in-cylinder low temperature combustion. The effectiveness of EGR treatment on engine emission and operating characteristics are therefore reported.
Technical Paper

Rapid Fuel Injector Re-Pressurization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1075
A fuel system design objective is to have the fuel injection pressure at target pressure by the time of the first injection. In most cases, a vapor and air space forms in the highest and hottest part of the fuel injector supply as the fuel system cools following engine-off. Upon key-on, the fuel pump needs to collapse the fuel vapor and compress any air before fuel pressure can build thus delaying fuel injector re-pressurization. An inventive solution to speed re-pressurization is described. It effectively eliminates the need to collapse the fuel vapor and compress any air in the first few tenths of seconds of fuel injection re-pressurization. The factors that affect fuel injection re-pressurization time are discussed.
Technical Paper

A/C Moan - its Diagnostics and Control

2009-05-19
2009-01-2054
Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.
Technical Paper

Steering Grunt Noise Robustness Improvement

2009-05-19
2009-01-2095
Grunt is a structure-born noise caused by resonance of the steering gear torsion bar (T-bar) in an HPAS (Hydraulic Power Assist Steering) system. The goal of this work was to develop techniques to quantify and predict grunt in a RV (rotary valve) steering gear system. First, vehicle testing was used to identify an objective metric for grunt: y = dynamic pressure in the return line. Then, a computer simulation was developed to predict y as a function of two known control factors. The simulation results were correlated to measurements on a test vehicle. Finally, the simulation was expanded to include two additional control factors, and grunt predictions were demonstrated on a different test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of MMT® Fuel Additive on Emission System Components: Comparison of Clear- and MMT®-fueled Escort Vehicles from the Alliance Study

2004-03-08
2004-01-1084
Emission studies were carried out on clear-fueled and MMT®-fueled 100,000-mile Escort vehicles from the Alliance study [SAE 2002-01-2894]. Alliance testing had revealed substantially higher emissions from the MMT-fueled vehicle, and the present study involved swapping the engine cylinder heads, spark plugs, oxygen sensors, and catalysts between the two vehicles to identify the specific components responsible for the emissions increase. Within 90% confidence limits, all of the emissions differences between the MMT- and Clear-vehicles could be accounted for by the selected components. NMHC emission increases were primarily attributed to the effects of the MMT cylinder head and spark plugs on both engine-out and tailpipe emissions. CO emission increases were largely traced to the MMT cylinder head and its effect on tailpipe emissions. NOx emission increases were linked to the MMT catalyst.
Technical Paper

Reliability-Based Design Optimization of a Vehicle Exhaust System

2004-03-08
2004-01-1128
This paper focuses on the methodology development and application of reliability-based design optimization to a vehicle exhaust system under noise, vibration and harshness constraints with uncertainties. Reliability-based design optimization provides a systematic way for considering uncertainties in product development process. As traditional reliability analysis itself is a design optimization problem that requires many function evaluations, it often requires tremendous computational resources and efficient optimization methodologies. Multiple functional response constraints and large number of design variables add further complexity to the problem. This paper investigates an integrated approach by taking advantages of variable screening, design of experiments, response surface model, and reliability-based design optimization for problems with functional responses. A typical vehicle exhaust system is used as an example to demonstrate the methodology.
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Transfer Functions for Predicting the Deterioration of a Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst

2009-04-20
2009-01-1282
Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts have the capability to deliver the high NOx conversion efficiencies required for future emission standards. However, the potential for the occasional over-temperature can lead to the irreversible deactivation of the SCR catalyst. On-board diagnostics (OBD) compliance requires monitoring of the SCR function to make sure it is operating properly. Initially, SCR catalyst performance metrics such as NOx conversion, NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage capacity, and BET surface area are within normal limits. However, these features degrade with high temperature aging. In this work, a laboratory flow reactor was utilized to determine the impact on these performance metrics as a function of aging condition. Upon the completion of a full time-at-temperature durability study, four performance criteria were established to help determine a likely SCR failure.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Ultra Low Solidity Airfoil Diffuser in an Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

2009-04-20
2009-01-1470
For the application of advanced clean combustion technologies, such as diesel HCCI/LTC, a compressor with high efficiency over a broad operation range is required to supply a high amount of EGR with minimum pumping loss. A compressor with high pitch of vaneless diffuser would substantially improve the flow range of the compressor, but it is at the cost of compressor efficiency, especially at low mass flow area where most of the city driving cycles resides. In present study, an ultra low solidity compressor vane diffuser was numerically investigated. It is well known that the flow leaving the impeller is highly distorted, unsteady and turbulent, especially at relative low mass flow rate and near the shroud side of the compressor. A conventional vaned diffuser with high stagger angle could help to improve the performance of the compressor at low end. However, adding diffuser vane to a compressor typically restricts the flow range at high end.
Technical Paper

Cu/Zeolite SCR on High Porosity Filters: Laboratory and Engine Performance Evaluations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0897
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is expected to be used extensively in the U.S. for diesel vehicle NOx control. Much progress has been made on improving performance and reducing complexity of SCR systems for vehicles in the past several years. SCR system complexity can be reduced further by implementation of SCR-coated diesel particulate filters (SCRFs). In this system, a high porosity (> 50%) filter substrate is coated with an SCR formulation, ideally in the pores of the filter walls, so that the DPF and SCR functions can be combined into a single catalyst. Two state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite SCR formulations and three types of high porosity filter substrates were included in this study. Laboratory and engine-dynamometer tests were performed to measure NOx conversion under a variety of conditions to assess the impact of ammonia oxidation, inlet NO2/NOx ratio, ammonia/NOx ratio, oxygen level, space velocity, soot loading, and ammonia loading level.
Technical Paper

Ford's Facility Climate Change Initiatives: Lessons Learned From Early Action

2008-04-14
2008-01-0680
Climate change initiatives such as carbon dioxide (CO2) inventory reporting, emissions trading, and carbon offsets projects are receiving increased public and corporate attention worldwide. Through early, voluntary actions, Ford Motor Company's manufacturing operations have gained first-hand experience with these emerging policy tools and our global, centralized approach has supported our participation in facility CO2 initiatives in a more cost-effective and operationally-efficient manner. Ford's early action has also developed internal expertise which enables us to share our lessons learned with others beginning to investigate climate change initiatives.
Technical Paper

The Handling of Non-Uniform Parts and Peak Hand Forces

2009-06-09
2009-01-2307
Due to the challenges in quantifying hand loads in manufacturing environments it is often assumed that the load is evenly distributed between the hands, even when handling parts with non-uniform mass distribution. This study estimated hand loads for six female subjects, when handling a custom part in 8 different configurations (2 weights, 4 CofM locations). The calculated hand loads varied from 20 to 50% of the weight being handled. The magnitude of asymmetrical hand loading depended on both the part orientation and the location of the CoM. Based on this study the knowledge of part weight, CofM location and hand positioning will allow the users of digital human models to perform more realistic and reliable task analysis assessments as the force distributions will be more representative of the actual loading rather than simply assuming the load is evenly distributed between the hands.
Technical Paper

The Particle Emission Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine by Using Different Pilot Injections

2010-10-05
2010-01-1959
Pilot injection has been used widely in diesel engines for its NOx and noise reducing characteristics. In this paper, its impacts to the particle emissions were studied using a light-duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine with different pilot injection strategies. Three steady-state engine modes were selected from the EU legislative diesel engine test cycle to represent low, medium and high engine speeds and loads. The quantities and injection timings of the pilot injection strategies were then varied. The particle number concentration and size distributions were investigated along with the smoke and regulated gas emissions such as the NOx trade-off. These results indicate how a pilot injection alongside a main injection can increase the particle size compared to a single main injection event. Furthermore, the split injection was closely related to the engine mode.
Journal Article

Thermo-Viscoelastic Model for Shrinkage and Warpage Prediction During Cooling and Solidification of Automotive Blow Molded Parts

2013-04-08
2013-01-1397
Blow moulding is one of the most important polymer processing methods for producing complex thermoplastic automotive parts. Contrary to injection molding, little attention has focused on process control and simulation of blow molding processes. Yet, there are still several problems that affect the overall success of forming these parts. Among them are thermally induced stresses, relevant shrinkage and part warpage deformations caused by inappropriate mold design and/or processing conditions. Tolerance issues are critical in automotive applications and therefore part deformation due to solidification needs to be controlled and optimized accordingly. The accurate prediction tool of part deformation due to solidification, under different cooling conditions in automotive formed parts, is important and highly suited for part designers to help achieve an efficient production.
Technical Paper

Study of Particle Number Emissions from a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine Including Data from a Fast-Response Particle Size Spectrometer

2011-04-12
2011-01-1224
A study has been conducted to measure the particle number emissions from a current-generation 1.6-liter, Euro IV-compliant turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. A fast-response particle size spectrometer was used along with a PMP-compliant particulate measurement system to measure the effect of various engine parameters on the particulate emissions during the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). Overall particle number is shown along with further analysis of the transient particle emissions. The cold start clearly affects particle formation with approximately 50% of the cumulative particle number being emitted within 200 seconds of the start. Even beyond 200 seconds, the particle number emissions fall as the test progresses and are generally consistent with increases in engine coolant temperature indicating that cold engine fuel preparation issues are contributing to the particle number count.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Air intake Temperature Reduction for Euro V Gaseous Emissions Regulation Compliance

2010-10-06
2010-36-0185
Changes in diesel engine design and calibration contributed to emissions reduction, mainly from Euro III to Euro V the algorithms for the control of smoke and transient response had substantial impact in the calibration concept. In order to follow the diesel engine emissions, the air intake system and air intake cooler must be optimized. The objective of this paper is to show the development of the new air intake package devices design - combined with new CAC (charge air cooler) optimization and new air intake system AIS position in vehicle - to allow intake manifold temperature compliance, using DOE method to the decision.
Journal Article

Investigation of Compressor Whoosh Noise in Automotive Turbochargers

2009-05-19
2009-01-2053
With swelling gasoline prices, automotive OEMs have taken different approaches to improve vehicle fuel economy. One trend is to down-size the engine and to add turbo charging. One of the challenges in utilizing the turbocharger in passenger cars is to control the added NVH issues associated with this hardware, especially for the North American market where turbocharger use is scarce in gasoline engines. In this paper, the authors review an investigation on turbocharger related “whoosh” noise on a V6 engine. The whoosh noise, also called surge noise, is caused by the compressor working at or near surge conditions. Whoosh noise is a broad frequency band flow noise typically found during throttle tip-in conditions, but sometimes found even at steady state driving conditions. The root cause of whoosh noise and the detection methods are discussed in this paper. The countermeasures to reduce whoosh noises are also discussed.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of an Analytical Seal Bead Design Model for Automotive Superplastic Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0979
With the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles, technologies like superplastic forming (SPF) are being developed and implemented to allow for the utilization of lightweight automotive sheet materials. While forming under superplastic conditions leads to increased formability in lightweight alloys, such as aluminum, the slower forming times required by the technology can limit the technology to low to mid production levels. One problem that can increase forming time is the reduction of forming pressure due to pressurizing (forming) gas leaks, during the forming cycle, at the die/sheet/blankholder interface. Traditionally, such leaks have been successfully addressed through the use of a seal bead. However, for advanced die technologies that result in reduced cycle times (such as hot draw mechanical performing, which combine aspects of mechanical preforming of the sheet metal followed by SPF), the use of seal beads can restrict the drawing of sheet material into the forming die.
Technical Paper

Bending Process Optimization of Dual Phase 780 (DP780) Tubes for Body Structural and Chassis Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0230
To reach safety, emissions, and cost objectives, manufacturers of automotive body structural and chassis components shape thin gauge, high strength steel tube with a bending, pre-forming and hydroforming process. Challenging grades and bend severity require a careful optimization of the bending procedure. A joint project between Ford and ArcelorMittal Tubular Products investigated suitable bending parameters for severe bends using commercially available thin-walled DP780 and HSLA350 tubes. This paper summarizes the measurement methods found to be capable of capturing small differences in bending formability and details the influence of bender variables such as boost, pressure die, center-line bend radius and bend angle on the wrinkling, thinning and springback of these tubes. As a result of this work, recommendations were made as to effective bender set-ups for these tubes.
Technical Paper

Form vs. Function: A Systems Approach to Achieving Harmony

1999-03-01
1999-01-1266
Today's world places increased emphasis on society's members to know more, to do more, to see more. Increasingly, information is thrown to the consumer that he/she has to process almost continually, regardless of their surroundings. Due to this heightened need, the customer is becoming increasingly perceptive of their vehicle surroundings, expecting their vehicle to be an extension of their home and/or office, to assist in getting things done in an environment that is as convenient and comfortable as their primary workplace. Similarly, there is also increased emphasis on vehicles to be styled so that they are visually appealing, so that all the parts work as a whole to make the environment as enjoyable as consumers' most pleasant surroundings outside the vehicle.
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