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Technical Paper

The Effects of Friction on Bursting of Tubes in Corner Filling

Corner filling is a benchmark experiment in tube hydroforming. It was designed to gain knowledge pertinent of this new fabrication process. The corner filling benchmark has been widely used in the automotive and steel industries. Common sense as well as physical tests suggests that friction is an important parameter that affects the deformation of the tube and the bursting of the tubes. However, numerical simulations have yet to verify this fact. In this paper, the stress/strain states in the tube were computed using a finite element model. The dependence of bursting on friction for corner filling was estimated by using the forming limit diagram and a tensile-based failure criterion.
Technical Paper

Free Expansion Bulge Testing of Tubes For Automotive Hydroform Applications

Free expansion of straight tubes is the simplest test to evaluate tube properties for hydroforming applications and to provide basic understanding of the mechanics of tube hydroforming. A circular cylindrical tube is sealed at both ends and fluid, usually water, is pumped into the tube to increase its internal pressure to bulge and burst the tube. Previous numerical simulations of the free expansion tube test were limited to modeling the midsection of the tube under various assumptions of deformation path. The simulation results obtained deviated from the experimental results under all simulation conditions considered. A new model is developed in this paper in which the whole tube is simulated instead of considering only its mid-section. Judged by the pressure-expansion relations, the model accurately predicted free expansion hydroforming tests results.