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Technical Paper

CFD-based Robust Optimization of Front-end Cooling Airflow

2007-04-16
2007-01-0105
Development and integration of the cooling system for an automotive vehicle requires a balancing act between several performance and styling objectives. The cooling system needs to provide sufficient air for heat rejection with minimal impact on the aerodynamic drag, styling requirements and other criteria. An optimization of various design parameters is needed to develop a design to meet these objectives in a short amount of time. Increase in the accuracy of the numerical predictions and reduction in the turn-around time has made it possible for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to be used early in the design phase of the vehicle development. This study shows application of the CFD for robust design of the engine cooling system.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0466
This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Mean Value Engine Model for Integrated Engine and Control System Simulation

2007-04-16
2007-01-1304
This paper describes the development of a mean value model for a turbocharged diesel engine. The objective is to develop a fast-running engine model with sufficient accuracy over a wide range of operating conditions for efficient evaluation of control algorithms and control strategies. The mean value engine model was derived from a detailed 1D engine model, using the Design of Experiments (DOE) and hybrid Radial Basis Functions (RBF) to approximate the simulation results of the detailed model for cylinder quantities (e.g., the engine volumetric efficiency, the indicated efficiency, and the energy fraction of the exhaust gas). Furthermore, the intake and exhaust systems (especially intake and exhaust manifolds) were completely simplified by lumping flow components together. In addition, to compare with hybrid RBF, neural networks were also used to approximate the simulation results of the detailed engine model.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Recompression and Fuel Reforming in a SIDI-HCCI Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1878
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a combustion concept which has the potential for efficiency comparable to a DI Diesel engine with low NOx and soot emissions. However, HCCI is difficult to control, especially at low speeds and loads. One way to assist with combustion control and to extend operation to low speed and loads is to close the exhaust valve before TDC of the exhaust stroke, trapping and recompressing some of the hot residual. Further advantages can be attained by injecting the fuel into this trapped, recompressed mixture, where chemical reactions occur that improve ignitability of the subsequent combustion cycle. Even further improvement in the subsequent combustion cycle can be achieved by applying a spark, leading to a spark-assisted HCCI combustion concept.
Technical Paper

Tank-to-Wheels Preliminary Assessment of Advanced Powertrain and Alternative Fuel Vehicles for China

2007-04-16
2007-01-1609
Well-to-Wheels analyses are important tools that provide a rigorous examination and quantify the environmental burdens associated with fuel production and fuel consumption during the vehicle use phase. Such assessments integrate the results obtained from the Well-to-Tank (WtT) and the Tank-to-Wheels (TtW) analysis components. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary Tank-to-Wheels assessment of the benefits associated with the introduction of alternative powertrains and fuels in the Chinese market by the year 2015 as compared to the results obtained with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). An emphasis is given on the vehicles powered by those fuels that have the potential to play a major role in the Chinese auto-sector, such as: M10, M85, E10, E85, Di-methyl Ether (DME) and Coal-to-Liquids (CTL). An important conclusion of this report is that hybridization reduces fuel consumption in all propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Engine Control Architecture for Model-based Software Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-1623
The fierce competition and shifting consumer demands require automotive companies to be more efficient in all aspects of vehicle development and specifically in the area of embedded engine control system development. In order to reduce development cost, shorten time-to-market, and meet more stringent emission regulations without sacrificing quality, the increasingly complex control algorithms must be transportable and reusable. Within an efficient development process it is necessary that the algorithms can be seamlessly moved throughout different development stages and that they can be easily reused for different applications. In this paper, we propose a flexible engine control architecture that greatly boosts development efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Three-Pillar Framework for Model-Based Engine Control System Development

2007-04-16
2007-01-1624
This paper presents a comprehensive Matlab/Simulink-based framework that affords a rapid, systematic, and efficient engine control system development process including automated code generation. The proposed framework hinges on three essential pillars: 1 ) an accurate model for the target engine, 2) a toolset for systematic control design, and 3) a modular system architecture that enhances feature reusability and rapid algorithm deployment. The proposed framework promotes systematic model-based algorithm development and validation in virtual reality. Within this context, the framework affords integration and evaluation of the entire control system at an early development stage, seamless transitions across inherently incompatible product development stages, and rapid code generation for production target hardware.
Technical Paper

NVH Analysis of Balancer Chain Drives with the Compliant Sprocket of the Crankshaft with a Dual-Mass Flywheel for an Inline-4 Engine

2007-05-15
2007-01-2415
The work presented in this paper outlines the design and development of a compliant sprocket for balancer drives in an effort to reduce the noise levels related to chain-sprocket meshing. An experimental observation of a severe chain noise around a resonant engine speed with the Dual-Mass Flywheel (DMF) and standard build solid (fixed) balancer drive sprocket. Torsional oscillation at the crankshaft nose at full load is induced by uneven running of crankshaft with a dual-mass flywheel system. This results in an increase of the undesirable impact noise caused by the meshing between the chain-links and the engagement/disengagement regions of sprockets, and the clatter noise from the interaction between the vibrating chain and the guides. This paper evaluates and discusses the benefits that the compliant sprocket design provided. A multi-body dynamics system (MBS) model of the balancer chain drive has been developed, validated, and used to investigate the chain noise.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

SAE Standard Procedure J2747 for Measuring Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2408
This work discusses the development of SAE procedure J2747, “Hydraulic Pump Airborne Noise Bench Test”. This is a test procedure describing a standard method for measuring radiated sound power levels from hydraulic pumps of the type typically used in automotive power steering systems, though it can be extended for use with other types of pumps. This standard was developed by a committee of industry representatives from OEM's, suppliers and NVH testing firms familiar with NVH measurement requirements for automotive hydraulic pumps. Details of the test standard are discussed. The hardware configuration of the test bench and the configuration of the test article are described. Test conditions, data acquisition and post-processing specifics are also included. Contextual information regarding the reasoning and priorities applied by the development committee is provided to further explain the strengths, limitations and intended usage of the test procedure.
Technical Paper

The Steering Characterizing Functions (SCFs) and Their Use in Steering System Specification, Simulation, and Synthesis

2001-03-05
2001-01-1353
A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Vehicle Concept Finite-Element Model for Predicting Structural Vibration

2001-04-30
2001-01-1402
A vehicle concept finite-element model is experimentally assessed for predicting structural vibration to 50 Hz. The vehicle concept model represents the body structure with a coarse mesh of plate and beam elements, while the suspension and powertrain are modeled with a coarse mesh of rigid-links, beams, and lumped mass, damping, and stiffness elements. Comparisons are made between the predicted and measured frequency-response-functions (FRFs) and modes of (a) the body-in-white, (b) the trimmed body, and (c) the full vehicle. For the full vehicle, the comparisons are with a comprehensive set of measured FRFs from 63 tests of nominally identical vehicles that demonstrate the vehicle-to-vehicle variability of the measured FRF response.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Method for Part-load Engine Simulation

2007-10-29
2007-01-4102
This work provides an effective engineering method of building a part-load engine simulation model from a wide-open throttle (WOT) engine model and available dynamometer data. It shows how to perform part-load engine simulation using optimizer for targeted manifold absolute air pressure (MAP) on a basic matrix of engine speed and MAP. Key combustion parameters were estimated to cover the entire part-load region based on affordable assumptions and limitations. Engine rubbing friction and pumping friction were combined to compare against the motoring torque. The emission data from GM dynamometer laboratory were used to compare against engine simulation results after attaching the RLT sensor to record emission data in the engine simulation model.
Technical Paper

Development and Control of Electro-hydraulic Fully Flexible Valve Actuation System for Diesel Combustion Research

2007-10-29
2007-01-4021
Fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system, often referred to as camless valvetrain, employs electronically controlled actuators to drive the intake and/or exhaust valves. This technology enables the engine controller to tailor the valve event according to the engine operating condition in real-time to improve fuel economy, emissions and performance. At GM Research and Development Center, we have developed laboratory electro-hydraulic FFVA systems for single cylinder gasoline engines. The objective of this work is to develop a FFVA system for advanced diesel combustion research. There are three major differences between gasoline and diesel engines in terms of applying the FFVA systems. First, the orientation of the diesel engine valves and the location of the fuel injection system complicate the packaging issue. Second, the clearance between the valves and the piston for diesel engines are extremely small.
Technical Paper

Aggregating Technologies for Reduced Fuel Consumption: A Review of the Technical Content in the 2002 National Research Council Report on CAFE

2002-03-04
2002-01-0628
The National Research Council (NRC) recently published a report entitled “Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards” intended to help U.S. policymakers in the formulation of CAFE policy. In the Report, the NRC projects fuel consumption reductions from the application of a wide range of engine, transmission, and vehicle technologies. The Report employs a simple multiplicative method to aggregate the effects of multiple technologies on fuel consumption. In this paper, a basic energy balance calculation is used to examine the NRC results against theoretical limits. Theoretical limits are calculated using measured and simulated breakdowns of system energy losses incurred during vehicle operation on EPA driving cycles. This analysis demonstrates the inherently optimistic results produced by simple aggregation methodologies. Methods for enhancing the accuracy of the technology-aggregation process are proposed.
Technical Paper

CFRM Concept for Vehicle Thermal System

2002-03-04
2002-01-1207
Condenser, fan, radiator power train cooling module (CFRM) proposed by Delphi Automobile Systems was evaluated in the context of vehicle thermal system analysis. The results from the CFRM configuration were compared with those from the conventional condenser, radiator, and fan power train cooling module (CRFM). The analysis shows that for a typical passenger vehicle, the underhood temperature for the CFRM configuration is more than 10°C lower than its CRFM counterpart when the fan is operating at the same speed of 2500 rpm. This is due mainly to the higher mass flow rate impelled by the fan in the CFRM configuration. At the equal mass flow condition, both the CFRM and the CRFM configurations give similar underhood temperatures; but the fan in the CFRM configuration uses 19% less power, due mainly to the reduction in the fan speed needed to impel the same amount of mass flow rate.
Technical Paper

Thermal-velocity Coupling in Vehicle Thermal System Calculations

2002-03-04
2002-01-1204
The issue of thermal-velocity coupling is discussed in the context of vehicle thermal system analysis. Temperature variations in the bulk of the fluids caused by the vehicle engine, cooling, and exhaust system lead to variations in the density of the airflow. The density variations impact the velocity field in two ways: by introducing a driving force term explicitly to account for the effect of buoyancy force and by coupling with the other governing equations. The buoyancy force is crucial for buoyancy driven flows such as vehicle under soak condition. The vehicle thermal system analysis based on the coupled approach leads to a 15°C improvement in the prediction of the underhood thermal environment.
Technical Paper

Simulating Neck Injury in Frontal Impact using LS-DYNA

2007-04-16
2007-01-0677
Neck injury assessment is part of the FMVSS208 requirements. Hardware tests are often conducted to validate whether the vehicle safety system meets the requirements. This paper presents a full vehicle finite element model using LS-DYNA, including structural components, restraint system components, and dummies. In the case of a frontal impact at 30deg angle, in the areas of neck compression, neck extension and neck kinematics, it is demonstrated that a good correlation is achieved between the response of a FE dummy in the model and those of ATDs in the physical hardware tests. It is concluded that the math tool may be applied to comprehend test and design variations that may arise throughout a vehicle development lifecycle and to help develop a vehicle restraint system.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Buoyancy Driven Flow in a Simplified Underhood - Part II, Numerical Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1607
This paper describes the numerical results for a simplified underhood buoyancy driven flow. The simplified underhood geometry consists of an enclosure, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the buoyancy driven flow condition in the underhood environment when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with the engine shut down. The experimental measurements for temperature and velocity of the same configuration were documented in the Part I of the same title. Present study focuses on the numerical issues of calculating temperature and flow field for the same flow configuration. The predicted temperature and velocity were compared with the available measured data. The mesh sizes, mesh type and the orders of spatial and temporal accuracy of the numerical setup are discussed.
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