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Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for Electrochemical Cells in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) testing is a means for validating and verifying component designs in a system context. Most current HWIL work with electrochemical systems for automotive applications has focused on the pack level, providing valuable feedback to system designers. Further benefits are realized by implementing this concept earlier in the development process; applying test vectors to an individual cell, but attenuating the stimulus and feedback to pack levels. This paper reports on a cell-level HWIL system designed to evaluate electrochemical cells and associated subsystems for advanced hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The architecture of the system is described along with an example of its application applied to a commercially available supercapacitor and a state-of-charge algorithm in an HEV-based configuration.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for the Saturn VUE Green Line Hybrid Vehicle

In developing the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line hybrid vehicle, a vehicle model for prediction of fuel economy and performance was developed. This model was developed in Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow by augmenting an existing conventional vehicle model to include hybrid components and controls. The generic structure and the functionalities of the model are presented. This simulation model was used for rapid concept selection and requirements balancing early in the vehicle development process. Engine usage and energy distributions are shown based on simulation results. Fuel economy breakdown was also discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid System for the Saturn VUE Hybrid

The hybrid system for the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line Hybrid SUV was designed to provide the fuel economy of a compact sedan, while delivering improved acceleration performance over the base vehicle, and maintaining full vehicle utility. Key elements of the hybrid powertrain are a 2.4L DOHC engine with dual cam-phasers, a modified 4-speed automatic transmission, an electric motor-generator connected to the crankshaft through a bi-directional belt-drive system, power electronics to control the motor-generator, and a NiMH battery pack. The VUE's hybrid functionality includes: engine stop-start, regenerative braking, intelligent charge control of the hybrid battery, electric power assist, and electrically motored creep. Methods of improving urban and highway fuel economy via optimal use of the hybrid motor and battery, engine and transmission hardware and controls modifications, and vehicle enhancements, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Global Research and Development: GM Case Study India

Global R&D is in its infant stages. Senior executives and their organizations need to develop deeper understanding of the opportunities and challenges of off-shoring R&D. While global pressure will continue to mount to deliver more value at ever lower cost, the labor cost arbitrage break in countries such as China or India will not last forever. The fundamental challenge is to use the current low-cost advantage to build rapidly a sustainable technology, product and service advantage. This requires the development of a balanced local growth strategy that is well adapted to the regional strengths while ensuring a seamless global integration of people, organizations, and processes. This paper focuses on the build-up of GM's R&D activities in India with an emphasis on research in one of the key thrust areas in GM R&D - Automotive Electronics, Controls, and Software. Lessons learned apply also to development.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell System Solutions for Transportation

PEM Fuel Cell technology has been advancing rapidly during the last several years as evidenced by various vehicle demonstrations by the major automotive companies. As the development continues to bring hardware to automotive system level solutions, many engineering challenges arise. This paper will deal with two (2) of these areas from an automotive system level perspective: Thermal Management and the Fuel Cell Stack. Both of these sub-system areas are critical to the success of the technology in meeting the requirements of tomorrow's automotive customer.
Technical Paper

The CO2 Benefits of Electrification E-REVs, PHEVs and Charging Scenarios

Reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions is one of the major challenges for automobile manufacturers. This is driven by environmental, consumer, and regulatory demands in all major regions worldwide. For conventional vehicles, a host of technologies have been applied that improve the overall efficiency of the vehicle. This reduces CO2 contributions by directly reducing the amount of energy consumed to power a vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) continues this trend. However, there are limits to CO2 reduction due to improvements in efficiency alone. Other major improvements are realized when the CO2 content of the energy used to motivate vehicles is reduced. With the introduction of Extended Range Electric Vehicles (E-REVs) and Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), electric grid energy displaces petroleum. This enables the potential for significant CO2 reductions as the CO2 per unit of electrical energy is reduced over time with the improving mix of energy sources for the electrical grid.
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.