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Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Structure of Portevin-Le Chatelier Bands and Shear Bands in Strip Cast AA5754 Sheets Using Digital Image Correlation

Strip cast AA5754 sheets are of interest for automotive interior panel applications. However, Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) bands are seen in this material and cause surface quality concerns. Moreover, shear banding is the main failure mechanism of this material. However, the relationship between PLC bands and shear bands is still controversial in the literature. In order to delineate this problem, the digital image correlation (DIC) strain mapping technique is used to explore the three-dimensional structures of PLC bands and shear bands in AA5754 sheets. Two-dimensional DIC measurements were carried out simultaneously on both of the sheet sample surfaces (front and back side) of an AA5754 tensile sample using a commercially available optical strain mapping DIC-based system (Aramis). DIC measurements were also conducted on the thickness direction. Based on the strain mapping results, the three dimensional structures of both PLC bands and shear bands are constructed.
Technical Paper

Understanding Fuel Effects on Hydrocarbon Permeation through Vehicle Fuel System Materials

Hydrocarbon permeation is one of the remaining main sources of vehicle evaporative hydrocarbon emission. However, very little information exists on the role of fuel properties on permeation losses. Therefore, experimental and modeling studies were conducted to determine the relationships between hydrocarbon permeation through HDPE (high density polyethylene) and fuel properties. Half-gallon HDPE bottles without EVOH were used in this study, because they were easily available and because steady state permeation can be measured in a matter of few days instead of several months in the case of HDPE/EVOH bottles. A permeation equation was developed using both theory and experimental data, which shows that permeation increases exponentially with fuel aromatic content, increases linearly with fuel RVP, and increases exponentially with temperature. The equation is useful for predicting how fuel and ambient temperature affect hydrocarbon permeation through vehicle fuel system.
Technical Paper

Development of Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys for Powertrain Applications: Part 1 of 2

A family of low-cost, creep-resistant magnesium alloys has been developed. These alloys, containing aluminum, calcium, and strontium are designated as “ACX” alloys. Developed for engine blocks and transmissions, the “ACX” alloys have at least 40% greater tensile and 25% greater compressive creep resistance than AE42, and corrosion resistance as good as AZ91D (GMPG 9540P/B corrosion test). These alloys are estimated to cost only slightly more than AZ91D and have as good castability. Creep data up to 200°C, tensile properties at room temperature and 175°C, corrosion results and microstructure analysis are presented and discussed. These alloys have the potential to enable the extension of the substantial weight reduction benefits of magnesium to powertrain components.
Technical Paper

Overview of Techniques for Measuring Friction Using Bench Tests and Fired Engines

This paper presents an overview of techniques for measuring friction using bench tests and fired engines. The test methods discussed have been developed to provide efficient, yet realistic, assessments of new component designs, materials, and lubricants for in-cylinder and overall engine applications. A Cameron-Plint Friction and Wear Tester was modified to permit ring-in-piston-groove movement by the test specimen, and used to evaluate a number of cylinder bore coatings for friction and wear performance. In a second study, it was used to evaluate the energy conserving characteristics of several engine lubricant formulations. Results were consistent with engine and vehicle testing, and were correlated with measured fuel economy performance. The Instantaneous IMEP Method for measuring in-cylinder frictional forces was extended to higher engine speeds and to modern, low-friction engine designs.
Technical Paper

Formability of an Automotive Aluminum Alloy-AA5754 CC

We have studied the formability of continuous strip cast (CC) AA5754 aluminum alloy for automotive applications. Strip casting technology can considerably reduce material cost compared with conventional direct chill (DC) cast aluminum sheets. However, the CC material tends to exhibit much less post-localization deformation and lower fracture strains compared with DC sheets with similar Fe content, although both alloys show similar strains for the onset of localization. Bendability of the CC alloy is also found to be inferior. The inferior behavior (post-necking and bendability) of the CC alloy can be attributed to the higher incidence of stringer-type particle distributions in the alloy. The formability of the AA5754 alloy has also been studied using two dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling. The microstructures are represented by grains and experimentally measured particle distributions.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Copper-Zeolite and Iron-Zeolite Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalysts at Steady State and Transient Conditions

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is effective over a wide temperature window to reduce NOx emissions from engine exhaust during lean operations. In this study, different supplier SCR catalysts are investigated and modeled. A global Ammonia SCR reaction mechanism has been used, and kinetic parameters for selective catalytic reduction of NOx by Ammonia were developed for both Copper (Cu)-zeolite and Iron (Fe)-zeolite SCR catalysts. The kinetic analysis was performed using a commercial one dimensional (1-D) aftertreatment code, coupled with an optimizer. The optimized kinetics have been validated extensively with laboratory reactor data for various operating conditions on three supplier catalysts - two Copper and one Iron based formulations. Both steady state and transient tests are performed and the developed SCR models are shown to agree with the experimental measurements reasonably well.
Technical Paper

Elevated Temperature Forming of Sheet Magnesium Alloys

The use of sheet magnesium for automobile body applications is limited, in part, due to its low room temperature formability. Elevated temperature forming of magnesium sheet could enable the manufacture of automobile body closure and structural panels to meet vehicle mass targets. The effect of temperature in improving the formability of sheet magnesium has been known since the 1940's; however, automobile applications for sheet magnesium still have been very limited. The present work characterizes the elevated temperature mechanical behavior of commercially available magnesium sheet alloys at temperatures between 300°C and 500°C. The materials are then evaluated using both warm forming and superplastic forming technologies.
Technical Paper

The Emissions Performance of Oxygenated Diesel Fuels in a Prototype DI Diesel Engine

As part of a cooperative development program, six diesel fuels (a reference and five blends containing oxygenates) were evaluated under four steady-state conditions using a prototype 1.26-L 3-cylinder four-valve common-rail DI diesel engine. All of the fuels contained low sulfur (mostly < 5 ppm by mass), and they were chosen to determine the impacts of oxygenate volatility, concentration, and chemical type (paraffinic or aromatic) on exhaust emissions - with particular emphasis on particulate emissions. In addition to HC, CO, NOx and PM emissions measurements, emissions of the volatile portion of the PM and particle size were determined. Relative to the very low sulfur reference fuel, the oxygenated fuels reduced PM and NOx under some operating conditions, but produced little effect on either HC or CO emissions. Aliphatic oxygenates at 6 wt. percent oxygen in the reference fuel reduced simulated FTP PM emissions by 15 - 27 %.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engines: One Option to Power Future Personal Transportation Vehicles

In the twenty-first century, exhaust emission control will remain a major technical challenge especially as additional pressures for fuel and energy conservation mount. To address these needs, a wide variety of engine and powertrain options must be considered. For many reasons, the piston engine will remain the predominant engine choice in the twenty-first century, especially for conventional and/or parallel hybrid drive trains. Emissions constraints favor the conventional port fuel-injected gasoline engine with 3-way exhaust catalyst, while energy conservation favors direct-injection gasoline and diesel engines. As a result of recent technological progress from a competitive European market, diesels, and most recently, direct-injection (DI) diesels now offer driveability and performance characteristics competitive with those of gasoline engines. In addition, DI diesels offer the highest fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel/Air Ratio Variations on Catalyst Performance and Hydrocarbon Emissions During Cold-Start and Warm-Up

Effects of fuel/air equivalence ratio variations (Φ = 1.0±0.02) on engine-out and catalyst-out hydrocarbon (HC) mass and speciated emissions were measured under simulated cold-start conditions in order to suggest ways to optimize the engine-controls-catalyst system for minimum HC mass emissions and specific reactivity. A single-cylinder engine (installed in a temperature-controlled room and using commercial-grade gasoline) is run under controlled steady-state conditions (at 24 °C or -7 °C) which simulate cold starting. Speciated and total hydrocarbon emissions are measured from engine-out exhaust samples and from samples taken after an oven-temperature-controlled catalyst (either a fresh platinum/rhodium production catalyst, a 50,000 mile vehicle-aged catalyst, or a ceramic brick with standard washcoat containing no noble metal). Changes in engine fuel/air equivalence ratio (Φ = 1.0±0.02) have a small effect on engine-out HC mass emissions (± 10 %) and specific reactivity (0 - 2%).
Technical Paper

A Correlation Between Tailpipe Hydrocarbon Emissions and Driveability

Simultaneous tests of emissions and driveability conducted at 4.4°C on a chassis dynamometer using 10 late model vehicles showed a strong correlation between degraded driveability and increased tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions. Other regulated emissions were uncorrelated to driveability, or were small in magnitude. The 24 test gasolines were systematically varied in front-end, mid-range, and tail-end volatility and so spanned much of the moderate and high DI (driveability index) fuel region. Splash blends of 10%.vol ethanol and 15%vol MTBE blended gasolines were tested in addition to hydrocarbon gasolines.
Technical Paper

A Micrographic Study of Deposit Formation Processes in a Combustion Chamber

Growing concern about the impact of combustion chamber deposits (CCD) on engine performance and exhaust emissions has renewed interest in understanding the deposit formation process in a combustion chamber. To provide a true picture of the deposit formation process, an extensive micrographic study of the deposits in a single cylinder engine has been conducted. Four retrievable deposit sampling probes were used. The sampling period for the deposits varied from 15 minutes to 20 hours to show how the deposits evolved with time. The coolant temperature was changed from 50°C to 95°C to observe the effect of surface temperature on deposit morphology. Impacts of deposit control additives on the deposit distribution and deposit morphology were also investigated. Deposits formed in different parts of the combustion chamber differed significantly in their morphology. The differences occur mainly because of variations in surface temperature.
Technical Paper

Bench Test for Scuff Evaluation of Surface Modified Piston and Bore Materials

This paper describes a bench method to evaluate the frictional behavior, under scuffing conditions, of some test coupons of standard materials currently used in making cylinder bores and pistons. The usefulness of this method is in evaluating new materials and coatings that may enable the elimination of iron liners from engine blocks. While investigating the potential application of Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII) on engine piston/bore materials, we have systematically studied the scuffing related friction behavior of aluminum 390 alloy and cast iron. A pin-on-disk tribometer is used under dry sliding conditions. Testing parameters for simulating cold scuff in bench tests have been specified. This proposed test method offers a screening tool desirable for the development of PSII technology and may also be useful for the design of other new surface modification techniques.
Technical Paper

ACuZinc™ 5 Applications in the Auto Industry

ACuZinc™ 5, a GM-patented, high-performance ternary zinc-copper-aluminum alloy which is suitable for manufacturing net shape die castings, plays a vital role in the success of new automotive parts and systems. The new parts were designed to meet the auto industry's higher load and safety specifications. The superior mechanical properties of ACuZinc™ make it suitable for structural applications where commercial zinc die casting alloys have been found to be inadequate. From a business viewpoint, ACuZinc™ can help in penetrating new markets by competing for cast iron, powder metal and brass applications. ACuZinc is a registered GM trademark.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Geometry on the Steady-State Engine-Out Hydrocarbons Emissions of a S.I. Engine

This study investigated the effects of piston Crevice geometry on the steady-state engine-out hydrocarbons (HC) from a Saturn DOHC four-cylinder production engine. A 50% reduction in top-land height produced about 20-25% reduction in HC emissions, at part loads. The effect of top-land radial clearance on HC emissions was found to depend on the value of top-land height, which suggests a complex relation between flame propagation in the piston crevice and crevice geometry. For idle, increasing top-land clearance resulted in an increase in HC emissions. This trend is opposite to the trend at part load. A simple model was developed which predicts surprisingly well the contribution of piston crevices to HC emissions. It was estimated that for the test engine, piston crevices contribute about 50% of the engine-out hydrocarbons. Finally exhaust gas recirculation appears to decrease the sensitivity of HC emissions to crevice dimensions.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Human Responses to Non-Azide Air Bag Effluents

All air bag systems use a pyrotechnic combustion process for the generation of gases. In some systems, it is also used for the heating of stored gases to quickly inflate the air bag. As a by-product of the process, gases and particles are produced that enter the passenger compartment resulting in inhalation of these substances. We have previously shown that systems using sodium azide as the gas generant can initiate asthmatic attacks in susceptible individuals. To evaluate whether the effluents from new-generation, non-azide air bag systems also have the potential to produce adverse responses, we performed controlled exposures of mild to moderate asthmatics to the effluents from six of these air bag systems. Each volunteer asthmatic subject was pulmonary function tested (baseline), and then seated in the back seat of the test vehicle. The air bag system was deployed and the subjects remained in the vehicle for twenty minutes.
Technical Paper

Central Carolina Vehicle Particulate Emissions Study

In-use, light-duty vehicles were recruited in Cary, North Carolina for emissions testing on a transportable dynamometer in 1999. Two hundred forty-eight vehicles were tested in as received condition using the IM240 driving cycle. The study was conducted in two phases, a summer and winter phase, with half of the vehicles recruited during each phase. Regulated emissions, PM10, carbonaceous PM, aldehydes and ketones were measured for every test. PM2.5, individual volatile hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterane and hopane emissions were measured from a subset of the vehicles. Average light-duty gasoline PM10 emission rates increased from 6.5 mg/mi for 1993-97 vehicles to 53.8 mg/mi for the pre-1985 vehicles. The recruited fleet average, hot-stabilized IM240 PM10 emission rate for gasoline vehicles was 19.0 mg/mi.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Films as a Source of Smoke and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Wall-Controlled Spark-Ignited Direct-Injection Engine

Thin films of liquid fuel can form on the piston surface in spark-ignited direct-injection (SIDI) engines. These fuel films can result in pool fires that lead to deposit formation and increased hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions. Previous investigations of the effects of piston fuel films on engine-out HC and smoke emissions have been hampered by their inability to measure the fuel-film mass in operating direct-injection engines. In this paper, a recently developed high-speed refractive-index-matching imaging technique is used for quantitative time- and space-resolved measurements of fuel-film mass on a quartz piston window of an optically-accessible direct-injection engine operating over a range of fully-warmed-up stratified-charge conditions with both a high-pressure hollow-cone swirl-type injector and with a high-pressure multihole injector.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic and Steel Vehicle Fuel Tanks

Federal standards that mandate improved fuel economy have resulted in the increased use of lightweight materials in automotive applications. However, the environmental burdens associated with a product extend well beyond the use phase. Life cycle assessment is the science of determining the environmental burdens associated with the entire life cycle of a given product from cradle-to-grave. This report documents the environmental burdens associated with every phase of the life cycle of two fuel tanks utilized in full-sized 1996 GM vans. These vans are manufactured in two configurations, one which utilizes a steel fuel tank, and the other a multi-layered plastic fuel tank consisting primarily of high density polyethylene (HDPE). This study was a collaborative effort between GM and the University of Michigan's National Pollution Prevention Center, which received funding from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory.