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Technical Paper

Study on Exterior Idling Sound Quality Evaluation Method for Diesel Engine Trucks

In diesel engine trucks, the sound quality improvement as well as the noise level reduction is demanded because of their annoying exterior noise. The semantic differential method was applied to evaluate the sound quality of trucks. In order to improve the analytical accuracy, subjects who can evaluate the characteristics of sound quality were statistically selected among all the subjects. Comfortability and powerfulness were extracted as the principal components by using the data of the selected subjects. It has been clarified that the comfortability strongly relates to high frequency element ratio, high frequency level, etc. The powerfulness strongly relates to the Zwicker loudness.
Technical Paper

The Reduction of Diesel Engine Emissions by Using the Oxidation Catalysts of Japan Diesel 13 Mode Cycle

To reduce emissions from diesel engines, the effects of oxidation catalysts on the emissions reductions were studied. The effectiveness of several oxidation catalysts on both the regulated and unregulated emissions was evaluated. The oxidation activity of the catalysts was varied by changing Pt loading. The regulated emissions include particulate (PM), hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and the unregulated emissions include benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). An 8 litter, turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was operated under the Japan Diesel 13 (D13) mode cycle for the evaluations. As the first step, evaluations were conducted with a commercially available JIS #2 diesel fuel (0.046 wt% sulfur). All the regulated and unregulated emissions except PM were reduced as the Pt loading (i.e. oxidation activity) increased. However, PM emissions were increased by the generation of sulfate when the Pt loading exceeded 0.2 g/l.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Fuel Consumption, High Durability, and Low Emissions J-Series Engines

Environmental protection is now one of the most important social concerns in the world. In 1998, emission controls in the US required the reduction of NOx by 20% from the 1994 limit. Hino Motors has developed new J-series medium-duty diesel engines for trucks that meet the US 1998 emissions regulations. The engines comprise turbocharged and aftercooled 4- and 6-cylinder engines of the same cylinder bore and stroke. The engines feature a 4-valve system, OHC valve train design, centered nozzle arrangement, and an optimum combustion chamber design, which achieved uniform combustion. With these features, the maximum combustion temperature was decreased, and hence reduced the NOx, smoke, and PM emissions. A muffler integrated with a catalytic converter (catalytic muffler) was adopted to reduce PM emissions further. The engines with the catalytic muffler have successfully met the US 1998 emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of an Intelligent Truck in ASV-2 Project in Japan

The Advanced Safety Vehicle (ASV) project phase 2 was organized by the Japanese ministry of lands, infrastructures and transport in 1996 as a five year project. Hino Motors participated in the project and developed an intelligent truck “HINO ASV-2”. HINO ASV-2 was equipped with safety systems for accident prevention and accident avoidance, which were most effective in reducing accidents in freight transport. These intelligent systems aimed to reduce driving fatigue, minimize the chance of driver’s mistake, and prevent the occurrence of accidents. Human-machine interface, and front underrun protection device were also studied. Through the development of the ASV systems, the feasibility and basic functions of these systems were studied. Further development is necessary to implement the ASV systems in production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis for Cylinder Block-Crankshaft Substructure Systems of Six-cylinder In-line Diesel Engines

A newly developed OHC (Over-Head Camshaft) prototype of a six-cylinder in-line diesel engine (with bore size: 114mm, stroke size: 130mm) was studied, comparing with the previous version of OHV (Over-Head Valve) type engine (with bore size: 110mm, stroke size: 130mm). It was found that the new type of cylinder block (with 130.8 kg of mass) has significantly lower natural frequencies than those for the previous type of cylinder block (with 133.2 kg of mass). Furthermore, slightly more predominant engine noise and vibration were induced in the new engine. The vibration behavior and the excitation force transmission characteristics were investigated by EMA (Experimental Modal Analysis). We performed a series of impact tests for (1) free-free cylinder block, (2) free-free crankshaft substructure with torsional damper and flywheel attached, and (3) the case where (1) and (2) are assembled together.
Technical Paper

Performance Improvement of On-Center Regulation for Large Sized Vehicles

The toe-change of road-wheel, so-called compliance-steer(CS), caused by suspension compliance is proved to occur around a steady instantaneous center under steady run at constant speed. The adverse/proverse CS, that increases/decreases the side-slip angle versus the velocity vector of vehicle, is realized by locating the center rearward/forward of the axle. By designing the front/rear wheel CS as a proverse/adverse CS with nonlinear compliance that is large at on-center but small at off-center, vehicle characteristics to reduce lateral deviation caused by disturbance and to improve tracking performance are possible.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Combustion for Commercial Vehicles

Historically the high speed diesel engine for commercial vehicles has been developed along with its combustion system in compliance with political and economical changes. After the 1970's, stricter exhaust emission regulations and fuel economy requirements induced combustion developments and application of turbocharged and inter cooled engines. From the late 1980's, high pressure fuel injection has been investigated and recognized as an essential tool for lowering emissions especially of particulate matter. Although turbulence effects on both in-cylinder air motion and during the combustion process are quite effective, they show different phenomena in conventional and advanced high pressure fuel injection systems. In the 1990's, multiple injection with high pressure has been attempted for further reduction of NOx and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Effects of High-Boost Turbocharging on Combustion Characteristics and Improving Its Low Engine Speed Torque

This paper describes the experimental studies of turbocharged and intercooled diesel engines with particular emphasis on combustion characteristics following increase of boost pressure. Through these studies, it has become possible to determine the optimum air quantity for minimizing fuel consumption at each engine speed range under the restrictive conditions of NOx emission, exhaust smoke and maximum cylinder pressure. Discussed also is the lack of air quantity in the low engine speed range of high-boost turbocharged diesel engines. Various turbocharging systems to improve air quantity in this speed range are introduced herein. Practically the engine performance of conventional turbocharging, waste gate control turbocharging and variable geometry turbocharging are discussed from the viewpoint of torque recovery in the low engine speed range.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Low Emission Diesel Combustion

A new concept for diesel combustion was investigated by means of numerical simulation, engine experiment, and combustion observation in order to realize a simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emission. This concept (HiMICS: Homogeneous charge intelligent Multiple Injection Combustion System) is based on pre-mixed compression ignition combustion combined with multiple injection. Combustion characteristics of HiMICS concept was investigated by comparing with both a standard single injection and a pilot injection. In HiMICS concept, the pre-mixture is formed by a preliminary injection performed during a period from the early stage of the induction stroke to the middle stage of the compression stroke. Modified KIVA-II code was used to predict engine performances and emissions of each injection method. The simulation results show a capability of considerable improvement in the trade-off relation between NOx emissions and fuel consumption of HiMICS.
Technical Paper

Development of J-Series Engine and Adoption of Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

Hino has developed new J-series medium-duty diesel engines for trucks and buses. The new J-series comprises four, five and six-cylinder engines with the same cylinder bore and stroke and with both naturally aspirated and charge air cooled. Both output and torque have been enhanced along with fuel efficiency in an engine that is lighter and more compact than ever and reaches new heights of durability and reliability. J-series engine features a 4-valve system and OHC valve train design, which achieved an uniform combustion by a centered nozzle and combustion chamber design. This decreases the maximum combustion temperature and hence improved the NOx,smoke and PM emissions. And a reduced pumping loss results in improving the fuel consumption. J-series engines thus meet the Japanese 1994 emission regulations. Another feature is a fully electronically controlled common-rail fuel injection system, which is equipped in a specified engine of naturally aspirated 6 cylinder.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Low Emission Diesel Combustion (2nd Rep. : Reduction of HC and CO Emission, and Improvement of Fuel Consumption by EGR and MTBE Blended Fuel)

A new concept for diesel combustion has been investigated by means of engine experiments and combustion observations in order to realize a simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulate emissions. The concept is based on pre-mixed compression ignition combustion combined with multiple injection. In this method, some part of fuel is injected at an early stage of the process to form a homogeneous lean pre-mixture, then the remaining fuel is injected at around the TDC in the same manner as a conventional diesel injection. The emissions, ROHR (rate of heat release), and combustion pictures of conventional combustion, pilot injection combustion, and this new combustion concept were compared and analyzed. Engine tests were carried out using a single cylinder research engine equipped with a common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Energy Regeneration of Heavy Duty Diesel Powered Vehicles

The objective of this study is to improve fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions in diesel-electric hybrid automotive powertrains by developing an exhaust gas turbine generator system which utilizes exhaust gas energy from the turbocharger waste gate. The design of the exhaust gas turbine generator was based on a conventional turbocharger for a direct-injection diesel engine. Data from steady-state bench tests using air indicates about 50% of the turbine input energy can be converted to electric energy. Turbine generator output averaged 3 kW, while a maximum of about 6 kW was observed. Based on this data, we estimate that energy consumption in a vehicle could be reduced between 5% and 10%. Engine tests were conducted under both steady-state and transient conditions. These tests revealed that optimal performance occurred under high-speed, high-load conditions, typical of highway or uphill driving, and that performance at low-speed, low-loads was relatively poor.
Technical Paper

The Visualization and Its Analysis of Combustion Flame in a DI Diesel Engine

Since in-cylinder flame temperature has a direct effect on an engine's NOx characteristics, these phenomena have been studied in detail in a DI diesel engine using a newly developed method allowing the in-cylinder temperature distribution to be measured by the two color method. The flame light introduced from the visualized combustion chamber of the engine is divided into two colors by filters. The images of combustion phenomena using the two wavelengths are recorded with a framing streak camera which includes a CCD camera. The flame temperature is immediately calculated by a computer using two color images from the CCD camera. A parameter study was then carried out to determine the influence of intake valve number of the engine, and fuel injection rate (pilot injection) on the in-cylinder temperature distribution.
Technical Paper

A Study on Cam Wear Mechanism with a Newly Developed Friction Measurement Apparatus

The requirements for emission control, lower fuel consumption and higher engine output have changed the engine valve train system to 4-valve/cylinder and higher cam lift designs, and these changes make the cam/tappet lubrication conditions more severe than before. Under such a working condition, there is a high possibility that cam/tappet surface damages such as scuffing, pitting and wear may occur. Among the damages, the wear of cam/tappet is the most difficult to predict since the wear mechanism still remains unclear. To understand the lubrication condition and therefore, the wear mechanism at the cam/tappet contact, friction was measured with a newly developed apparatus. Measurement results showed that the lubrication condition between cam and tappet is predominantly in the mixed and boundary lubrication conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization by Means of Common Rail Injection System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

This paper describes the combustion optimizations of heavy-duty diesel engines for the anticipated future emissions regulations by means of an electronically controlled common rail injection system. Tests were conducted on a turbocharged and aftercooled (TCA) prototype heavy-duty diesel engine. To improve both NOx-fuel consumption and NOx-PM trade-offs, fuel injection characteristics including injection timing, injection pressure, pilot injection quantity, and injection interval on emissions and engine performances were explored. Then intake swirl ratio and combustion chamber geometry were modified to optimize air-fuel mixing and to emphasize the pilot injection effects. Finally, for further NOx reductions, the potentials of the combined use of EGR and pilot injection were experimentally examined. The results showed that the NOx-fuel consumption trade-off is improved by an optimum swirl ratio and combustion chamber geometry as well as by a new pilot concept.
Technical Paper

Development of “Camion” Truck Winner at '97 Dakar Rally

In the '97 Dakar Rally, Hino FT model, 8,000cc engine truck, won 1st, 2nd and 3rd places by defeating upper class trucks having engine of 19,000cc. The average speed of the '97 Hino model was increased more than 15 km/h over the '96 model by improving the riding comfort and handling stability. Larger diameter tires, and softer parabolic leaf springs with long and inclined axle-locus for reducing road impact, gas charged dampers, suspension rods which control compliance-steer-motion and wind-up motion of unsprung masses were adopted for the '97 model.
Technical Paper

3D Numerical Simulation of Fuel injection and Combustion Phenomena in DI Diesel Engines

Recently the analysis of air-fuel mixing and combustion has become important under the stringent emissions regulations of diesel engines. In the case of gasoline engines, the KIVA computer program has been developed and used for the analysis of combustion. In this paper, the calculations of combustion phenomena in DI diesel engines are performed by modifying the KIVA program so as to be applicable to multi-hole nozzles and arbitrary patterns of injection rate. The thermophysical and ther-mochemical properties of gasoline are altered to those diesel fuel. In order to investigate the ability of this modified program, the calculations are compared with the experiments on single cylinder engines concerning the pressure, flame temperature and mass change of chemical species in cylinders. Furthermore, the calculation for the heavy duty DI diesel engine is performed with this diesel combustion program.
Technical Paper

The Development of Low Noise Engine on Hino New “H” Series

This paper introduces the details of a low noise design realized by fully utilizing the theoretical methods for the prediction of noise and vibration, applied to Hino's new “H07D” engine. In the development of this engine, the reduction of the vehicle interior noise was one of the highest priority aims. For this purpose, the influence of the engine noise on the vehicle noise was firstly investigated to identify the major noise sources. Then, making best use of noise prediction techniques (FEM, etc.), the noise radiation mechanisms were clarified and the components identified as major noise sources were re-designed. In these improvements, the theoretical techniques also predicted carefully the effect of design changes on the related components, including their installation in an engine as required. These procedures achieved a remarkable noise reduction of the engine by cost effective methods.
Technical Paper

Development of Methanol Engine with Autoignition for Low NOx Emission and Better Fuel Economy

The spark-assisted methanol engine has disadvantages like poor fuel economy especially at light load and low spark plug durability affected by combustion characteristics. Investigations of combustion characteristics of the spark ignition system and the autoignition system in the methanol engine and discharge characteristics of a spark plug are described in this paper. It is clear that effective autoignition was accomplished by increasing the compression ratio and adopting an EGR system in the spark-assisted methanol engine. This new improved methanol engine which is named HAMS achieved good fuel economy at light load, a low NOx emission and longer spark plug life. And a heat insulated piston with a stainless steel cap is being investigated for further improvement of autoignition combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of a Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer

Gaseous emission measurements of a diesel engine including hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxide of nitrogen (NOx) are made in accordance with the procedures specified in the Federal Register. However, it is very difficult to maintain constantly the accuracy of these emission measurements due to failure of the emission analyzer. The authors have thus developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System for a Diesel Emission Analyzer. Firstly, the authors have carried out analysis of all failure modes that are classified into initial failure, random failure and wearing-out failure, plus tolerance level for prediction of failures and method of predicting failures. Next, the authors have developed the Pre-Alarm Diagnostic System that is able to easily discover these failures before the exhaust emission test. In this system, 40 sensors, such as pressure, temperature, voltage etc, are laid in each pipe line of connection between exhaust emission sampling pump and analyzer.