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Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Combustion for Commercial Vehicles

Historically the high speed diesel engine for commercial vehicles has been developed along with its combustion system in compliance with political and economical changes. After the 1970's, stricter exhaust emission regulations and fuel economy requirements induced combustion developments and application of turbocharged and inter cooled engines. From the late 1980's, high pressure fuel injection has been investigated and recognized as an essential tool for lowering emissions especially of particulate matter. Although turbulence effects on both in-cylinder air motion and during the combustion process are quite effective, they show different phenomena in conventional and advanced high pressure fuel injection systems. In the 1990's, multiple injection with high pressure has been attempted for further reduction of NOx and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Development of a Higher Boost Turbocharged Diesel Engine for Better Fuel Economy in Heavy Vehicles

This paper presents technical solutions and a development process to accomplish not only superior fuel economy but also excellent driveability with a turbocharged diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. For better fuel economy, one of the basic considerations is how to decrease the friction losses of the engine itself while keeping the required horsepower and torque characteristics. A high boost turbocharged small engine offers this possibility, but it has serious disadvantages such as inferior low speed torque, poorer accelerating response, insufficient engine braking performance, and finally not always so good fuel consumption in the engine operating range away from the matching point between engine and turbocharger. These are not acceptable in complicated traffic conditions like those in Japan - a mixture of mountainous and hilly roads, city road with numerous traffic signals, and freeways.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Combustion influences Durability of Fuel Injection Pipe Line and Treatment of the Pipe

In order to reduce particulate and NOx emission from the direct injection diesel engine, most researchers have been expecting the utilization of higher injection pressure and injection rate for improvement of diesel combustion. In the case of pump-line-nozzle system, the injection pipe line is very important with regard to the high injection pressure. Namely, the pipe line must be able to resist not only high pressure but also cavitation erosion. In this paper, the effect of high injection pressure, injection rate and sharp cutting at the end of fuel injection are discussed along with cavitation phenomena on the injection pipe line. And durability tests on the pipe line system under high injection pressure using a test rig are also described. Regarding durability tests, several measures have been taken for the injection pipe. As a result, the authors have found that the best solution for the injection pipe is a composite pipe made with SUS and steel.
Technical Paper

An Observation of Combustion Phenomenon on Heat Insulated Turbo-Charged and Inter-Cooled D.I. Diesel Engines

A current unmodified and modified engines with different amounts of thermal insulation have been used to generate data from which changes in bsfc, cooling loss, emissions, exhaust loss were determined. Since legislative requirement exists for allowable emission of NOx, fuel injection timing and other controllable factors were adjusted to maintain constant NOx emission except a test of influence on NOx emission according to the rate of heat insulation (adiabaticity). The effect of higher combustion temperature on the combustion phenomena is discussed.
Technical Paper

A Light Scattering and Holographic Technique for Determining Droplet Size and Volume Density Distribution in Diesel Fuel Sprays

In a diesel engine, the mixing of the fuel spray and in-cylinder air controls rate of beat release during combustion, namely it will determine the thermal efficiency, maximum output and gas or noise emission, etc. Therefore, it is important to measure the droplet size and its volume density distribution in diesel fuel sprays. The optical measuring method, which includes a light scattering and holographic technique, seems the only feasible method for analysing these unsteady characteristics of fuel sprays. The light scattering technique described herein was based upon Mie scattering theory, and the droplet size and volume density distribution of fuel sprays were calculated from the combination of the light extinction and the forward-to-backscattering ratio of Mie scattering intensity. The volume density and droplet size distribution of fuel sprays were obtained from the light intensity distribution on a photograph of fuel sprays.