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Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Engine Oil Consumption- Oil Upwards Transport via Piston Oil Ring Gap -

2011-04-12
2011-01-1402
Reduction of oil consumption of engines is required to avoid a negative effect on engine after treatment devices. Engines are required fuel economy for reduction of carbon-dioxide emission, and it is known that reduction of piston frictions is effective on fuel economy. However friction reduction of pistons sometimes causes an increase in engine oil consumption. Therefore reduction of engine oil consumption becomes important subject recently. The ultimate goal of this study is developing the estimation method of oil consumption, and the mechanism of oil upward transport at oil ring gap was investigated in this paper. Oil pressure under the oil ring lower rail was measured by newly developed apparatus. It was found that the piston slap motion and piston up and down motion affected oil pressure rise under the oil ring and oil was spouted through ring-gap by the pressure. The effect of the piston design on the oil pressure generation was also investigated.
Technical Paper

Development of New Diesel Particulate Active Reduction System for both NOx and PM Reduction

2011-04-12
2011-01-1277
The new Diesel Particulate active Reduction (DPR) system was developed for a medium-duty commercial vehicle as a deNOx catalyst combined with the conventional DPR system to achieve the Japan Post New-Long-Term (JPNLT) emissions regulations. It consists of a catalyst converter named as the new DPR cleaner, a fuel dosing injector, NOx sensors, temperatures and pressure sensors. The new DPR cleaner was constructed from a Front Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (F-DOC), a catalyzed particulate Filter (Filter), and a Rear Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (R-DOC). A newly developed Hydrocarbon Selective Catalyst Reduction (HC-SCR) catalyst was employed for each catalyst aiming to reduce NOx emissions with diesel fuel supplied from the fuel dosing injector. While the total volume of the catalyst was increased, the compact and easy-to-install catalyst converter was realized through the optimization of the flow vector and flow distribution in it by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of Efficient Urea-SCR Systems for EPA 2010-Compliant Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1309
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued new emissions regulations, which came into effect in January, 2010. These EPA 2010 regulations are the most stringent emissions standards in the world, reducing both particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nearly zero levels. Hino Motors improved upon its previous EPA 2007-compliant engine, developing a new exhaust after-treatment system in which a Diesel Particulate active Reduction System (DPR), a Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System and a Burner System are employed to meet EPA 2010 emissions regulations for medium duty commercial vehicles. DPR was already developed and utilized to reduce PM to meet EPA 2007 standards, but the Urea-SCR System is newly developed technology used to reduce NOx emissions to comply with EPA2010 emissions regulations. In addition, a Burner System is used to elevate exhaust gas temperatures in order to improve both SCR performance and DPR active Regeneration.
Technical Paper

Development of the Burner Systems for EPA2010 Medium Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0295
EPA 2010 emissions regulations - currently the strictest standards in the world - place particular emphasis on exhaust gas thermal control technology. The Burner System, a device developed to control exhaust gas temperatures, is the most effective means of raising exhaust gas temperature, as this system can function under any engine conditions, including low engine speed and torque. The Burner System begins operating immediately when the engine is started, activating the Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) System immediately, because the Burner System is active, it enables the diesel particulate filter active regeneration under any engine operating conditions as well. This technical paper reports Burner System (ActiveClean™ Thermal Regenerator) development results.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx Reduction Using Plasma-assisted SCR System for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0310
To reduce NOx emissions from a heavy-duty engine at low exhaust temperature conditions, the plasma-assisted SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system was evaluated. The plasma-assisted SCR system is mainly composed of an ammonia gas supply system and a plasma reactor including a pellet type SCR catalyst. The preliminary test with simulated gases of diesel exhaust showed an improvement in the NOx reduction performance by means of the plasma-assisted SCR system, even below 150°C conditions. Furthermore, NOx reduction ratio was improved up to 77% at 110°C with increase in the catalyst volume. Also NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine over the transient test mode in Japan (JE05) were reduced by the plasma-assisted SCR system. However, unregulated emissions, e.g., aldehydes, were increased with the plasma environment. This paper reports the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma-assisted SCR system for a heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermal Fatigue Evaluation Method for Cast Iron

2013-04-08
2013-01-0393
We have developed a new test method in which temperature of cavity lip of a piston alone during engine rotation is reproduced, cavity lip strain is measured. As the results of strain measurement using the test method in a condition that simulates of conventional engines, a strain behavior was out-of-phase. And in a condition that simulates of high-load engines in future, strain behavior was clockwise-diamond cycle. It was found from the result of the test method developed that strain increased on the cavity lip. The fatigue life of the cavity lip was evaluated using the strain measured and isothermal fatigue curves which obtained by the strain controlled isothermal fatigue test. The result of engine durability test has revealed that the developed method was valid for thermal fatigue evaluation of the cavity lip.
Technical Paper

Ride Comfort Evaluation of Horizontal Vibration in Tractor-Trailer Considering Human Body Motion of Driver

2013-04-08
2013-01-0992
In a tractor-trailer, ride comfort affected by horizontal human body motions, so called “wavy” and “shaky” feelings, is at issue. Insight about “wavy” and “shaky” feelings which is important for efficient vehicle development is not enough. Experiments using 6-axis motion generator and motion capture and inverse-analysis using multi-body human model indicated the characteristics of each feeling. Motion observation and transfer function indicated that while a bad subjective score of “wavy” feeling corresponds to same-phase roll motion of chest and pelvis up to 0.7Hz, “shaky” correlates to an antiphase of them around 2Hz. By multiple regression, dominant vibration components of the human body and the vehicle to subjective evaluation of the feelings above were identified. Explanatory variables for the “wavy” feeling are roll rate and lateral jerk and those for the “shaky” are lateral acceleration and longitudinal acceleration.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

2013-04-08
2013-01-1076
Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics from After-Treatment System of Medium and Light Duty Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1501
1 To meet the Japan Post New-Long-Term (Japan 2009) emissions regulation introduced in 2009, The Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction (HC-SCR) system for the NOx emission with a diesel fuel was chosen among various deNOx after-treatment systems (the Urea-SCR, the NOx storage-Reduction Catalyst and so on). The HC-SCR was adopted, in addition to combustion modification of diesel engine (mainly cooled EGR) as the New DPR system. The New DPR system for medium and light duty vehicles was developed as a world's first technology by Hino Motors. Advantages of the New DPR are compact to easy-to-install catalyst converter and no urea solution (DEF) injection (regardless urea infrastructure) as compared the Urea-SCR system.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Rankine Cycle Generating System for Heavy Duty HV Trucks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0678
In heavy duty (HD) trucks cruising on expressway, about 60% of input fuel energy is wasted as losses. So it is important to recover them to improve fuel economy of them. As a waste heat recovery system, a Rankine cycle generating system was selected. And this paper mainly reports it. In this study, engine coolant was determined as main heat source, which collected energies of an engine cooling, an EGR gas and an exhaust gas, for collecting stable energy as much as possible. And the exergy of heat source was raised by increase coolant temperature to 105 deg C. As for improving the system efficiency, saturation temperature difference was expanded by improving performance of heat exchanger and by using high pressure turbine. And a recuperator which exchanges heat in working fluid between expander outlet and evaporator inlet was installed to recover the heat of working fluid at turbine generator. Then a working fluid pump was improved to reduce power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

Application of Set-Based Design Method to Ride Comfort Design with a Large Number of Design Parameters

2014-04-01
2014-01-0881
Design work for truck suspension systems requires multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameters that cannot be solved in a simple way. This paper proposes a process-based systematization concept for ride comfort design using a set-based design method. A truck was modeled with a minimum of 13 degrees of freedom, and suspension performance under various vehicle speeds, road surface conditions, and load amounts was calculated. The range of design parameters for the suspension, the range of performance requirements, and the optimal values within these ranges were defined based on the knowledge and know-how of experienced design engineers. The final design of the suspension was installed in a prototype truck and evaluated. The performance of the truck satisfied all the objectives and the effectiveness of the set-based design approach was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Alloying Elements on Wear Resistance of Automobile Cast Iron Materials

2014-04-01
2014-01-1011
Wear resistance is the important characteristics of cast iron materials for automobile components. Because the phenomenon of wear is a highly complicated mechanism involving many factors such as surface conditions, chemical reactions with lubricants, metals, and physics, it has not been fully explained. Therefore, it will be necessary to confirm and explain the wear mechanism to develop effective improvements. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structural change behavior and effects of alloying elements when the material top surface becomes worn, in order to improve the wear resistance of cylinder liners and other cast iron materials. For this purpose, several types of prototype materials were produced, and the relationship between components and wear resistance was investigated by using a laser microscope for quantitative observation of the degree of pearlite microstructure fineness.
Technical Paper

Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Exhaust Emissions to Advanced Aftertreatment Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-1292
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. In the impact on exhaust emissions, the impact of high biodiesel blends into diesel fuel on diesel emissions was evaluated. The wide variety of biodiesel blendstock, which included not only some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters(FAME) but also hydrofined biodiesel(HBD) and Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel(FTD), were selected to evaluate. The main blend level evaluated was 5, 10 and 20% and the higher blend level over 20% was also evaluated in some tests. The main advanced technologies for exhaust aftertreatment systems were diesel particulate filter(DPF), Urea selective catalytic reduction (Urea-SCR) and the combination of DPF and NOx storage reduction catalyst(NSR).
Journal Article

Effect of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel on Fuel Supply System

2011-08-30
2011-01-1950
This paper investigates the effects of Fischer-Tropsch Diesel (FTD) (a completely a paraffinic fuel) on the fuel supply system in automotive applications. In particular, the effects of Gas to Liquid (GTL) (an FTD synthesized from natural gas) on the elastomer components has been investigated by laboratory scale tests and field trials. In the field trials, GTL was supplied to a commercial vehicle operator and the effect of real running conditions was observed. Also, the laboratory scale testing to simulate the actual condition of usage of a commercial vehicle was conducted under stringent conditions, and a correlation with the field trials was investigated. As a result, no negative effects related to GTL were found.
Journal Article

Study of the Impact of High Biodiesel Blends on Engine Oil Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-1930
In Biodiesel Fuel Research Working Group(WG) of Japan Auto-Oil Program(JATOP), some impacts of high biodiesel blends have been investigated from the viewpoints of fuel properties, stability, emissions, exhaust aftertreatment systems, cold driveability, mixing in engine oils, durability/reliability and so on. This report is designed to determine how high biodiesel blends affect oil quality through testing on 2005 regulations engines with DPFs. When blends of 10-20% rapeseed methyl ester (RME) with diesel fuel are employed with 10W-30 engine oil, the oil change interval is reduced to about a half due to a drop in oil pressure. The oil pressure drop occurs because of the reduced kinematic viscosity of engine oil, which resulting from dilution of poorly evaporated RME with engine oil and its accumulation, however, leading to increased wear of piston top rings and cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Impacts on Engine Oil Performance by the Use of Waste Cooking Oil as Diesel Fuel

2011-08-30
2011-01-2115
Technical impacts on engine oil performance by the use of waste cooking oil as bio-diesel fuel (BDF) are not well understood while the industry has made significant progress in studies on quality specifications and infrastructure. The authors, who consist of a consortium organized by Japan Lubricating Oil Society (JALOS), examined technical effects of waste cooking oil as BDF on engine oil performance such as wear and high temperature corrosion using vehicle fleets and bench tests to identify technical issues of engine oil meeting the use of BDF. The study brings fundamental information about technical impacts of BDF on engine oils.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of and Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Dimple Texturing on Liner Surface for Reduction of Friction between Piston Rings and Cylinder Bore

2014-04-01
2014-01-1661
Reducing friction between the piston ring and cylinder is an effective way of meeting the demand for lower fuel consumption in vehicle engines. To that effect, the authors have proposed a new and efficient friction reduction treatment for the cylinder. At first glance, this treatment seems similar to typical microtexture treatments, but it is built on a different approach. Through a rig tester, it was confirmed that optimizing the shape of the dimples and the treatment area for the cylinder improves FMEP between the piston ring and the cylinder liner by 17%. This report presents an analysis of the test results to explain the mechanism by which this effect is achieved. Fuel consumption was measured in an actual engine, and a maximum fuel consumption improvement of 3.2% was confirmed after conversion to the Japanese heavy duty vehicle fuel economy standards (Category T2). Lubricating oil consumption, blow-by and durability were also examined.
Technical Paper

Development of Energy Management for Small Electric Buses

2015-04-14
2015-01-0246
An energy management method and model for small electric buses was studied. The model consists of a drive motor & inverter, a lithium ion battery, electric auxiliary devices and a mechanical powertrain. A small electric bus was developed based on the short travel distance, high charging frequency concept. Since 2012, two buses have operated as community buses in two different regions, and another bus started operations in a third region in 2013. The development of an energy management model accounting for operating conditions made it possible to keep the lithium ion battery capacity to a minimum. This paper describes energy management for this small electric bus, the design of the vehicle and the results of evaluating actual operation.
Technical Paper

Development of Materials for Gear with Superior Impact Wear Resistance

2015-04-14
2015-01-0517
The friction pattern on the chamfers of sleeves and dog gears is a combination of peeling and adhesive wear caused by the formation and propagation of fine cracks. The effect of additional elements on wear were checked by making a test apparatus capable of performing evaluations on test pieces equivalent to those using actual parts. The results showed that the addition of B, Ti-Nb helped improve wear resistance. This is attributed to enhanced toughness and reduced peeling due to the formation of a texture. A 45% reduction in wear was achieved in actual parts tests on steel with added B, Ti-Nb.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

2007-10-29
2007-01-4083
Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
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