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Technical Paper

Model-Based Methodology for Air Charge Estimation and Control in Turbocharged Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1754
The purpose of this study is to develop model-based methodologies which employ thermo-fluid dynamic engine simulation and multiple-objective optimization schemes for engine control and calibration, and to validate the reliability of the method using a dynamometer test. In our technique, creating a total engine system model begins by first entirely capturing the characteristics of the components affecting the engine system's behavior, then using experimental data to strictly adjust the tuning parameters in physical models. Engine outputs over the full range of engine operation conditions as determined by design of experiment (DOE) are simulated, followed by fitting the provided dataset using a nonlinear response surface model (RSM) to express the causal relationship among engine operational parameters, environmental factors and engine output. The RSM is applied to an L-jetronic® air-intake system control logic for a turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1596
We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Robustness Control for Practical Use of Gasoline HCCI Engine- An Investigation of a Detecting Technology of Conditions of HCCI Using an Ion Current Sensor -

2014-04-01
2014-01-1279
The robustness control for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) using a crank angle sensor and a knock sensor has been estimated. On the other hand, an ion current sensor is used as a countermeasure against abnormal combustion with downsized and higher compression ratio engines. This sensor can generally be adopted in engine systems. Therefore, we examined the application of an ion current sensor to robustness control for HCCI. The purpose of this research was to develop a method of detecting combustion conditions to make HCCI engines more robust. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of the ion current sensor. Experimental results comparing ion intensity detection in HCCI. The detection value of the ion current sensor changed based on the form of combustion. Experimental results showed that the heat release rate increased with an increase in ion signals appear during the same time at approximately in both spark ignition (SI) and HCCI.
Technical Paper

Multi-Swirl Type Injector for Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1436
The authors developed a multi-swirl type injector characterized by a short spray penetration length and fine atomization to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engines. In PFI gasoline engines, fuel adhesion to an intake manifold causes exhaust emission. In addition, good mixing of fuel and air causes high combustion efficiency, and as a result the fuel consumption improves. Injectors therefore require two improvements: first, a short spray penetration to avoid fuel adhesion to the intake manifold, and second, a fine atomization spray to generate a good mixture formation of fuel and air. In this study, the authors developed a multi-swirl type injector equipped with multiple orifice holes featuring swirl chambers upstream of each orifice. The key feature of the proposed injector is “involute curve-formed swirl chambers” for generating a uniform thin liquid-film in the orifices.
Technical Paper

Improved Thermal Efficiency Using Hydrous Ethanol Reforming in SI Engines

2013-09-08
2013-24-0118
The internal combustion engines waste large amounts of heat energy, which account for 60% of the fuel energy. If this heat energy could be converted to the output power of engines, their thermal efficiency could be improved. The thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle increases as the compression ratio and the ratio of specific heat increase. If high octane number fuel is used in engines, their thermal efficiency could be improved. Moreover, thermal efficiency could be improved further if fuel could be combusted in dilute condition. Therefore, exhaust heat recovery, high compression combustion, and lean combustion are important methods of improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines. These three methods could be combined by using hydrous ethanol as fuel. Exhaust heat can be recovered by the steam reforming of hydrous ethanol. The reformed gas including hydrogen can be combusted in dilute condition. In addition, it is cooled by directly injecting hydrous ethanol into the engine.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Particulate Matter in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines by Non-Combustion CFD

2014-04-01
2014-01-1142
A technique of estimating particulate matter (PM) from gasoline direct injection engines is proposed that is used to compute mass density and particle number density of PM by using fuel mass in rich mixtures obtained by using non-combustion computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD code that was developed by the authors employed a Cartesian coordinates system as a discretization method and large eddy simulation (LES) as a turbulence model. Fuel spray droplets were treated with the discrete droplet model (DDM). The code was verified with some experimental data such as those obtained from in-cylinder gas-flows with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and in-cylinder fuel concentration with laser induced fluorescence (LIF). PM emissions from a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) to determine the model constants that were required in the estimation model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Knocking Suppression Effect of Cooled EGR in Turbo-Charged Gasoline Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1217
The cooled EGR system has been focused on as a method for knocking suppression in gasoline engines. In this paper, the effect of cooled EGR on knocking suppression that leads to lower fuel consumption is investigated in a turbo-charged gasoline engine. First, the cooled EGR effect is estimated by combustion simulation with a knock prediction model. It shows that the ignition timing at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 1 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, combustion phasing (50% heat release timing) at the knocking limit can be advanced by about 0.5 [deg. CA] per 1% of EGR ratio, and the fuel consumption amount can be decreased by about 0.4% per 1% of EGR ratio. Second, the effect of cooled EGR is verified in an experimental approach. By adding inert gas (N2/CO2) as simulated EGR gas upstream of the intake pipe, the effect of EGR is investigated when EGR gas and fresh air are mixed homogeneously. As a result, the ignition timing at the knocking limit is advanced by 7 [deg.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0584
Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Technique for Air-Intake-System Control Using Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of SI Engines and Multiple-Objective Optimization

2011-10-06
2011-28-0119
We have developed a model-based control for the air intake system in a variable valve engine, employing total engine simulation, the response surface method and multi-objective optimization scheme. In our technique, we performed the simulation model tuning and validation, followed by the creation of a dataset for the polynomial regression analysis of the charging efficiency. A D-optimal design, robust least squares method, and likelihood-ratio test were demonstrated to yield a robust and accurate control model. Coupling the total engine simulator with a genetic algorithm, model based calibration for optimal valve timing stored in lookup table was carried out under multiple objectives and restrictions. The reliability of the implementation control model, which considers the effect of gas dynamics in the intake system, was confirmed using a model-in-the-loop simulation.
Technical Paper

A New Diagnosis Method for an Air-Fuel Ratio Cylinder Imbalance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0718
A new diagnosis method for an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance has been developed. The developed diagnosis method is composed of two parts. The first part detects an occurrence of an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance by using a two revolution frequency component of an EGO sensor output signal or an UEGO sensor output signal upstream from a catalyst. The two revolution frequency component is from a cycle where an engine rotates twice. The second part of the diagnosis method detects an increase of emissions by using a low frequency component which is calculated from the output of an EGO sensor downstream from the catalyst. When the two revolution frequency component calculated using the upstream sensor output is larger than a certain level and the low frequency component calculated using the downstream sensor output is shifted to a leaner range, the diagnosis judges that the emissions increase is due to an air-fuel ratio cylinder imbalance.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Calibration Methodology for Spark Advance Control Using Engine Cycle Simulation and Polynomial Regression Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4023
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems has led to increasingly complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has created dramatic increases in software development time and cost. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs and also to enable engineers to understand the complex relationship between the many controllable parameters and engine performance. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and regression analysis. The reliability of the proposed method was investigated by validating the regression model predictions with measured data.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Calibration Process for Producing Optimal Spark Advance in a Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Variable Valve Train

2006-10-16
2006-01-3235
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems leads to complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has led to dramatic increases in software development time and costs in recent years. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process using an engine cycle simulation technique combined with a regression analysis of engine responses. From the results it was clear that the engine cycle simulation technique was useful in the engine calibration process, if the empirical parameters included in physical models were adjusted at typical sampling-points in several engine speeds and loads. The cycle simulation produced a multi-dimensional MBT map, and a response surface method was employed in the modeling of the engine map dataset using a polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

A Study of a New Aftertreatment System (1): A New Dosing Device for Enhancing Low Temperature Performance of Urea-SCR

2006-04-03
2006-01-0642
In order to reduce diesel NOx emissions, aftertreatment methods including LNT (Lean NOx Trap) and urea SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) have been researched. One of the shortcomings of urea SCR is its NOx reduction performance degradation at low exhaust gas temperatures and possible emission of unregulated byproducts. Here, a new type of a urea-dosing device to overcome these shortcomings is studied. This dosing device actively produces ammonia without depending upon the exhaust gas temperature, and designed for onboard application. The device incorporates an electrically heated bypass with a hydrolysis catalyst. An injector supplies urea solution into the bypass. The bypass is heated only when thermolysis is needed to produce ammonia (NH3). The hydrolysis catalyst further assists in the production of NH3. The ammonia gas obtained is then mixed with the main exhaust gas flow.
Technical Paper

A Study of a New Aftertreatment System (2): Control of Urea Solution Spray for Urea-SCR

2006-04-03
2006-01-0644
The urea-SCR system is one of the most promising aftertreatment systems for future automotive diesel engines. We developed a urea dosing device with twin urea injectors for onboard applications, to enhance the NOx reduction performance at low exhaust temperatures and to lower the electric power consumption of the SCR system. The injectors operate with a single-phase urea solution, without air assist. Of the injectors, one is used to supply urea to a bypass passage routing the exhaust, during low exhaust temperatures. The other injector is located on the wall of the main exhaust duct, directly supplying urea to the exhaust. This direct injection method has a uniform spray distribution problem. A set of impact plates were used to distribute the spray. Impact plates have a high potential for deposition, but use of film boiling was considered. A thermal analysis was conducted and as a result, deposit conditions were theoretically derived. This was confirmed through experiments.
Technical Paper

Cold Start HC Reduction with Feedback Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor

2008-04-14
2008-01-1010
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas can be reduced by optimizing the air-fuel ratio. However, a conventional air-fuel ratio feedback control does not operate for the first ten seconds after the engine has started because the air-fuel ratio sensor has not yet been activated. In this paper, we report on a study to optimize the air-fuel ratio using a crank angle sensor until the air-fuel ratio sensor has been activated. A difference in fuel properties was used as a typical disturbance factor. The control was applied to both a direct-injection engine (DI) and a port-injection engine (MPI). It was evaluated for two fuel types: one which evaporates easily and one which does not. The experimental results show the air-fuel ratio is optimized for both types of fuel.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Torque-based Engine Control by Learning Correlation between Torque and Throttle Position

2008-04-14
2008-01-1015
In recent years, integrated vehicle control systems have been developed to improve fuel economy and safety. As a result, engine control is shifting to torque-based systems for throttle / fuel / ignition control, to realize an engine torque demand from the system. This paper describes torque-based engine control technologies for SI (Spark Ignition) engine to improve torque control accuracy using a feedback control algorithm and an airflow sensor.
Technical Paper

A Urea-Dosing Device for Enhancing Low-Temperature Performance by Active-Ammonia Production in an SCR System

2008-04-14
2008-01-1026
A new urea-dosing device with an active-ammonia production function was developed. This function is achieved by an electrically heated bypass passage with a hydrolysis catalyst for urea-to-ammonia conversion. The new device also has the function of mixing ammonia and exhaust gas. It is compact and has low-pressure loss by using the vortex occurring at the back of a static vane. We built a trial device for a small diesel engine and obtained steady state and transient data. The heated-bypass concept can be used in the aftertreatment system of passenger cars. Although active-ammonia production consumes electric power, a predictive calculation of power consumption (based on experimental results) shows that the developed bypass heater can suppress the energy consumption enough not to harm the high-energy efficiency of diesel engines.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

2008-04-14
2008-01-0806
This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Journal Article

A Study of a Multiple-link Continuously Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) System

2008-06-23
2008-01-1719
A new variable valve event and lift (VVEL) system has been developed by applying a multiple-link mechanism. This VVEL system can continuously vary the valve event angle and lift over a wide range from an exceptional small event angle and small lift and to a large event angle and large lift. This capability offers the potential to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions and other parameters of engine performance. The valve lift characteristics obtained with the VVEL system consist of a synthesis of the oscillatory motion characteristics of the multiple-link mechanism and the oscillating cam profile. With the multiple-link mechanism, the angular velocity of the oscillating cams varies during valve lift, but the valve lift characteristics incorporate both gentle ramp sections and sharp lift sections, the same as a conventional engine.
Technical Paper

A Study of Friction Characteristics of Continuously Variable Valve Event & Lift (VEL) System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0222
A continuously variable valve event and lift (VEL) system, actuated by oscillating cams, can provide optimum lift and event angles matching the engine operating conditions, thereby improving fuel economy, exhaust emission performance and power output. The VEL system allows small lift and event angles even in the engine operating region where the required intake air volume is small and the influence of valvetrain friction is substantial, such as during idling. Therefore, the system can reduce friction to lower levels than conventional valvetrains, which works to improve fuel economy. On the other hand, a distinct feature of oscillating cams is that their sliding velocity is zero at the time of peak lift, which differs from the behavior of conventional rotating cams. For that reason, it is assumed that the friction and lubrication characteristics of oscillating cams may differ from those of conventional cams.
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