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Technical Paper

Application of Model Checking to Automotive Control Software with Slicing Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-0436
To detect difficult-to-find defects in automotive control systems, we have proposed a modeling method with a program slicing technique. In this method, a verifier adjusts the boundaries of source code to be extracted on a variable dependence graph, in a kind of data flow. We have developed software tools for this method and achieved a 35% decrease in total verification time on model checking. This paper provides some consideration on effective cases of the method from verification practices. There are two types of malfunction causes: one is the timing of processes (race conditions), and the other is complex logics. Each type requires different elements in external environment models. Furthermore, we propose regression verification based on the modeling method above, to further reduce verification time on model checking. The paper outlines tool extensions needed to realize regression verification.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Methodology for Air Charge Estimation and Control in Turbocharged Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1754
The purpose of this study is to develop model-based methodologies which employ thermo-fluid dynamic engine simulation and multiple-objective optimization schemes for engine control and calibration, and to validate the reliability of the method using a dynamometer test. In our technique, creating a total engine system model begins by first entirely capturing the characteristics of the components affecting the engine system's behavior, then using experimental data to strictly adjust the tuning parameters in physical models. Engine outputs over the full range of engine operation conditions as determined by design of experiment (DOE) are simulated, followed by fitting the provided dataset using a nonlinear response surface model (RSM) to express the causal relationship among engine operational parameters, environmental factors and engine output. The RSM is applied to an L-jetronic® air-intake system control logic for a turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1596
We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

Multi-Swirl Type Injector for Port Fuel Injection Gasoline Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1436
The authors developed a multi-swirl type injector characterized by a short spray penetration length and fine atomization to improve exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engines. In PFI gasoline engines, fuel adhesion to an intake manifold causes exhaust emission. In addition, good mixing of fuel and air causes high combustion efficiency, and as a result the fuel consumption improves. Injectors therefore require two improvements: first, a short spray penetration to avoid fuel adhesion to the intake manifold, and second, a fine atomization spray to generate a good mixture formation of fuel and air. In this study, the authors developed a multi-swirl type injector equipped with multiple orifice holes featuring swirl chambers upstream of each orifice. The key feature of the proposed injector is “involute curve-formed swirl chambers” for generating a uniform thin liquid-film in the orifices.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Particulate Matter in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines by Non-Combustion CFD

2014-04-01
2014-01-1142
A technique of estimating particulate matter (PM) from gasoline direct injection engines is proposed that is used to compute mass density and particle number density of PM by using fuel mass in rich mixtures obtained by using non-combustion computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD code that was developed by the authors employed a Cartesian coordinates system as a discretization method and large eddy simulation (LES) as a turbulence model. Fuel spray droplets were treated with the discrete droplet model (DDM). The code was verified with some experimental data such as those obtained from in-cylinder gas-flows with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) and in-cylinder fuel concentration with laser induced fluorescence (LIF). PM emissions from a single-cylinder gasoline direct injection engine were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) to determine the model constants that were required in the estimation model.
Journal Article

Injection Quantity Range Enhancement by Using Current Waveform Control Technique for DI Gasoline Injector

2014-04-01
2014-01-1211
We have achieved injection quantity range enhancement by using the current waveform control technique for direct injection (DI) gasoline injectors. In this study, we developed an injection quantity simulator to find out the mechanism of non-linear characteristics. We clarified the non-linear production mechanism by using the simulator. This simulator is a one-dimensional simulator that incorporates calculation results from both unsteady electromagnetic field analysis and hydraulic flow analysis into the motion equation of this simulation code. We investigated the relation between armature and the injection quantity by using the simulator. As a result, we clarified that the non-linearity was produced by the bounce of the armature in the opening action. Thus, we found that it is effective to reduce the armature bounce to improve the linearity of the injection quantity characteristics.
Technical Paper

CAN Security: Cost-Effective Intrusion Detection for Real-Time Control Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0340
In-vehicle networks are generally used for computerized control and connecting information technology devices in cars. However, increasing connectivity also increases security risks. “Spoofing attacks”, in which an adversary infiltrates the controller area network (CAN) with malicious data and makes the car behave abnormally, have been reported. Therefore, countermeasures against this type of attack are needed. Modifying legacy electronic control units (ECUs) will affect development costs and reliability because in-vehicle networks have already been developed for most vehicles. Current countermeasures, such as authentication, require modification of legacy ECUs. On the other hand, anomaly detection methods may result in misdetection due to the difficulty in setting an appropriate threshold. Evaluating a reception cycle of data can be used to simply detect spoofing attacks. However, this may result in false detection due to fluctuation in the data reception cycle in the CAN.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Technique for Air-Intake-System Control Using Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of SI Engines and Multiple-Objective Optimization

2011-10-06
2011-28-0119
We have developed a model-based control for the air intake system in a variable valve engine, employing total engine simulation, the response surface method and multi-objective optimization scheme. In our technique, we performed the simulation model tuning and validation, followed by the creation of a dataset for the polynomial regression analysis of the charging efficiency. A D-optimal design, robust least squares method, and likelihood-ratio test were demonstrated to yield a robust and accurate control model. Coupling the total engine simulator with a genetic algorithm, model based calibration for optimal valve timing stored in lookup table was carried out under multiple objectives and restrictions. The reliability of the implementation control model, which considers the effect of gas dynamics in the intake system, was confirmed using a model-in-the-loop simulation.
Journal Article

Prediction of Vehicle Interior Noise from a Power Steering Pump using Component CAE and Measured Noise Transfer Functions of the Vehicle

2010-04-12
2010-01-0509
In response to the growing demand for fuel economy, we are developing a high-efficient variable displacement pump for hydraulic power steering systems. In order to develop a quiet variable displacement pump which generates lower noise for better vehicle interior sound quality, we have been developing a simulation tool which includes hydraulic analysis, vibration analysis, and vehicle interior noise analysis which combines simulation outputs and measured noise transfer functions of the targeted vehicle. This paper provides both validation results of the simulation tool and application examples to design improvement to conclude the effectiveness of the simulation tool developed.
Technical Paper

Virtual FMEA : Simulation-Based ECU Electrical Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0205
“Virtual Failure Mode and Effects Analysis” (vFMEA), a novel safety-verification method of control software for automotive electronic systems, was proposed to save prototyping cost at verification stage. The proposed vFMEA is system-level FMEA method, which uses virtualized electronic control units (ECUs) consisting of microcontroller models on a microcontroller simulator and a transistor-level circuit models on a circuit simulator. By using the structure, the control software in binary code formats can be verified when a circuit-level fault occurs in the ECU hardware. As an illustrative example, vFMEA was applied to an engine ECU. As a result of short-circuit fault into a driver IC, engine revolution and engine speed decreased. However, the engine continued to operate normally when an open-circuit fault occurred in a capacitor connected in parallel. Effects of the hardware faults in ECU on a vehicle are demonstrated; thereby software verification can be performed using vFMEA system.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Calibration Methodology for Spark Advance Control Using Engine Cycle Simulation and Polynomial Regression Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4023
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems has led to increasingly complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has created dramatic increases in software development time and cost. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs and also to enable engineers to understand the complex relationship between the many controllable parameters and engine performance. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and regression analysis. The reliability of the proposed method was investigated by validating the regression model predictions with measured data.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Calibration Process for Producing Optimal Spark Advance in a Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Variable Valve Train

2006-10-16
2006-01-3235
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems leads to complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has led to dramatic increases in software development time and costs in recent years. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process using an engine cycle simulation technique combined with a regression analysis of engine responses. From the results it was clear that the engine cycle simulation technique was useful in the engine calibration process, if the empirical parameters included in physical models were adjusted at typical sampling-points in several engine speeds and loads. The cycle simulation produced a multi-dimensional MBT map, and a response surface method was employed in the modeling of the engine map dataset using a polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Torque-based Engine Control by Learning Correlation between Torque and Throttle Position

2008-04-14
2008-01-1015
In recent years, integrated vehicle control systems have been developed to improve fuel economy and safety. As a result, engine control is shifting to torque-based systems for throttle / fuel / ignition control, to realize an engine torque demand from the system. This paper describes torque-based engine control technologies for SI (Spark Ignition) engine to improve torque control accuracy using a feedback control algorithm and an airflow sensor.
Journal Article

Virtual Engine System Prototyping with High-Resolution FFT for Digital Knock Detection Using CPU Model-Based Hardware/Software Co-simulation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0532
We have developed a full virtual engine system prototyping platform with 4-cylinder engine plant model, SH-2A CPU hardware model, and object code level software including OSEK OS. The virtual engine system prototyping platform can run simulation of an engine control system and digital knock detection system including 64-pt FFT computations that provide required high-resolution DSP capability for detection and control. To help the system design, debugging, and evaluation, the virtual system prototyping consists of behavior analyzer which can provide the visualization of useful CPU internal information for control algorithm tuning, RTOS optimization, and CPU architecture development. Thus the co-simulation enables time and cost saving at validation stage as validation can be performed at the design stage before production of actual components.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Technique for Spark Timing Control in an SI Engine Using Polynomial Regression Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-0933
Model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and polynomial regression analysis, have been developed and the reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by validating the model predictions with dynamometer test data. From the results, it was clear that the predictions by the engine cycle simulation with a knock model, which considers the two-stage hydrocarbon ignition characteristics of gasoline, were in good agreement with the dynamometer test data if the model tuning parameters were strictly adjusted. Physical model tuning and validation were done, followed by the creation of a dataset for the regression analysis of charging efficiency, EGR mass, and MBT using a 4th order polynomial equation. The stepwise method was demonstrated to yield a logarithm likelihood ratio and its false probability at each term in the polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

Development of High Pressure Fuel Pump by using Hydraulic Simulator

2005-04-11
2005-01-0099
We developed a high-pressure fuel pump for a direct injection gasoline engine and used a hydraulic simulator to design it. A single plunger design is the major trend for high-pressure fuel pumps because of its simple structure and small size. However, the single plunger causes large pressure pulsation and an unstable flow rate, especially at high engine speed. Therefore, a fuel-pipe layout that inhibits the pressure pulsation and a flow-rate control that stabilizes the flow are the most important challenges in pump design. Our newly developed hydraulic simulator can evaluate the dynamic characteristics of a total fuel supply system, which consists of pump, pipe, injector, and control logic. Using this simulator, we have improved fuel flow by optimizing the outlet check valve lift and the cam profile, and we reduced pressure pulsation by optimizing the layout of fuel pipes. Our simulation results agreed well with our experimental results.
Technical Paper

A Virtual ECU and Its Application to Control System Analysis - Power Window System Demonstration

2016-04-05
2016-01-0022
A virtual power window control system was built in order to look into and demonstrate applications of microcontroller models. A virtual ECU simulated microcontroller hardware operations. The microcontroller program, which was written in binary digital codes, was executed step-by-step as the virtual ECU simulation went on. Thus, production-ready codes of ECUs are of primary interest in this research. The mechanical system of the power window, the DC motor to lift the window glass, the H-bridge MOSFET drivers, and the current sensing circuit to detect window locking are also modeled. This means that the hardware system of the control system was precisely modeled in terms of mechanical and circuit components. By integrating these models into continuous and discrete co-simulation, the power window control system was analyzed in detail from the microscopic command execution of the microcontroller to the macroscopic motion of the window mechanism altogether.
Technical Paper

A Safety Concept based on a Safety Sustainer for Highly Automated Driving Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0130
Highly automated driving systems have a responsibility to keep a vehicle safe even in abnormal conditions such as random or systematic failures. However, creating redundancy in a system to respond to failures increases the cost of the system, and simple redundancy cannot detect systematic failures because some systematic failures occur in each system at the same time. Systematic failures in automated driving systems cannot be verified sufficiently during the development phase due to numerous patterns of parameters input from outside the system. A safety concept based on a “safety sustainer” for highly automated driving systems is proposed. The safety sustainer is designed for keeping a vehicle in a safe state for several seconds if a failure occurs in the system and notifying the driver that the system is in failure mode and requesting the driver to take over control of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Internal Combustion Engine using OpenFOAM®

2016-04-05
2016-01-1346
We developed the numerical simulation tool by using OpenFOAM® and in-house simulation codes for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine in order to carry out the precise investigation of the throughout process from the internal nozzle flow to the fuel/air mixture in engines. For the piston/valve motions, a mapping approach is employed and implemented in this study. In the meantime, the spray atomization including the liquid-columnbreakup region and the secondary-breakup region are simulated by combining the different numerical approaches applied to each region. By connecting the result of liquid-column-breakup simulation to the secondary-breakup simulation, the regions which have different physical phenomena with different length scales are seamlessly jointed; i.e., the velocity and position of droplets predicted by the liquid-column-breakup simulation is used in the secondary breakup simulation so that the initial velocity and position of droplets are transferred.
Technical Paper

Development of High-resolution Exciting Source Identification System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1325
We have developed an excitation source identification system that can distinguish excitation sources on a sub-assembly level (around 30mm) for vehicle components by combining a measurement and a timing analysis. Therefore, noise and vibration problems can be solved at an early stage of development and the development period can be shortened. This system is composed of measurement, control, modeling, and excitation source identification parts. The measurement and the excitation source identification parts are the main topics of this paper. In the measurement part, multiple physical quantities can be measured in multi-channel (noise and vibration: 48ch, general purpose: 64ch), and these time data can be analyzed by using a high-resolution signal analysis (Instantaneous Frequency Analysis (IFA)) that we developed.
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