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Technical Paper

Visualization Analysis of Diesel Combustion with Water and Diesel Fuel Emulsified Blend in a Constant Volume Chamber Vessel

Diesel-like combustion of an emulsified blend of water and diesel fuel in a constant volume chamber vessel was visualized with high speed color video, further analyzing with a 2-D two color method and shadowgraph images. When the temperature at the fuel injection is 900 K, here while the combustion with unblended diesel fuel in the vessel is similar to ordinary diesel combustion with diffusive combustion, combustion with the emulsified fuel is similar to premixed diesel combustion with a large premixed combustion and very little diffusive combustion. With the emulsified fuel the flame luminosity and temperature are lower, the luminous flame and high temperature regions are smaller, and the duration of the luminous flame is shorter than with diesel fuel. This is due to promotion of premixing with increases in the ignition delay and decreases in the combustion temperature with the water vaporization.
Technical Paper

Dependence of Ultra-High EGR and Low Temperature Diesel Combustion on Fuel Injection Conditions and Compression Ratio

This research investigates the influences of the injection timing, injection pressure, and compression ratio on the combustion and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder 1.0 L DI diesel engine operating with ultra-high EGR. Longer ignition delays due to either advancing or retarding the injection timing reduced the smoke emissions, but advancing the injection timing has the advantages of maintaining the thermal efficiency and preventing misfiring. Smokeless combustion is realized with an intake oxygen content of only 9-10% regardless of the injection pressure. Reduction in the compression ratio is effective to reduce the in-cylinder temperature and increase the ignition delay as well as to expand the smokeless combustion range in terms of EGR and IMEP. However, the thermal efficiency deteriorates with excessively low compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Combustion in Low Oxygen Mixtures with Ultra-High EGR

Ultra-low NOx and smokeless operation at higher loads up to half of the rated torque is attempted with large ratios of cold EGR. NOx decreases below 6 ppm (0.05 g/(kW·h)) and soot significantly increases when first decreasing the oxygen concentration to 16% with cold EGR, but after peaking at 12-14% oxygen, soot then deceases sharply to essentially zero at 9-10% oxygen while maintaining ultra low NOx and regardless of fuel injection quantity. However, at higher loads, with the oxygen concentration below 9-10%, the air/fuel ratio has to be over-rich to exceed half of rated torque, and thermal efficiency, CO, and THC deteriorate significantly. As EGR rate increases, exhaust gas emissions and thermal efficiency vary with the intake oxygen content rather than with the excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Smokeless Low Temperature Diesel Combustion in Various Fuel-Air Mixing and Expansion of Operating Load Range

The characteristics of smokeless low temperature diesel combustion in various fuel-air mixing was investigated by engine tests with high rates of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), three compression ratios, and fuels of various cetane numbers, as well as by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the in-cylinder distributions of mixture concentration and temperature. The results show that besides combustion temperature, fuel-air mixing is also vital to efficient, smokeless, and low NOx diesel combustion. Smokeless and low NOx diesel combustion can be realized even with insufficient fuel-air mixing as long as the combustion temperature is sufficiently low. However low combustion temperature and insufficient oxygen due to ultra-high EGR cause very high UHC and CO emissions, and a severe deterioration in combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Combustion in a Two-stage Injection PCCI Engine With Lower Distillation-temperature Fuels

The combustion characteristics in a partially premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) engine with n-hexane were compared with ordinary diesel fuel to evaluate combustion improvements with lower distillation-temperature fuels. In the PCCI engine, a lean mixture was formed reasonably with early stage injection and the additional fuel was supplied with a second stage fuel injection after ignition. With n-hexane, thermal efficiency improved while simultaneously maintaining low NOx and smokeless combustion. A CFD analysis simulated the mixture formation processes and showed that the uniformity of the mixture with the first stage injection improves with lower distillation-temperature fuels.
Technical Paper

Significant NOx Formation at the Tip of Diesel Spray Flames and Its Reduction by Enhanced Mixing in the Tip Region

Similarities in the structure of spray flames suggest that higher fuel injection speeds would reduce NOx emission as the fuel residence time in the reaction zone would shorter. However, in diesel combustion it is commonly known that NOx emissions increase when the fuel injection velocity is increased. The authors have assumed that the mixing time scale is significantly large at the spray tip region where most of the NOx in the emissions is formed. The increase in NOx by the higher injection velocity in engines can be explained as the mixing time scale increases corresponding to the penetration length relative to the nozzle diameter. The purpose of this paper is to confirm this assumption and to show an effective method to reduce NOx emissions based on the analysis. Experiments were made to measure NOx from a jet flame injected in a closed vessel with different injection speeds and injection periods.
Technical Paper

Impingement and Adhesion on Cylinder Liners with Post Diesel Fuel Injections

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) are widely used in diesel engines, and forced regeneration is necessary to remove particulate matter (PM) accumulating on the DPF. This may be achieved with fuel injected after the main combustion is complete, the socalled “post fuel injection”, and supplied to the diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) upstream of the DPF. This increases the exhaust gas temperature in the DOC and the DPF is regenerated with the high temperature gas flow. In most cases, the post fuel injection takes place at 30-90CA ATDC, and fuel may impinge on and adhere to the cylinder liner wall in some cases. Buddie and Pischinger [1] have reported a lubricant oil dilution with the post fuel injection by engine tests and simulations, and adhering fuel is a cause of worsening fuel consumption. In this paper, the impingement and adhesion of post diesel fuel injections on the cylinder liner was investigated by an optical method with a high pressure constant volume chamber (ϕ110mm, 883cm3).
Journal Article

Combustion Noise Reduction with High Thermal Efficiency by the Control of Multiple Fuel Injections in Premixed Diesel Engines

Premixed diesel combustion is effective for high thermal efficiency and reductions of NOx and PM emissions, but a reduction of combustion noise is necessary for medium-high load engine operation. The control of the fuel injection has become more accurate because of the technical progress of the common rail fuel injection system, and the target heat release shape, calculated by computation, can be achieved by control of EGR, boosting, fuel injection timing, and injection quantity of multiple fuel injections. In this paper, the reduction of premixed diesel combustion noise maintaining high thermal efficiency has been investigated by the control of injection timings and heating values of multiple fuel injections. There are two aspects of the combustion noise reduction by multiple fuel injections. One is the reduction of the maximum rate of pressure rise in each combustion cycle, and the other is noise reduction effects by the noise cancelling spike (NCS) combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of Fuel Volatility on Evaporation Characteristics of Diesel Sprays in Various Low Temperature and Low Density Surrounding Conditions Like at Early Pilot or Late Post Injections

The diesel spray characteristics in early pilot and late post fuel injections in a constant volume chamber which can create the in-cylinder conditions of a diesel engine were visualized with high speed video. At the early pilot and late post fuel injection, there was a longer penetration of the liquid phase fuel spray as well as slower evaporation. With normal heptane the impingement of liquid spray with early pilot and post fuel injections can be avoided due to a faster evaporation. The penetration of liquid phase fuel spray increases significantly at low IMEP and late post injection conditions with diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effects of Engine Size and Rotation Speed on Diesel Combustion based on Similarity Rules

This paper presents a study on the effects of the engine size and rotation speed on diesel combustion characteristics and engine performance of two differently sized diesel engines (85 mm and 135 mm bores). For simplification of the evaluation, the experimental conditions were set based on the similarity rules proposed by Chikahisa. The combustion characteristics and the indicated thermal efficiencies were compared for the small and the large engines at the same engine speed. To examine the effects of the velocities of the in-cylinder gas and the fuel spray on the combustion and the thermal efficiency, the engine speed was changed in the small engine, while maintaining a non-dimensional engine speed.
Technical Paper

Thermal Efficiency Improvements with Split Primary Fuel Injections in Semi-Premixed Diesel Combustion with Multi-Peak Shaped Heat Release

To improve the combustion characteristics in semi-premixed diesel combustion, consisting in the first-stage premixed combustion of the primary fuel injection and the second-stage spray combustion of the secondary injection, the effect of splitting the primary injection was investigated in a diesel engine and analyzed with a CFD. The indicated thermal efficiency improves due to reductions in heat transfer losses to the in-cylinder wall and the combustion noise is suppressed with the split primary injections. The CFD analysis showed that the reduction in heat transfer loss with the split primary injections is due to a decrease in the combustion quantity near the combustion chamber wall.
Technical Paper

Study for ignition characteristics and potential of gasoline autoignition combustion with spark assist

A spark assist system was installed in a gasoline direct-injection single-cylinder test engine with the aim of controlling the ignition timing and accomplishing combustion of gasoline fuel by auto/compression ignition. A primary reference fuel having an octane number of 90 (PRF 90) was used to evaluate experimentally the spark assist function for gasoline auto/compression ignition and to examine the feasibility of combustion with a short ignition delay equivalent to conventional diesel combustion using the engine system. An optically accessible single-cylinder test engine was also used to evaluate and investigate spark-assisted auto/compression ignition. Ignition timing controllability with combinations of spark and injection timings for gasoline auto/compression ignition was also investigated under different operating load conditions.