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Technical Paper

Development of Lithium-Ion-Battery System for Hybrid System

2011-04-12
2011-01-1372
A battery module structure and a battery management system that is optimal for the structure were developed, in order to facilitate the work of equipping hybrid cars with lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that are expected to improve vehicle performance. This paper describes the structure of the LIB and the battery management system that is optimal for it. The battery module structure has cells with a sturdy holding structure and a highly efficient cooling system. The structure has enabled the improvement of battery pack system power output by 80% per unit weight and by 20% per unit volume compared to the previous model. The optimal management system prevents battery overcharge by detecting and controlling the state of charge (SOC) of each cell with a high degree of accuracy.
Technical Paper

Study of Effect of CVT Pulleys on Strength and Transmission Efficiency of Metal Pushing V-belts

2011-04-12
2011-01-1426
In designing CVT pulleys, the effect of the fit clearance of the movable pulleys and their stiffness on the transmission efficiency and strength of the metal pushing V-belt is not necessarily clear. The research discussed in this paper introduced a pulley model that defined the pulleys as elastic bodies to a previously developed technology for the prediction of the transmission efficiency of the belts. As a result, it was found that when the fit clearance is reduced, the transmission efficiency of the belt is increased, and the amplitude of stress on the innermost rings and the element neck section is reduced. In addition, it was found that if pulley stiffness was reduced transmission efficiency was also reduced, and the amplitude of stress on the element neck section increased. This indicated that the fit clearance and the pulley stiffness changed the degree of deflection of the pulleys in the axial direction.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the impact of 10% ethanol blended fuels on performances of sold gasoline vehicles in the Japanese market already on the road in Japan

2011-08-30
2011-01-1987
The study of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10 gasoline) utilization has been conducted in the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP). In order to clarify the impact of E10 gasoline on vehicle performances, exhaust emissions, evaporative emissions, driveability and material compatibility have been investigated by using domestic gasoline vehicles including mini motor vehicles which are particular to Japan. The test results reveal that E10 gasoline has no impact on exhaust emissions, engine startup time and acceleration period under the hot start condition, but a slight deterioration is observed in some test cases under the cold start condition using E10 gasolines with 50% distillation temperature (T50) level set to the upper limit of Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) K 2202. Regarding evaporative emissions, the tested vehicles shows no remarkable increase in the hot soak loss (HSL), diurnal breathing loss (DBL) and running loss (RL) testing with E10 gasolines.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

2009-11-03
2009-32-0076
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Small Motorcycle Engines

2009-11-03
2009-32-0083
A single cylinder gasoline engine of displacement 125 cm3 for prototype was developed, and the fuel economy of this engine was improved by reducing friction and improving combustion. For reducing friction, various methods were innovated; enhancement of the oil film retention by modifying the striation finish on piston skirt, adding the needle bearing to the rocker arm shaft, press-fitting the bush into the small end of connecting rod, reducing contact pressure with the piston ring, and spray coating molybdenum disulfide onto the shift fork. By innovating these friction reduction methods, the friction of the engine was reduced by 6% compared to the previous model which was already employed the roller rocker arm and the offset cylinder. For improving combustion, the swirl control valve (SCV) was installed into the intake port. By the effect of SCV, both improvement of engine power and improving combustion under low load was achieved.
Technical Paper

Flexible-Fuel System for Small Motorcycles

2009-11-03
2009-32-0044
A flexible-fuel system for small motorcycles has been developed that can utilize both gasoline, and ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuel. For practicality, we aimed to develop a system that uses a minimum of additional parts. As a method to make both ethanol and gasoline available with the system, a control algorithm that estimates the ethanol concentration by utilizing the output voltage of an OXYGEN SENSOR and selects the appropriate injection quantity is employed. Usually, in automotive flexible-fuel vehicles (FFV), sub-tanks are mounted to ensure engine startability in cold temperatures. However, in small motorcycles, limitations of mounting space must be addressed. In this system, by clarifying the control logic and determining the difficult cases for cold temperature starts due to high ethanol concentration, configuring the indicator to promote gasoline mixture when the start is difficult enabled the elimination of the sub-tanks.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Addition to Intake Mixture on Cyclic Variation of Diesel Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1964
The present study experimentally investigated cyclic variation of combustion characteristics of a diesel engine with hydrogen added to the intake air in detail. As the result, there were three ignition modes: (1) hydrogen ignition mode, (2) hydrogen-assisted ignition mode, and (3) diesel-fuel ignition mode. Ignition timing fluctuated from cycle to cycle in each ignition mode and between one ignition mode and another mode. As the coolant temperature was increased, the number of cycles in diesel-fuel ignition mode decreased, and indicated thermal efficiency and cyclic variation was improved. In the case with the blow-by gas introduced to intake port, preflame reaction of blow-by gas first occurred, ignited hydrogen, and then diesel-fuel was ignited by hydrogen combustion in hydrogen ignition mode and hydrogen-assisted ignition mode.
Technical Paper

Investigation about Predictive Accuracy of Empirical Engine Models using Design of Experiments

2011-08-30
2011-01-1848
This study focuses on improvement of the predictive accuracy of empirical engine models using the Model Base Calibration (MBC) method. This research discusses the effects of the number of measurement points on the accuracy of models for different Design of Experiments (DoE) by using a direct-injection 4-cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the predictive accuracy of the models converges on fixed values when the number of measurement points is increased in Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) and D-Optimal Design. This is because the probability density distribution of the measurement data has little variation as the number of measurement points increases. Comparing LHS and D-Optimal indicates that D-Optimal displays a higher level of accuracy, it is able to extend the boundary model because of its greater number of measurement points at the boundaries of the boundary model.
Journal Article

In-cylinder Optical Investigation of Combustion Behavior on a Fast Injection Rate Diesel Common Rail Injector

2011-08-30
2011-01-1821
The field of diesel combustion research is producing numerous reports on studies of premixed combustion, which promises simultaneous reduction of both NOx and soot, in order to meet increasingly stringent regulations on harmful emissions from automobiles. However, although premixed combustion can simultaneously reduce both NOx and soot, certain issues have been pointed out, including the fact that it emits greater quantities of unburned HC and CO gases and the fact that it limits the operating range. Furthermore, this combustion method sets the ignition delay longer with the aim of promoting the mixing of fuel and air. This raises issues with the product due to the combustion instability and sensitivity to the uneven fuel properties that are found on the market, the capability of the engine response under transient conditions, the deterioration in combustion noise, and so on.
Technical Paper

Development of Prediction Method of Static Torque Sharing Distribution of Planetary Gear Sets Generated by Manufacturing Error Distribution

2011-04-12
2011-01-0719
This paper discusses a method of predicting the torque distribution on planet gears originating in manufacturing errors, which is necessary for appropriate strength design of the gears in planetary gear sets. First, an expression of relation between manufacturing errors and the torque on the planet gears in a normal n-planet planetary gear set was derived. As a result, an equation expressing the distribution of torque to the planet gears was obtained. Tests were conducted to verify the validity of the equation in the case of a 4-planet planetary gear set. In order to predict the distribution of torque, it was necessary to estimate the stiffness of the planetary gear set that was the subject of the relational expression. These stiffness values were calculated by numerical analysis using a 3D FEM, into which blueprint values and material property values were input.
Technical Paper

Research on Measurement and Simulation Technology of Valve Behavior during Engine Firing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0743
A measurement method for valve behavior during engine firing is established. In order to grasp valve behavior accurately, it has been required to develop a measurement method for valve behavior that takes in account for the condition during engine firing. However, behaviors of a valve train have generally been analyzed during engine motoring because it is difficult to measure them during engine firing. In this study, valve behavior during engine firing can be measured accurately by attaching a gap sensor to the valve guide. Furthermore, the simulation system for valve behavior that treated the valve train as three-dimensional flexible body is built. Under engine motoring condition, high correlation between measurement and simulation is confirmed for valve behavior and spring stress.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for 2011 Compact Sedan

2011-04-12
2011-01-0865
Technologies related to electrical systems for the 2011 hybrid model have been developed. In order to increase energy recovery during driving, improvements were made compared to the 2006 model in terms of motor output increase and high-efficiency range expansion, and considerations were also given to motor NV (noise and vibration). In consideration of vehicle control associated with the use of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as well as reliability, a system to control effective use of battery performance was developed which involves detection of battery conditions. Control of energy management was optimized compared to nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries through the use of higher-output LIBs and a high-output motor.
Technical Paper

Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Simulations and In-Situ Measurements with X-ray CT Imaging on Liquid Water Transport in PEFCs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1347
Water management is one of the key factors to ensure high performance, cold start and durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), and it is important to understand the behavior of liquid water in PEFCs. X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) imaging and the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (two-phase LBM) are applied to analyze the mechanism of water transport in the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the gas channels in generating PEFCs. The results of the two-phase LBM are compared with those of X-ray CT imaging, and are found to agree qualitatively in that water is discharged along the hydrophilic channel wall and accumulated in the GDL, especially under the rib. The effects of the wettability of the GDLs, and of the gas channels, the diameter of the carbon fibers, and the porosity of the GDLs on water discharge from the GDLs and gas channels are also investigated.
Journal Article

Simulation of Fuel Economy Effectiveness of Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Thermoelectric Generator in a Series Hybrid

2011-04-12
2011-01-1335
Simulation was employed to estimate the fuel economy enhancement from the application of an exhaust heat recovery system using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a series hybrid. The properties of the thermoelectric elements were obtained by self-assessment and set as the conditions for estimating the fuel economy. It was concluded that applying exhaust system insulation and forming the appropriate combination of elements with differing temperature properties inside the TEG could yield an enhancement of about 3% in fuel economy. An actual vehicle was also used to verify the calculation elements in the fuel economy simulation, and their reliability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

New Proposal of Piston Skirt Form using Multi Objective Optimization Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-1079
A multi-objective optimization model using a piston behavior simulation for the prediction of NV, friction and scuffing was created. This model was used to optimize the piston skirt form, helping to enable well-balanced forms to be sought. Optimization calculations, involving extended analyses and numerous design variables, conventionally necessitate long calculation times in order to achieve adequate outcomes. Because of this, in the present project data was converted into functions in order to help enable the complex piston skirt form to be expressed using a small amount of coefficients. Using the limit values for manufacturability and the degree of contribution to the target functions, the scope of design variables was restricted, and the time necessary for the analysis was significantly reduced. This has helped to enable optimal solutions to be determined within a practical time frame.
Technical Paper

Study of Low-Viscosity Engine Oil on Fuel Economy and Engine Reliability

2011-04-12
2011-01-1247
An examination was made on the effect of low-viscosity engine oil on fuel efficiency improvements and engine reliability for the purpose of improving fuel efficiency through the use of select engine oils. Fuel efficiency-improving effects were estimated by measuring friction torque using low-viscosity engine oil. The results show that reducing engine oil viscosity is effective for improving fuel efficiency. In examining engine reliability, attention was paid to the following two aspects which are concerns in practical performance that may arise when engine oil viscosity is reduced. Engine oil consumption Sliding wear at high temperatures Tests and analyses were conducted to develop indexes for engine oil properties that are strongly correlated with each of these two concerns. A strong correlation was found between engine oil consumption and the results of a thermogravimetric analysis, and between high-temperature sliding wear and high-temperature, high-shear viscosity (HTHS).
Technical Paper

Development of a New Powertrain for Subcompact Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1478
Honda has developed a powertrain for 2013 subcompact class EVs. This powertrain has both high power and low loss in order to provide the EV with better marketability than existing EVs, with the world-best energy efficiency and class-exceeding dynamic performance. To achieve the energy efficiency, this powertrain also has a function of cooperative control with a newly developed electrically operated servo brake system. To achieve the high dynamic performance, a new rotor shape has been introduced to the electric motor, and the power control unit (PCU) is equipped with a high thermal conductivity heat sink. The battery system allows high output power in a compact structure because of a triple parallel module group configuration and an air-cooling system. As a result of these innovations in the powertrain, the vehicle attains 82 miles of driving range while achieving world-leading energy efficiency of 29kWh/100 miles.
Journal Article

Development of a New Two-Motor Plug-In Hybrid System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1476
A highly efficient two-motor plug-in hybrid system is developed to satisfy the global demands of CO2 reduction. This system switches three operation modes, what is called “EV Drive”, “Hybrid Drive” and “Engine Drive”, to maximize fuel efficiency according to the driving condition of the vehicle. Practical plug-in EV (Electric Vehicle) capability is also realized by adding a high-power on-board charger and a high capacity Li-ion battery to the original system. The outlines of the system components including a newly developed Atkinson cycle engine, a highly efficient electric coupled CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with built-in motor and generator, an integrated PCU (Power Control Unit) and an exclusive battery for plug-in HEV (Hybrid Electric Vehicle) are described in this paper. In addition to the switching of three driving modes and the efficiency improvement of each device, cooperative control of the hybrid system is introduced.
Journal Article

Development of Rare Earth-saving Magnet Using Localized Diffusion Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-1757
Nd₂Fe₁₄B sintered magnets are used in the drive motors of hybrid, electric and other vehicles. A magnet in which rare earth content is reduced by means of a localized diffusion method has been developed in order to reduce the volume of dysprosium. The distribution of the demagnetization fields in a motor is not uniform, so the necessary coercivity distribution for the magnets was quantified using Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE). Then material specifications of the localized dysprosium diffusion satisfied with this coercivity distribution was determined, and optimal manufacturing conditions including the position of dysprosium diffusion were set. The coercivity distribution in every position of the magnet using localized diffusion method was inspected. As a result, the magnet was satisfied with coercivity distribution demanded by CAE.
Journal Article

Development of Transverse Flux Motor with Improved Material and Manufacturing Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-1765
Honda has been proposing and developing a Transverse Flux Motor (T.F. motor) in order to shorten axial length of the motor for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). In contrast to conventional motors that are composed of a stator core (made from magnetic steel sheet) and winding wires, the T.F. motor is a new type of three-dimensional magnetic circuit motor composed of a soft magnetic composites (SMC) core and a coil. While reducing axial length and achieving a simple stator architecture comprised of just five parts, the new motor raises issues including the need to improve motor efficiency and the development of techniques for the manufacture of rectangular wave-shaped coils. To improve motor efficiency, we conducted a parameter study of the SMC core material and manufacturing conditions to establish the optimum required specifications for reducing iron loss.
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