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Technical Paper

Development of Prediction Method of Static Torque Sharing Distribution of Planetary Gear Sets Generated by Manufacturing Error Distribution

This paper discusses a method of predicting the torque distribution on planet gears originating in manufacturing errors, which is necessary for appropriate strength design of the gears in planetary gear sets. First, an expression of relation between manufacturing errors and the torque on the planet gears in a normal n-planet planetary gear set was derived. As a result, an equation expressing the distribution of torque to the planet gears was obtained. Tests were conducted to verify the validity of the equation in the case of a 4-planet planetary gear set. In order to predict the distribution of torque, it was necessary to estimate the stiffness of the planetary gear set that was the subject of the relational expression. These stiffness values were calculated by numerical analysis using a 3D FEM, into which blueprint values and material property values were input.
Journal Article

Development of Rare Earth-saving Magnet Using Localized Diffusion Method

Nd₂Fe₁₄B sintered magnets are used in the drive motors of hybrid, electric and other vehicles. A magnet in which rare earth content is reduced by means of a localized diffusion method has been developed in order to reduce the volume of dysprosium. The distribution of the demagnetization fields in a motor is not uniform, so the necessary coercivity distribution for the magnets was quantified using Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE). Then material specifications of the localized dysprosium diffusion satisfied with this coercivity distribution was determined, and optimal manufacturing conditions including the position of dysprosium diffusion were set. The coercivity distribution in every position of the magnet using localized diffusion method was inspected. As a result, the magnet was satisfied with coercivity distribution demanded by CAE.
Technical Paper

Potential Improvements to Impact Responses of the Flexible Legform Impactor

The validity of evaluating FlexPLI peak injury measures has been shown by the correlation of the peak measures between a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model. However, comparisons of tibia bending moment time histories (BMTHs) between these models show that the FlexPLI model exhibits a higher degree of oscillatory behavior than the human model. The goal of this study was to identify potential improvements to the FlexPLI such that the legform provides more biofidelic tibia BMTHs at the normal standing height. Impact simulations using a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model were conducted against simplified vehicle models to compare tibia BMTHs. The same series of impact simulations were conducted using the FlexPLI models that incorporated potential measures to identify measures effective for further enhancement of the biofidelity. An additional analysis was also conducted to investigate the key factor for minimizing the oscillation of the tibia BMTH.
Journal Article

Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

A new index U* for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U*, which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure. U* enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Different loading conditions are applied to a body structure, and the similarity of the U* distributions is evaluated using the direction cosine and U* 2-dimensional correlation diagrams. It is shown as a result that body structures can be macroscopically grasped by using the U* distribution rather than using the stress distribution. In addition, as an example, the U* distribution of torsion loading condition is shown to comprehensively include characteristics of the U* distribution of other loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Torque Sensor with Nickel-Iron Alloy Plating for Pedal-Equipped Electric Vehicles

This paper describes the development of non-contacting detection type torque sensor that realizes a small lost motion with light weight and low cost. Pedal-equipped electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. In those vehicles, torque sensors are usually necessary for measuring the pedaling force to determine the motor torque. We applied an integrated sensing structure and a non-contacting scheme utilizing inverse-magnetostrictive material to minimize the lost motions. As for the sensing material, nickel-iron alloy plating was used to obtain a wide dynamic range. In the tests using the actual structure, the output linearity deterioration occurred because of the strain distribution dispersion produced by the ratchet drive structure. Therefore, the effect of this strain distribution was examined. The inverse-magnetostrictive sensing material of nickel-iron alloy plating has an extremum on its output curve.
Journal Article

Study of Effects of Residual Stress on Natural Frequency of Motorcycle Brake Discs

In brake squeal analyses using FE models, minimizing the discrepancies in vibration characteristics between the measurement and the simulation is a key issue for improving its reproducibility. The discrepancies are generally adjusted by the shape parameters and/or material properties applied to the model. However, the discrepancy cannot be easily adjusted, especially, for the vibration characteristic of the disc model of a motorcycle. One of the factors that give a large impact on this discrepancy is a thermal history of the disc. That thermal history includes the one experienced in manufacturing process. In this paper, we examine the effects of residual stress on the natural frequency of motorcycle discs. The residual stress on the disc surface was measured by X-ray stress measurement method. It was followed by an eigenvalue analysis. In this analysis, we developed a unique method in which the residual stress was substituted by thermal stress.
Journal Article

Establishment of Performance Design Process for Vehicle Sound-Roof Packages Based on SEA Method

The process for setting the marketability targets and achievement methods for automotive interior quietness (as related to air borne noise above 400Hz, considered the high frequency range) was established. With conventional methods it is difficult to disseminate the relationship between the performance of individual parts and the overall vehicle performance. Without new methods, it is difficult to propose detailed specifications for the optimal sound proof packages. In order to make it possible to resolve the individual components performance targets, the interior cavity was divided into a number of sections and the acoustic performance of each section is evaluated separately. This is accomplished by evaluating the acoustical energy level of each separate interior panel with the unit power of the exterior speaker excitation. The applicability of the method was verified by evaluating result against predicted value, using the new method, during actual vehicle operation.
Technical Paper

Liquid Phase Thermometry of Common Rail Diesel Sprays Impinging on a Heated Wall

An experimental study was carried out on visualization of liquid phase temperature distributions in high-pressure diesel sprays impinging on a heated wall. Naphthalene/TMPD-exciplex fluorescence method and pyrene-excimer fluorescence method were utilized for the thermometry. The sprays were injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature gaseous environment. The nozzle hole diameter was 0.100 mm or 0.139 mm. The results showed that cool pockets were formed at the tip and in the impinging part of the sprays. The spray for the nozzle with 0.100 mm hole was heated up faster near the nozzle than for the nozzle with 0.139 mm hole.
Technical Paper

Establishment of the Specification Design Technique by Multiple-Purpose Optimization of Sound Proof Package

This paper describes an effective method with statistical energy analysis (SEA) for specifying the vehicle sound proof package that achieves the best balance between light weight and high sound insulation performance. For proposing the sound proof package in the early stages of vehicle development, it is necessary to assess a number of specifications and to pick the best design specifications for weight and sound proof performance. However, there are difficulties in achieving conflicting objectives simultaneously, and acoustic engineers need special technical know-how. In this study, a new automated optimization method is proposed that approaches the problem above. As a result, detailed sound insulation package specifications, including the thickness distribution of each part, can be obtained and these can be easily transferred to drawings. Moreover, the accuracy of this method is proven by a reduction in vehicle interior cabin sound pressure level
Technical Paper

New Telematics Approach by “Diversifying Communication and Customer Opportunity”

Customer satisfaction is one of the most important goals for car manufacturers in providing telematics services to their customers. Telematics is not merely a chance for additional revenue, but should be used to supplement value to an OEM's core business. Unfortunately most existing Telematics business models focus on revenue opportunities. However, the customer value of Telematics still resides in a conventional vehicle–related value model. Typical examples of killer applications are related to transportation, such as real time traffic information, vehicle operation information, vehicle diagnostic information and on–board entertainment. A new approach, which is well accepted by customers, is anticipated. The key solution is a combination of several challenges, such as the transformation of customer relationship management (CRM), optimum integration of existing infrastructure, and customer value proposition based on customers' essential expectations.
Technical Paper

Development of Hollow, Weld-able Die-Cast Parts for Aluminum Motorcycle Frames

Using sand cores, the weld-able, hollow die-cast parts have been developed. For casting, the transition flow filling method is applied to reduce gas containment and to minimize damages to the core. In designing the products, the newly developed core stress prediction system by melt pressure distribution and the newly developed in-product gas containment prediction system have been applied. The hollow die-cast frame made by the new method attains a 30% increase in rigidity and 1kg reduction of weight.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Brake System for Small Motorcycles

Combined Brake System for small motorcycles has been developed. In small motorcycles, some models have a hydraulic disc brake both in the front and rear wheels but many of them have a hydraulic disc front brake and a mechanical drum rear brake. Accordingly, it was necessary to develop a new system to link the hydraulic system with the mechanical system to allow an application of Combined Brake System to these models. In this paper, a CBS having a new configuration is described where a disc brake and a drum brake are linked in a simple lever structure of an input force distributor, and an inhibitor spring at the foot pedal. With this mechanism equipped, the distribution of brake forces is controlled. When a large input force is applied, a large proportion of brake force is applied to the front brake to obtain adequate deceleration. When a mild input force is applied, which is frequently operated, the brake force proportion is large in the rear compared to the front.
Technical Paper

Improvement of visibility for vulnerable parties in traffic accidents

More than half of fatalities in traffic accidents in Japan are the vulnerable parties in such accidents (pedestrians, motorcycles, bicycles). In most of these accidents, the cause is collision involving automobiles. Therefore, reasoning that early detection of such vulnerable parties would lead to a reduction in accidents, we conducted research on the following three systems: - Honda Night Vision System - For night-time detection of pedestrians using infrared cameras. - Active Headlights - For assuring night-time field of vision by directing illumination in the direction of vehicle travel through lights coupled with steering wheel turn and so on. - Inter-Vehicle Motorcycle-Automobile Communication System (IVCS) - Notifies drivers of each other's presence by providing information through communications systems installed on both vehicles. The results from research on these systems show that their use can be expected to have a positive effect in reducing the occurrence of accidents.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT-Part 2: Compression Force Between Metal Blocks and Ring Tension

In this study, distributions of block compression force on the driving and driven pulleys were measured using a tiny load-cell inserted between two blocks and a telemeter system, under several constant speed ratios. Ring tension distributions were also measured using a specially devised block. From the experimental results, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Block compression force distribution on the driving pulley is significantly different from that on the driven pulley. (2) Ring tension takes different value at each side of strings. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by difference of saddle surface speed between two pulleys.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stress Distribution of Timing Belts by FEM

A model of a timing belt analyzed by FEM (a general non-linear finite element program:ABAQUS) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates belt cord stress. Analysis revealed a good correlation between the experimental and computed results of stress distribution of the belt cord. Through calculation, it was discovered that belts broke near the tooth root, which is the point of maximum stress of the cord.
Technical Paper

A Study of Forces Acting on Rings for Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT

Four forces act in rings for a metal pushing V-belt. These forces are: two kinds of intercepting forces which prevent blocks from going outside of pulleys (one caused by pulley thrust, the other caused by centrifugal force), frictional force acting between the rings and the blocks, and bending force in longitudinal direction. In the previous paper (1)(2)(3)(5), distribution of three forces, excluding centrifugal force, were presented at low belt speed. We successfully measured all four kinds of forces including centrifugal force continuously at practical operation conditions for layered rings. In this paper, distribution of these four forces on the innermost ring is described at steady states.
Technical Paper

Residual Stress Analysis for Additive Manufactured Large Automobile Parts by Using Neutron and Simulation

Metal additive manufacturing has high potential to produce automobile parts, due to its shape flexibility and unique material properties. On the other hand, residual stress which is generated by rapid solidification causes deformation, cracks and failure under building process. To avoid these problems, understanding of internal residual stress distribution is necessary. However, from the view point of measureable area, conventional residual stress measurement methods such as strain gages and X-ray diffractometers, is limited to only the surface layer of the parts. Therefore, neutron which has a high penetration capability was chosen as a probe to measure internal residual stress in this research. By using time of flight neutron diffraction facility VULCAN at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, residual stress for mono-cylinder head, which were made of aluminum alloy, was measured non-distractively. From the result of precise measurement, interior stress distribution was visualized.