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Technical Paper

Research on Measurement and Simulation Technology of Valve Behavior during Engine Firing

A measurement method for valve behavior during engine firing is established. In order to grasp valve behavior accurately, it has been required to develop a measurement method for valve behavior that takes in account for the condition during engine firing. However, behaviors of a valve train have generally been analyzed during engine motoring because it is difficult to measure them during engine firing. In this study, valve behavior during engine firing can be measured accurately by attaching a gap sensor to the valve guide. Furthermore, the simulation system for valve behavior that treated the valve train as three-dimensional flexible body is built. Under engine motoring condition, high correlation between measurement and simulation is confirmed for valve behavior and spring stress.
Technical Paper

Development of Prediction Method of Static Torque Sharing Distribution of Planetary Gear Sets Generated by Manufacturing Error Distribution

This paper discusses a method of predicting the torque distribution on planet gears originating in manufacturing errors, which is necessary for appropriate strength design of the gears in planetary gear sets. First, an expression of relation between manufacturing errors and the torque on the planet gears in a normal n-planet planetary gear set was derived. As a result, an equation expressing the distribution of torque to the planet gears was obtained. Tests were conducted to verify the validity of the equation in the case of a 4-planet planetary gear set. In order to predict the distribution of torque, it was necessary to estimate the stiffness of the planetary gear set that was the subject of the relational expression. These stiffness values were calculated by numerical analysis using a 3D FEM, into which blueprint values and material property values were input.
Technical Paper

Prediction Method of Surface Pressure against Gasket in Consideration of Creep on Cylinder Head in Air-Cooled Engines

A method was designed to predict the gasket surface pressure in consideration of creep which occurs on the surface of the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines. Creep caused by heat can cause major deformation on the gasket side of the cylinder head in air-cooled engines, which may result in combustion gas leaking from between the cylinder and cylinder head. Until now, there have been no reports of methods to accurately predict phenomena relating to this deformation in the initial stage of engine design. This study combined values of strain and temperature occurring on the gasket side of the cylinder head, obtained through FEM analysis of steady heat transfer and thermal stress, with unit test results showing the domains in which the influence of the creep is critical or not. This information was used to design a method to determine whether or not an engine's specifications fell into a domain in which creep would have an effect, and predict surface pressure.
Technical Paper

Potential Improvements to Impact Responses of the Flexible Legform Impactor

The validity of evaluating FlexPLI peak injury measures has been shown by the correlation of the peak measures between a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model. However, comparisons of tibia bending moment time histories (BMTHs) between these models show that the FlexPLI model exhibits a higher degree of oscillatory behavior than the human model. The goal of this study was to identify potential improvements to the FlexPLI such that the legform provides more biofidelic tibia BMTHs at the normal standing height. Impact simulations using a human FE model and a FlexPLI FE model were conducted against simplified vehicle models to compare tibia BMTHs. The same series of impact simulations were conducted using the FlexPLI models that incorporated potential measures to identify measures effective for further enhancement of the biofidelity. An additional analysis was also conducted to investigate the key factor for minimizing the oscillation of the tibia BMTH.
Technical Paper

High Efficiency 6-speed Automatic Transmission

A new 6-speed automatic transmission (AT) has been developed with the aim of enhancing fuel economy, raising efficiency, and achieving greater compactness. The unit was built on a parallel-shaft structure similar to the previous Honda AT, which has high torque transmission efficiency. The new AT was given more gear speeds and the ability to handle higher input torque from the engine. On the one hand, bolt structure for shaft tightening was implemented, the forward-reverse shift mechanism was placed on the input shaft and common gear trains are provided. As a result of these and other measures, the total length of the new transmission is 18 mm shorter than the previous model 5-speed AT. A multi-plate lock-up clutch (LC) structure with a separate chamber in the torque converter was also adopted so that the lock-up torque capacity could be increased and the LC control range expanded.
Journal Article

Development of Estimation for Strain in Damages of Motorcycle Engine Parts When Tipped Over from Stationary State

In this research, a simulation method was developed in which it was able to estimate, in the early stage of design, the strains that potentially lead to damages to motorcycle engine parts when tipped over from a stationary state. Splitting a series of phenomena from the start of tilting of motorcycle from the upright position up to the end of collision of engine parts after the contact on the ground to two groups by before and after the contact of engine parts on the ground, we applied the multi body dynamics analysis to the first group, and the elastro-plastic FEM analysis to the latter one. In the computer simulation of collision using the elastro-plastic FEM analysis, we minimized the FEM models from the entire motorcycle models and treated others as a solid model to shorten the computation period. It is also realized that the strains occurring in the engine parts can be simulated by considering only the mass of the parts which are rigidly mounted on the engine.
Journal Article

Consideration about Meshing of Worm Gear Based on MUB (Meshing Under Base-Circle) Theory for EPS

This paper will discuss the stress reduction of the worm wheel for an electric power steering (EPS) system. The research discussed in this paper focused on the worm wheel, the EPS component that determines the maximum diameter of the system. If the stress of the worm wheel could be reduced without increasing in size, it would be possible to reduce the size of the worm wheel and EPS system. In order to reduce the stress of the worm wheel, the conventional design method has extended the line-of-action toward outside of the worm wheel to increase the contact ratio of the gears and these method lead to an increase in the outer diameter. In order to address this issue, past research proposes the basic concept to extend line-of-action toward the inside of the worm wheel. And this new meshing theory was named MUB (Meshing Under Base-circle) theory. In this paper, characteristics of meshing of the gear formed by MUB theory are determined in more detail.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Semi-Floating Piston Pin Boss Formed by Using Oil-Film Simulations

This paper describes the oil-film bearing analysis simulation was utilized for the optimization of pin boss form which reduces a piston-pin noise. It is clear from the mechanism analysis of the piston-pin noise which is the last research that an oil-film flow inside a pin boss is an important factor for pin noise reduction. So, in this research, the oil-film simulation of the piston-pin-boss bearing part was performed using oil-film bearing analysis tool. After setting up the simulation conditions of the oil-film bearing part so that actual pin behavior and high correlativity might be shown, a parameter, effective hydrodynamic angular velocity, and an oil flow rate of change suitable for evaluation of a pin noise were found out. The pin noise in semi floating piston was reduced to the same level as full floating type by applying pin boss form to which each evaluation parameter becomes the optimal to a piston.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Motor for Electric Motorcycle for Business Use

A new DC brushless motor, which has an almost equivalent driving performance to a 50 cm₃ scooter engine, has been developed to be used in a new electric motorcycle for business. The traction motor is compact enough to be mounted close to the driveshaft of the transmission, which helps reduce friction in the drive train. Consequently, in the downsized motor, by mounting the drive train unit with the PDU (Power Drive Unit) on the wheel side by applying reduction gears, it enables the reduction of maximum motor torque requirement. It also enables other parts of the drive system to be integrated into one unit. In this motor, IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) structure has been implemented to cope with the high rotation of the motor, and the concentrated winding stator coil has been implemented for downsizing. As for the rotor, the magnets were placed in sections and the yoke shapes were improved to achieve higher rotation speeds that provide the higher power.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Lubricant Fluid Flow in Automotive Transmission

An analytic technology able to rapidly and accurately predict oil flows and churning torque in a transmission has been developed. The new method uses the finite difference method for analysis; with regard to wall boundaries it reproduces the shapes of physical objects by imparting boundary information to cells. This has made it a simple matter to treat the rotation and meshing of the gears, which form oil flows, and has also reduced the calculation cost. Tests of single-phase and multi-phase flows and churning torque were conducted in order to verify the accuracy of the new method. Calculation results for the flow velocity fields produced by rotating bodies, the trajectory of oil, and the behavior of the surface of the fluid displayed a good correlation with test results. Considering air entrainment in the oil, the ability of the method to reproduce these phenomena at high speeds of rotation was also increased.
Journal Article

Development of Tool for Evaluation of Automotive Conformity of FM Receivers Using Two-Stage Method

The suitability of FM radio receivers for automotive applications has conventionally been evaluated by evaluating the reception characteristics of broadcast waves while conducting repeated driving tests in a special test environment. Because the evaluation of sound quality while driving relies upon the auditory judgment of a limited range of test subjects, these tests present issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. In order to resolve these issues, a method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for automotive applications through the creation of a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed (this has been termed the “Two-Stage method”). In the research described in this paper, the Two-Stage method was used to analyze the effect of multipath distortion on FM receivers when driving through arbitrary radio wave propagation environments.
Journal Article

Estimation of the Incoming Wave Characteristics by MUSIC Method Using Virtual Array Antenna

Traditionally, the suitability of radio receivers and similar devices for automotive use has been evaluated by evaluating their reception characteristics in relation to transmitted waves via repeated driving tests. This method of evaluation presents issues in terms of reproducibility and objectivity. A method of evaluating the suitability of FM receivers for vehicle fitting using a virtual propagation environment created on a PC (termed the Two-Stage method) has been developed in order to address these issues. The major challenge in the Two-Stage method is the creation of an actual propagation environment on a PC. A test-based incoming wave estimation technology able to accurately estimate the characteristics of actual propagation environments is therefore essential. The estimation of incoming FM waves necessitates large array antennas. In addition, the incoming waves become coherent multipath waves.
Technical Paper

Design Method of Motorcycle Exhaust Sound Fitting to Vehicle Concept Regardless of Engine Configurations

Recently, it has been widely practiced in motorcycle developments that the same type of engine is commonly applied to various vehicle categories. Accordingly, it is drawing more attention to develop the methodology for creating the best suitable sound for each individual vehicle category regardless of restriction from the engine configurations. In our study, we aimed to establish a procedure to control exhaust sounds beyond the borders across the inherent sound qualities originated from their engine configurations. Firstly, we conducted subjective tests in order to extract essential factors, depicted by adjectives that appear in verbal expressions commonly used to illustrate sound qualities in general. The results enabled us to conduct quantitative evaluations of the exhaust sound qualities of various motorcycles. Next, we clarified the relationships among the individual factors of sound qualities under our study and physical parameters in waveforms of the sounds.
Journal Article

Wear Properties of Car Engine Shaft in Actual Engine Environment

When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
Journal Article

Establishment of Performance Design Process for Vehicle Sound-Roof Packages Based on SEA Method

The process for setting the marketability targets and achievement methods for automotive interior quietness (as related to air borne noise above 400Hz, considered the high frequency range) was established. With conventional methods it is difficult to disseminate the relationship between the performance of individual parts and the overall vehicle performance. Without new methods, it is difficult to propose detailed specifications for the optimal sound proof packages. In order to make it possible to resolve the individual components performance targets, the interior cavity was divided into a number of sections and the acoustic performance of each section is evaluated separately. This is accomplished by evaluating the acoustical energy level of each separate interior panel with the unit power of the exterior speaker excitation. The applicability of the method was verified by evaluating result against predicted value, using the new method, during actual vehicle operation.
Journal Article

Development of γ′-Fe4N Phase Control Technology and Low-Carbon Alloy Steel for High-Strength Nitrided Gear

A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
Technical Paper

Study of CNG Fueled Two-Wheeled Vehicle with Electronically Controlled Gas Injection System

Owing to its combustion characteristics and chemical composition, natural gas features cleaner emissions and lower CO2 compared to gasoline under equal thermal efficiency. Natural gas can be a promising alternative energy source to respond to crude oil exhaustion and global warming issues. Focusing on the utility of natural gas, a feasibility study on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) -fueled two-wheeled vehicles has been conducted. A proto-type two-wheeled vehicle was made based on a 125 cm3 class gasoline-fueled scooter. To adapt the engine to the use of CNG fuel, an electronically controlled gas injection system was applied to the fuel supply system. To provide abrasion resistance of engine valves and valve seats, the specific matter of gas-fuel was improved. Furthermore, a lubricant circulation passage was added to maintain the temperature of the pressure reducing valve.
Technical Paper

Management System for Continuously Variable Valve Lift Gasoline Engine

A continuously variable valve lift gasoline engine can improve fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss and increase maximum torque by optimizing valve lift and cam phase according to engine speed. In this research, a new control system to simultaneously ensure good driveability and low emissions was developed for this low fuel consumption, high power engine. New suction air management through a master-slave control made it possible to achieve low fuel consumption and good driveability. To regulate the idle speed, a new controller featuring a two-degree-of-freedom sliding-mode algorithm with cooperative control was designed. This controller can improve the stability of idle speed and achieve the idle operation with a lower engine speed. To reduce emissions during cold start condition, an ignition timing control was developed that combine I-P control with a sliding mode control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Fuel Pump Module for Motorcycles

A compact, low-cost fuel pump module has been developed for use in motorcycles with a small-displacement engine. Various considerations are given to make the module as compact as possible. The pump motor, which is one of the major component parts, is down-sized specifically for applications to small-displacement engines. The pressure regulator uses a simple construction consisting only of a ball and a spring without a diaphragm. Especially noteworthy is that with the volume reduced by approximately 40% from the conventional pressure regulator while using the construction that reduces self-excited vibrations caused by fuel pressure pulsations, the pressure regulator contributes significantly to the down-sizing and cost reduction of the module. Furthermore, the down-sized module remarkably reduces the size of fuel pump mount surface, allowing a modification from the flat-surface sealing to the radial sealing.
Technical Paper

Liquid Phase Thermometry of Common Rail Diesel Sprays Impinging on a Heated Wall

An experimental study was carried out on visualization of liquid phase temperature distributions in high-pressure diesel sprays impinging on a heated wall. Naphthalene/TMPD-exciplex fluorescence method and pyrene-excimer fluorescence method were utilized for the thermometry. The sprays were injected into a high-pressure and high-temperature gaseous environment. The nozzle hole diameter was 0.100 mm or 0.139 mm. The results showed that cool pockets were formed at the tip and in the impinging part of the sprays. The spray for the nozzle with 0.100 mm hole was heated up faster near the nozzle than for the nozzle with 0.139 mm hole.