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Technical Paper

Research on Improving Throwing Power of Electrodeposition Coating by Optimizing Paint Properties

Abstract By increasing the percentage of highly dissociative strong acid components included in the neutralizing acid of the electrodeposition coating, it was possible to improve electrical conductivity and coulomb efficiency and achieve excellent throwing power. The GA cratering caused by the increase in the strong acid ratio was resolved by setting the strong acid ratio to 90% while reducing MEQ. By increasing coulomb efficiency, the quantity of hydrogen gas produced during electrodeposition was minimized, and as a result, gas pinholes remaining in the coating were reduced, increasing the smoothness of the coating beyond than that of the current materials. As a result of this study, the usage of e-coating per vehicle body was reduced by approximately 11%.
Journal Article

Strength Analysis of CFRP Composite Material Considering Inter-Laminar Fractures

Abstract The strength characteristic of CFRP composite materials is often dependent on the internal micro-structural fracture mode. When performing a simulation on composite structures, it is necessary to take the fracture mode into account, especially in an automobile body structure with a complex three-dimensional shape, where inter-ply fractures tend to appear due to out-of-plane load inputs. In this paper, an energy-based inter-ply fracture model with fracture toughness criteria, and an intra-ply fracture model proposed by Ladeveze et al. were explained. FEM analyses were performed on three-dimensional test specimens applying both fracture models and the simulated results were compared with experimental ones. Reproducibility of the fracture mode was confirmed and the importance of combining both models was discussed.
Journal Article

Fracture Prediction for Automotive Bodies Using a Ductile Fracture Criterion and a Strain-Dependent Anisotropy Model

Abstract In order to reduce automobile body weight and improve crashworthiness, the use of high-strength steels has increased greatly in recent years. An optimal combination of both crash safety performance and lightweight structure has been a major challenge in automobile body engineering. In this study, the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion was applied to predict the fracture of high-strength steels. Marciniak-type biaxial stretching tests for high-strength steels were performed to measure the material constant of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion. Furthermore, in order to improve the simulation accuracy, local anisotropic parameters based on the plastic strain (strain dependent model of anisotropy) were measured using the digital image grid method and were incorporated into Hill's anisotropic yield condition by the authors. In order to confirm the validity of the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion, uniaxial tensile tests were performed.
Journal Article

Study on Analysis of Input Loads to Motorcycle Frames in Rough Road Running

Abstract In this study, we developed a simulation method for rough road running condition to reproduce the behaviors of a vehicle body and to precisely estimate the input loads to the frame. We designed the simulation method focusing on a front fork model and a rider model optimized for this type of analysis. In the suspension model development, we conducted detailed measurement of the suspension characteristics on a test bench. Based on the yielded results, the friction force, as well as the spring reaction force and the damping force, was reproduced in the suspension model. The friction of the suspension varies depending on the magnitude of the reaction force associated with bending and this effect was also implemented in the model. Regarding the rider model, the actual behavior of a rider was investigated through the recorded motion video data and used to define the necessary degrees of freedom.
Journal Article

Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

A new index U* for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U*, which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure. U* enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Different loading conditions are applied to a body structure, and the similarity of the U* distributions is evaluated using the direction cosine and U* 2-dimensional correlation diagrams. It is shown as a result that body structures can be macroscopically grasped by using the U* distribution rather than using the stress distribution. In addition, as an example, the U* distribution of torsion loading condition is shown to comprehensively include characteristics of the U* distribution of other loading conditions.
Technical Paper

New Technique for Optimizing Member Cross-Sections in Car Bodies to Reduce Noise and Weight

Currently, car bodies require further weight reduction in order to support increasing fuel economy requirements. An efficient way for light weight body design is to include body member size as a design variable in addition to part thickness. However it is currently difficult for finite element (FE) models to change member size even using current morphing techniques. To break through this challenge, a hybrid modeling approach was developed which combines shell and beam element representations of body structural members. The original member shell element thickness was decreased by 40%. Then the stiffness reduction caused by this change is offset by beam elements incorporated inside these members. These beams can represent the stiffness change due to new cross sectional dimensions or orientations without changing the original shell elements, thus avoiding modeling instabilities that can occur from morphing.
Technical Paper

Development of Hollow, Weld-able Die-Cast Parts for Aluminum Motorcycle Frames

Using sand cores, the weld-able, hollow die-cast parts have been developed. For casting, the transition flow filling method is applied to reduce gas containment and to minimize damages to the core. In designing the products, the newly developed core stress prediction system by melt pressure distribution and the newly developed in-product gas containment prediction system have been applied. The hollow die-cast frame made by the new method attains a 30% increase in rigidity and 1kg reduction of weight.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Finite Element Model for the Polar-II Upper Body

The goal of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the Polar-II pedestrian dummy. An upper body model consisting of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, and abdomen was coupled with a previously validated model of the lower limb The viscoelastic material properties of the dummy components were determined from dynamic compression tests of shoulder urethane, shoulder rubber and abdominal foam. For validation of the entire upper body, the model was compared with NHTSA response requirements for their advanced frontal dummy (Thor) including head and neck pendulum tests as well as ribcage and abdominal impact tests. In addition, the Polar-II full body FE model was subjected to simulated vehicle-pedestrian impacts that recreated published experiments. Simulated head and pelvis accelerations as well as upper body trajectories reasonably reproduced the experiment.
Technical Paper

Establishment of the Specification Design Technique by Multiple-Purpose Optimization of Sound Proof Package

This paper describes an effective method with statistical energy analysis (SEA) for specifying the vehicle sound proof package that achieves the best balance between light weight and high sound insulation performance. For proposing the sound proof package in the early stages of vehicle development, it is necessary to assess a number of specifications and to pick the best design specifications for weight and sound proof performance. However, there are difficulties in achieving conflicting objectives simultaneously, and acoustic engineers need special technical know-how. In this study, a new automated optimization method is proposed that approaches the problem above. As a result, detailed sound insulation package specifications, including the thickness distribution of each part, can be obtained and these can be easily transferred to drawings. Moreover, the accuracy of this method is proven by a reduction in vehicle interior cabin sound pressure level
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminium Hollow Subframe Using High-Pressure Die Casting

Abstract High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ductility Ingredients of Structural Adhesives on Fracture Energy under Static Mixed-Mode Loading

Abstract In recent years, adhesive bonding is increasingly being applied in the construction of vehicle frames in order to improve body stiffness and crash performance. Regarding crash performance, the behavior of impacted components is affected by the fracture energy value of the adhesive. However, the relationship between the ductility and fracture energy values under mixed-mode loadings has not been sufficiently evaluated. In this paper, the fracture energy of three structural adhesives in a static mixed-mode loading using Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimens is presented. To derive the fracture energy values, the Compliance Based Beam Method (CBBM) was used, which allowed for precise determination of fracture energy values. Static mixed-mode loading tests were performed in six configurations of mixed-mode loading, ranging from pure peel mode state to almost pure shear mode state.
Technical Paper


Studies have been made of the standardization of implementation procedures of the life cycle assessment (LCA), standardized as ISO14040 series, under the joint collaboration of industries, government agencies and universities. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of motorcycles, cases of research of whose LCA are scarce, has been attempted by taking infrastructures of Japan into consideration. Energy saving property “as mobility of motorcycles” was verified by building up a practical macro LCI method covering the stages of the life cycle of motorcycles. Furthermore, in the development of aluminum die-cast frames for scooters, micro LCI was performed for manufacturing stages to quantify the environmental advantage of fully utilizing recycled materials and clarify problematical points in the design of new materials. This proved that LCA method is effective for the selection of optimum materials and optimum manufacturing plans.
Technical Paper

Application of All Aluminum Automotive Body for HONDA NSX

A Sports car's high performance, pursued as its major design point, forces the car to be as light as possible. Because of this, the NSX's body and chassis is build by making the best use of aluminum. This paper describes the development of aluminum for the NSX, and the forming and connecting technologies needed to achieve an all aluminum body.
Technical Paper

Structure to Assist in the Prevention of Bimetallic Corrosion of Hybrid Doors

1. ABSTRACT The use of low-density materials in body panels is increasing as a measure to reduce the weight of the vehicle body. Honda has developed an aluminum/steel sheet hybrid door that is more effective in reducing weight than an all-aluminum door. Because aluminum was used in the door skin, bimetallic corrosion at the connection between the aluminum and the steel sheets represented an issue. It was possible that the difference in the electrical potential of the two metals might promote corrosion at the connection between the aluminum door skin and the steel sheet door panel, in particular at the lower edge of the door, where rainwater and other moisture tend to accumulate, with the result that the appeal of the exterior of the door might decline.

Introduction of New Concept U*sum for Evaluation of Weight-Efficient Structure

A new index for evaluating load path dispersion is proposed, using a structural load path analysis method based on the concept of U* , which expresses the connection strength between a load point and an arbitrary point within the structure enables the evaluation of the load path dispersion within the structure by statistical means such as histograms and standard deviations. Presenter Tadashi Naito, Honda R&D Co., Ltd.