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Journal Article

The Role of Copper on the Friction and Wear Performance of Automotive Brake Friction Materials

Copper has been regarded as one of the indispensable ingredients in the brake friction materials since it provides high thermal diffusivity at the sliding interface. However, the recent regulations against environmentally hazardous ingredients limit the use of copper in the commercial friction material and much effort has been made for the alternatives. In this work, the role of the cuprous ingredients such as copper fiber, copper powder, cupric oxide (CuO), and copper sulfide (CuS) are studied using the friction materials based on commercial formulations. The investigation was performed using a full inertial brake dynamometer and 1/5 scale dynamometer for brake performance and wear test. Results showed that the cuprous ingredients played a crucial role in maintaining the stable friction film at the friction interface, resulting in improved friction stability and reduced aggressiveness against counter disk.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Induced Brake Torque Variation: The Effect from Gray Iron Microstructure and Friction Materials

Brake judder caused by corrosion of gray iron disks was investigated. In this study, the microstructure of the gray iron disks and the friction film developed on the disk surface by commercial friction materials were examined to find the root cause of the corrosion induced brake torque variation. Corrosion of the disk was carried out in an environmental chamber, simulating in-vehicle disk corrosion. Moisture content and acidity of the friction materials were also taken into account for this investigation and brake tests to examine torque variation during brake applications were performed using a single-end brake dynamometer. Results showed that the friction film developed on the disk surface strongly affected the amount of corrosion, while graphite morphology of the gray iron had little effect on the corrosion.
Journal Article

Development of Noise Propensity Index (NPI) for Robust Brake Friction

A semi-empirical index to evaluate the noise propensity of brake friction materials is introduced. The noise propensity index (NPI) is based on the ratio of surface and matrix stiffness of the friction material, fraction of high-pressure contact plateaus on the sliding surface, and standard deviation of the surface stiffness of the friction material that affect the amplitude and frequency of the stick-slip oscillation. The correlation between noise occurrence and NPI was examined using various brake linings for commercial vehicles. The results obtained from reduced-scale noise dynamometer and vehicle tests indicated that NPI is well correlated with noise propensity. The analysis of the stick-slip profiles also indicated that the surface property affects the amplitude of friction oscillation, while the mechanical property of the friction material influences the propagation of friction oscillation after the onset of vibration.