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Journal Article

Development of Nano Diamond Polymer Coating on Piston Skirt for Fuel Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1401
Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Acoustic Simulation for the Components of an Intake System

2011-05-17
2011-01-1520
The reduction of intake noise is a very important factor in controlling the interior noise levels of vehicles, particularly at low and major engine operating speeds. A vehicle intake system generally consists of air cleaner box, hose, duct, and filter element. Also, resonators and porous duct are included, being used to reduce intake noise. For more accurate estimation of the transmission loss (TL), it seems important to develop a CAE model that accurately describes this system. In this paper, simple methods, which can consider the effects of filter element and vibro-acoustic coupling, are suggested which could remarkably improve estimation accuracy of the TL. The filter element is assumed as equivalent semi-rigid porous materials characterized by the flow resistivity defined by the pressure drop, velocity, and thickness.
Technical Paper

6 Speed Automatic Transmission Vibration Magnitude Prediction and Whine Noise Improvement through Transmission System Modeling

2011-05-17
2011-01-1553
As automotive technology has been developed, gear whine has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking has been decreased. Whine is not the loudest source, but it is of high tonal noise which is often highly unpleasant. The gear noise originates at gear mesh. Transmission Error acts as an excitation source and these vibrations pass through gears, shafts and bearings to the housing which vibrates to produce noise on surrounding air. As microgeometry optimization target to reduce the fundamental excitation source of the noise, it has been favored method to tackle gear whine noise, especially for manual transmission. However, practicality of microgeometry optimization for the planetary gear system has been still in question, because of complex system structure and interaction among multi mesh gear sets make it hard to predict and even harder to improve. In this paper, successful case of whine noise improvement by microgeometry is presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Muscle Fatigue for Urban Bus Drivers using Electromyography

2011-04-12
2011-01-0801
Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Measure of Perceived Shift Quality Metric for Automatic Transmission Applying Kansei Engineering Methods

2013-04-08
2013-01-0336
This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway).
Technical Paper

A Development of the High-toughness Nitriding to Reduce Heat Treatment Distortion of AT Annulus Gear

2013-04-08
2013-01-1769
In terms of reducing the gear noise of automatic transmission, improvement of heat treatment distortion of the annulus gear is very important, because annulus gear is very sensitive heat treatment due to thin walled ring-like shape. Nitriding is very effective method to meet the both requirements for heat treatment distortion and durability of the annulus gear, as compared with conventional carburizing. However, conventional nitriding has problems to be applied for annulus gear, such as brittleness of compound layer and low adhesion strength between compound layer and matrix. In this research, we developed the high toughness nitriding and greatly improved the problems as mentioned above, by controlling gas pressure and temperature.
Journal Article

The Role of Copper on the Friction and Wear Performance of Automotive Brake Friction Materials

2011-09-18
2011-01-2367
Copper has been regarded as one of the indispensable ingredients in the brake friction materials since it provides high thermal diffusivity at the sliding interface. However, the recent regulations against environmentally hazardous ingredients limit the use of copper in the commercial friction material and much effort has been made for the alternatives. In this work, the role of the cuprous ingredients such as copper fiber, copper powder, cupric oxide (CuO), and copper sulfide (CuS) are studied using the friction materials based on commercial formulations. The investigation was performed using a full inertial brake dynamometer and 1/5 scale dynamometer for brake performance and wear test. Results showed that the cuprous ingredients played a crucial role in maintaining the stable friction film at the friction interface, resulting in improved friction stability and reduced aggressiveness against counter disk.
Technical Paper

Development of Polymer Composite Battery Pack Case for an Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1177
A battery pack case of an electric vehicle was developed with a fibrous thermoplastic composite material. Due to cost effectiveness, long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics by direct process (D-LFT) were adopted. PA6 (Polyamide 6)-based composites were processed using a D-LFT pilot machine at the temperature range between 250° and 290°. Glass and carbon fibers were added in the matrix varying the mixture ratio of the fibers while keeping the weight fraction 40%. The increase of carbon fibers in the mixture increased tensile modulus and strength, however, decreased Izod impacts strength. The fatigue life of developed composites was evaluated by fatigue tests in tension, which were over one million cycles at the maximum fatigue loading less than 60% of the composite strength. Associated with fiber orientation, anisotropic mechanical behavior was investigated in terms of flexural properties and mold shrinkage.
Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction of an Extra Large Dump Truck Deck and Subframe

2013-04-08
2013-01-1211
An engineering strategy to develop a new 27-ton dump truck is introduced in the process of design and analysis. Main engineering concerns in development of the new dump truck are focused on reducing weight as much as 180kg without deteriorating structural strength and fatigue life of its upper body - deck and subframe. To achieve this goal, a stress analysis and a fatigue life prediction based on CAE technique are employed at the early stage of design process. A finite element model of the full vehicle was constructed for the strength analysis. Then the fatigue life was predicted through the strength analysis and an S-N curve of high strength steel. The S-N curve for welded structures made of high strength steel was used along with a prototype vehicle's endurance test in order to set strength targets. As a result, the upper body was successfully developed without any fatigue issues.
Technical Paper

High Strength Light-Weight Valve Spring for Automotive Engine to Enhance Fuel Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0528
High strength oil-tempered wire was developed to apply to light-weight valve spring for automotive engine. By adding Mo, V, B and Ni, tensile strength increased by 20% compared to the conventional oil-tempered wire. Higher tensile strength of wire enabled a constant of valve spring to lower by reducing the size of spring. As a result, reduction of spring constant lowers the load of spring, thereby enhancing fuel efficiency.
Journal Article

FE Simulation of the Transmission Loss Performance of Vehicle Acoustic Components at Low and Medium Frequencies

2014-06-30
2014-01-2081
The assessment of the Transmission Loss (TL) of vehicle components at Low-Mid Frequencies generally raises difficulties associated to the physical mechanisms of the noise transmission through the automotive panel. As far as testing is concerned, it is common in the automotive industry to perform double room TL measurements of component baffled cut-outs, while numerical methods are rather applied when prototype or hardware variants are not available. Indeed, in the context of recent efforts for reduction of vehicle prototypes, the use of simulation is constantly challenged to deliver reliable means of decision during virtual design phase. While the Transfer matrix method is commonly and conveniently used at Mid-High frequencies for the calculation of a trimmed panel, the simulation of energy transfer at low frequencies must take into account modal interactions between the vehicle component and the acoustic environment.
Technical Paper

Study on Sound Insulation Performance of Vehicle Dash Reinforcements

2014-06-30
2014-01-2085
Dash panel is the most important path of structure-borne and air-borne interior noise for engine-driven vehicles. Reinforcements, which are added to dash panel, are mainly designed in order to suppress the structure-borne noise contribution from the dash panel. However, the effects of dash reinforcements do not seem clear in the viewpoint of air-borne noise. In this paper, the insulation performance of a dash structure with spot-welded reinforcements is studied through several STL (Sound Transmission Loss) tests and STL simulations. The results of this study could be utilized for increasing the sound insulation performance of vehicle body structure.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Evaluation for the Leaf Spring of Commercial Vehicle Considering U Bolt Fixing Force

2007-04-16
2007-01-0853
Suspension system of vehicle is very important because it has an effect on ride comfort and safety. And the leaf spring is one of the major parts of commercial vehicle. By that reason it has to be designed to operate under severe condition to ensure enough endurance. But the traditional method for fatigue design needs repeated fatigue tests for each design according to its geometry, material, and operating condition. This means that a lot of time and money is needed for those tests. Thus, in this paper, a fatigue design method for leaf spring based on numerical analysis is proposed. At first, stress analysis is performed to get the stress under operation load or rig tests. And fatigue analysis is performed to get the fatigue life and to ensure the safety of leaf spring. Through this study, design parameters that play vital role in fatigue life of the leaf spring can be found out.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Torquemeter for In-vehicle Application and Parametric Study on Fuel Consumption Contribution

2007-04-16
2007-01-0964
The mechanical energy of an engine is lost by engine friction and in driving the engine's auxiliary components, which is then transferred to transmission. Thus, it is very important to know the exact value of engine friction and the driving torque of engine's auxiliary components in order to reduce fuel consumption of an engine by reducing these losses. And, it is also helpful to know the braking torque of an engine in actual vehicle so as to improve vehicle's driving performance. For these reasons, present study developed an engine torquemeter for in-vehicle application, and measured braking torque of an engine in vehicle and analyzed fuel consumption contributions of engine's auxiliary components.
Technical Paper

Development of High Wear Resistant and Durable Coatings for Al Valve Spring Retainer

2007-04-16
2007-01-1748
The use of light-weight materials in automotive engine components has increased in order to achieve better fuel efficiency and engine performance. In this study, Al alloy (AI5056) valve spring retainer can reduce a weight by 63% in comparison to steel and improve the upper limit of engine speed by about 500rpm. The Al valve spring retainer was fabricated by cold forging and coated with hard anodizing, DLC (diamond like coating), cold spray and thermal spray for better wear resistance and durability. We conclude that among these materials the DLC coating improves the wear resistance of Al valve spring retainer and has a sufficient durability after endurance testing.
Technical Paper

E3 System – A Two speed Accessory Belt Drive System for Reduced Fuel Consumption

2008-06-23
2008-01-1521
All vehicles have some or all accessories such as alternators, air conditioner compressors, power steering pumps, and water pumps. These devices are mounted on the front of the engine and are powered by a pulley mounted on the front of the crankshaft. This power represents a parasitic loss and this loss is greater at higher engine speeds. To reduce the impact of the accessories on the engine, a two speed transmission that reduces the accessories speed at off-idle conditions was designed, implemented, and tested on several vehicles. The vehicles were tested for fuel economy on the Japanese 10.15 Mode driving cycle, the FTP75 city cycle, and the HWFET Highway Cycle. Results showed an average of 5% reduction in fuel consumption and a corresponding 5% in CO2 with no impact of accessory performance and vehicle drivability. Simulations with GT-Drive software was used to determine the optimum speed reduction and the threshold switching speed that maximizes fuel savings.
Journal Article

Development of Fatigue Durability Analysis Techniques for Engine Piston using CAE

2009-04-20
2009-01-0820
A piston in a diesel engine is subject to the high pressure and the high thermal load. The high structural reliability is required to the piston in the automotive diesel engine and it is important to confirm the design parameters of piston in initial design stage. There are lots of research works proposing new geometries, materials and manufacturing techniques for engine pistons. But, the failures of piston occur frequently in development stage. Failure mechanisms are mainly fatigue related. This paper presents failure mechanisms of the high cycle fatigue and low cycle thermal fatigue cracks which occur on the piston during durability test using engine dynamometer. In this study, FE analysis was carried out to investigate the root cause of piston failure. The analysis includes the FE model of the piston moving system, temperature dependent material properties, mechanical and thermal loadings.
Technical Paper

Drivability Development Based on CoSimulation of AMESim Vehicle Model and Simulink HCU Model for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0725
Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle consists of internal combustion engine, engine clutch, motor, automatic transmission, Integrated Starter Generator (ISG), and battery. Due to hybridizations such as using engine clutch to disengage the internal combustion engine and omitting torque converter from the automatic transmission to increase fuel economy, drivability will not be same as conventional vehicle. To ensure drivability comparable to conventional vehicle, dynamic simulation has been utilized to foresee the drivability issues for the proposed hybrid system and ideas for improvements are tested in simulation. CoSimulation of AMESim vehicle model and Simulink Hybrid Control Unit (HCU) model has been used to test and improve HCU logic.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Estimation of Suspension Components using Statistical Method

2009-04-20
2009-01-0080
Depending on the scatter of material properties, geometrical shapes and load conditions, the fatigue life of mechanical components has wide range of scatter although they were tested under same conditions. This scatter is the main reason of different results between observed and predicted fatigue life. This study shows how to estimate the fatigue life distribution by analysis. Dominant factors for fatigue life distributions and their scatter could be obtained by comparing the analysis results and fatigue test results. Applying the scatter of these factors to fatigue analysis, it was possible to predict fatigue life distributions. This will improve the reliability of fatigue life estimation, therefore a more robust and reliable component design is possible.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Durability in HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

2005-04-11
2005-01-0655
In order to cope with new exhaust emission regulations, automotive industry is interested in research and development of HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines with common rail systems. Since HSDI diesel engine operates under highly loaded condition due to increased power output, cylinder head of HSDI diesel engine is susceptible to high cycle fatigue cracks. In this study, FE analysis was used to find the mechanism of high cycle fatigue crack in the HSDI diesel cylinder head. In order to improve the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head, the modifications of cylinder head and head bolt pre-load were investigated. Experiments were performed to prove the existence of residual stress created during the heat treatment of cylinder head. The results of experiments showed that residual stress can affect the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head.
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