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Technical Paper

A Study on the Acoustic Simulation for the Components of an Intake System

2011-05-17
2011-01-1520
The reduction of intake noise is a very important factor in controlling the interior noise levels of vehicles, particularly at low and major engine operating speeds. A vehicle intake system generally consists of air cleaner box, hose, duct, and filter element. Also, resonators and porous duct are included, being used to reduce intake noise. For more accurate estimation of the transmission loss (TL), it seems important to develop a CAE model that accurately describes this system. In this paper, simple methods, which can consider the effects of filter element and vibro-acoustic coupling, are suggested which could remarkably improve estimation accuracy of the TL. The filter element is assumed as equivalent semi-rigid porous materials characterized by the flow resistivity defined by the pressure drop, velocity, and thickness.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Economy and Transient Control in a Passenger Diesel Engine Using LP(Low Pressure)-EGR

2011-04-12
2011-01-0400
Diesel engines are the most commonly used power train of the freight and public transportations in the world. From the viewpoint of global warming restraint, however, reduction of exhaust emissions from the diesel engine is urgent demand. Stringent emission regulations are being proposed with growing concern on NOx, PM and CO2 emissions. Future emission regulations require advanced emission control technologies, such as SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction), LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and EGR(Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The EGR is a commonly used technique to reduce emission. In this study, a LP-EGR(Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system was investigated to evaluate its potential on emission reduction and fuel economy improvement, especially for a passenger diesel engine. A 3.0ℓ diesel engine equipped with the LP-EGR system was tested using an in-house control algorithm.
Technical Paper

6 Speed Automatic Transmission Vibration Magnitude Prediction and Whine Noise Improvement through Transmission System Modeling

2011-05-17
2011-01-1553
As automotive technology has been developed, gear whine has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking has been decreased. Whine is not the loudest source, but it is of high tonal noise which is often highly unpleasant. The gear noise originates at gear mesh. Transmission Error acts as an excitation source and these vibrations pass through gears, shafts and bearings to the housing which vibrates to produce noise on surrounding air. As microgeometry optimization target to reduce the fundamental excitation source of the noise, it has been favored method to tackle gear whine noise, especially for manual transmission. However, practicality of microgeometry optimization for the planetary gear system has been still in question, because of complex system structure and interaction among multi mesh gear sets make it hard to predict and even harder to improve. In this paper, successful case of whine noise improvement by microgeometry is presented.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Measure of Perceived Shift Quality Metric for Automatic Transmission Applying Kansei Engineering Methods

2013-04-08
2013-01-0336
This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway).
Technical Paper

A Development of the High-toughness Nitriding to Reduce Heat Treatment Distortion of AT Annulus Gear

2013-04-08
2013-01-1769
In terms of reducing the gear noise of automatic transmission, improvement of heat treatment distortion of the annulus gear is very important, because annulus gear is very sensitive heat treatment due to thin walled ring-like shape. Nitriding is very effective method to meet the both requirements for heat treatment distortion and durability of the annulus gear, as compared with conventional carburizing. However, conventional nitriding has problems to be applied for annulus gear, such as brittleness of compound layer and low adhesion strength between compound layer and matrix. In this research, we developed the high toughness nitriding and greatly improved the problems as mentioned above, by controlling gas pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cabin Air Quality with Fractional Air Recirculation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1494
A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3, and 4), four fan speed settings and at 20, 40, and 70 mph. A manual control was installed for the recirculation flap door so different ratios of fresh air to recirculated air could be used. Full recirculation is the most efficient setting in terms of thermal management and particle concentration reduction, but this causes elevated CO₂ levels in the cabin. The study demonstrated cabin CO₂ concentrations could be controlled below a target level of 2000 ppm at various driving conditions and fan speeds with more than 85% of recirculation. The proposed fractional air recirculation method is a simple yet innovative way of improving cabin air quality. Some energy saving is also expected, especially with the air conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Diesel/Gasoline Dual Fuel Powered Combustion System based on Diesel Compression Ignition Triggered Ignition Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-1718
The author's new approach, diesel and gasoline dual fuel powered combustion system based on diesel CI triggered ignition control, provides not only how key ideas extracted from LTC concept could be established in a small bore HSDI turbocharged diesel engine but also which mechanism works to bring almost same benefits as we have experienced in both conventional diesel combustion and LTC based advanced combustion systems like HCCI, PCCI and PPCI combustions. The combustion system presented in the paper physically combines both mixing controlled diesel compression ignition combustion and gasoline premixed charge combustion in one power generation cycle. Gasoline fuel in the system is provided by the conventional gasoline PFI system firstly into the cylinder in which premixed charge spreads out. In compression stroke, the exact amount of diesel fuel is injected into the highly diluted EGR ambient with premixed gasoline charge.
Technical Paper

A Study of LNT & Urea SCR on DPF System to Meet the Stringent Exhaust Emission Regulation

2014-10-13
2014-01-2810
In diesel engine development, the new technology is coming out to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulation. The regulation demands more eco-friendly vehicles. Euro6c demands to meet not only WLTP mode, but also RDE(Real Driving Emission). In order to satisfy RDE mode, the new technology to reduce emissions should cover all operating areas including High Load & High Speed. It is a big challenge to reduce NOx on the RDE mode and a lot of DeNOx technologies are being developed. So the new DeNOx technology is needed to cover widened operating area and strict acceleration / deacceleration. The existing LNT(Lean NOx Trap) and Urea SCR(Selective Catalytic Reduction) is necessary to meet the typical NEDC or WLTP, but the RDE mode demands the powerful DeNOx technology. Therefore, the LNT & Urea SCR on DPF was developed through this study.
Journal Article

FE Simulation of the Transmission Loss Performance of Vehicle Acoustic Components at Low and Medium Frequencies

2014-06-30
2014-01-2081
The assessment of the Transmission Loss (TL) of vehicle components at Low-Mid Frequencies generally raises difficulties associated to the physical mechanisms of the noise transmission through the automotive panel. As far as testing is concerned, it is common in the automotive industry to perform double room TL measurements of component baffled cut-outs, while numerical methods are rather applied when prototype or hardware variants are not available. Indeed, in the context of recent efforts for reduction of vehicle prototypes, the use of simulation is constantly challenged to deliver reliable means of decision during virtual design phase. While the Transfer matrix method is commonly and conveniently used at Mid-High frequencies for the calculation of a trimmed panel, the simulation of energy transfer at low frequencies must take into account modal interactions between the vehicle component and the acoustic environment.
Technical Paper

Study on Sound Insulation Performance of Vehicle Dash Reinforcements

2014-06-30
2014-01-2085
Dash panel is the most important path of structure-borne and air-borne interior noise for engine-driven vehicles. Reinforcements, which are added to dash panel, are mainly designed in order to suppress the structure-borne noise contribution from the dash panel. However, the effects of dash reinforcements do not seem clear in the viewpoint of air-borne noise. In this paper, the insulation performance of a dash structure with spot-welded reinforcements is studied through several STL (Sound Transmission Loss) tests and STL simulations. The results of this study could be utilized for increasing the sound insulation performance of vehicle body structure.
Journal Article

Direct Sound Radiation Testing on a Mounted Car Engine

2014-06-30
2014-01-2088
For (benchmark) tests it is not only useful to study the acoustic performance of the whole vehicle, but also to assess separate components such as the engine. Reflections inside the engine bay bias the acoustic radiation estimated with sound pressure based solutions. Consequently, most current methods require dismounting the engine from the car and installing it in an anechoic room to measure the sound emitted. However, this process is laborious and hard to perform. In this paper, two particle velocity based methods are proposed to characterize the sound radiated from an engine while it is still installed in the car. Particle velocity sensors are much less affected by reflections than sound pressure microphones when the measurements are performed near a radiating surface due to the particle velocity's vector nature, intrinsic dependency upon surface displacement and directivity of the sensor. Therefore, the engine does not have to be disassembled, which saves time and money.
Technical Paper

Tumble Flow Measurements Using Three Different Methods and its Effects on Fuel Economy and Emissions

2006-10-16
2006-01-3345
In-cylinder flows such as tumble and swirl have an important role on the engine combustion efficiencies and emission formations. In particular, the tumble flow which is dominant in current high performance gasoline engines has an important effect on the fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions under part load conditions. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance and optimize the tumble ratio for better fuel economy and exhaust emissions. First step in optimizing a tumble flow is to measure a tumble ratio accurately. In this research the tumble ratio was measured, compared, and correlated using three different measurement methods: steady flow rig, 2-Dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), and 3-Dimensional PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry). Engine dynamometer test was also conducted to find out the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Torquemeter for In-vehicle Application and Parametric Study on Fuel Consumption Contribution

2007-04-16
2007-01-0964
The mechanical energy of an engine is lost by engine friction and in driving the engine's auxiliary components, which is then transferred to transmission. Thus, it is very important to know the exact value of engine friction and the driving torque of engine's auxiliary components in order to reduce fuel consumption of an engine by reducing these losses. And, it is also helpful to know the braking torque of an engine in actual vehicle so as to improve vehicle's driving performance. For these reasons, present study developed an engine torquemeter for in-vehicle application, and measured braking torque of an engine in vehicle and analyzed fuel consumption contributions of engine's auxiliary components.
Technical Paper

E3 System – A Two speed Accessory Belt Drive System for Reduced Fuel Consumption

2008-06-23
2008-01-1521
All vehicles have some or all accessories such as alternators, air conditioner compressors, power steering pumps, and water pumps. These devices are mounted on the front of the engine and are powered by a pulley mounted on the front of the crankshaft. This power represents a parasitic loss and this loss is greater at higher engine speeds. To reduce the impact of the accessories on the engine, a two speed transmission that reduces the accessories speed at off-idle conditions was designed, implemented, and tested on several vehicles. The vehicles were tested for fuel economy on the Japanese 10.15 Mode driving cycle, the FTP75 city cycle, and the HWFET Highway Cycle. Results showed an average of 5% reduction in fuel consumption and a corresponding 5% in CO2 with no impact of accessory performance and vehicle drivability. Simulations with GT-Drive software was used to determine the optimum speed reduction and the threshold switching speed that maximizes fuel savings.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Air Quality of Vehicle’s Cabin by Evaluating CO2 Concentration and Fine Dust on the Actual Road

2009-04-20
2009-01-0536
For a complete automotive HVAC system, it is desirable to keep good air quality control for the interior vehicle cabin. This experimental study for evaluating the CO2 concentration levels in a vehicle cabin was done on the roads in South Korea. Increasing levels of CO2 can cause a passenger to become tired, sleepy and cause headaches or discomfort. The study results shows that CO2 and fine dust concentration is a result of the number of passengers,_driving condition and HVAC user settings. The result from this investigation can be used to establish a development guide for air quality in a vehicle cabin.
Technical Paper

Drivability Development Based on CoSimulation of AMESim Vehicle Model and Simulink HCU Model for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0725
Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle consists of internal combustion engine, engine clutch, motor, automatic transmission, Integrated Starter Generator (ISG), and battery. Due to hybridizations such as using engine clutch to disengage the internal combustion engine and omitting torque converter from the automatic transmission to increase fuel economy, drivability will not be same as conventional vehicle. To ensure drivability comparable to conventional vehicle, dynamic simulation has been utilized to foresee the drivability issues for the proposed hybrid system and ideas for improvements are tested in simulation. CoSimulation of AMESim vehicle model and Simulink Hybrid Control Unit (HCU) model has been used to test and improve HCU logic.
Technical Paper

Control of Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Filter System I (The CPF System Influence Assessment According to a Regeneration Condition)

2005-04-11
2005-01-0661
Environmental standards concerning Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) are continuously becoming stricter. The light-duty diesel passenger car market is rapidly increasing due to performance improvements and the economic advantages of the diesel engine. To meet EURO 4 diesel passenger car emission regulations, regeneration experiments of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) system have been performed with 2.0L common-rail diesel engine. For effective regeneration of the CPF system, we investigated the effects of various regeneration conditions on the system. Conditions such as exhaust gas temperature, oxygen/hydrocarbon concentrations, gas compositions, etc. were investigated. We found that the regeneration efficiency was improved when the exhaust gas temperature increased to more than 700°C during CPF regeneration using engine post injection. An additional amount of post injection increased the exhaust gas temperature and residual hydrocarbon content.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Durability in HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

2005-04-11
2005-01-0655
In order to cope with new exhaust emission regulations, automotive industry is interested in research and development of HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines with common rail systems. Since HSDI diesel engine operates under highly loaded condition due to increased power output, cylinder head of HSDI diesel engine is susceptible to high cycle fatigue cracks. In this study, FE analysis was used to find the mechanism of high cycle fatigue crack in the HSDI diesel cylinder head. In order to improve the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head, the modifications of cylinder head and head bolt pre-load were investigated. Experiments were performed to prove the existence of residual stress created during the heat treatment of cylinder head. The results of experiments showed that residual stress can affect the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Analysis in a HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Reduced Chemical Kinetics

2004-03-08
2004-01-0108
The combustion characteristics of a HSDI diesel engine were analyzed numerically using a reduced chemical kinetics. The reaction mechanism consisting of 26 steps and 17 species including the Zel'dovich NOx mechanism for the higher hydrocarbon fuel was implemented in the KIVA-3V. The characteristic time scale model was adopted to account for the effects of turbulent mixing on the reaction rates. The soot formation and oxidation processes are represented by Hiroyasu's model and NSC's model. The validation cases include the homogenous fuel/air mixture and the spray combustion in a constant volume chamber. After the validation, the present approach was applied to the analysis of the spray combustion processes in a HSDI diesel engine. The present approach reasonably well predicts the ignition delay, combustion processes, and emission characteristics in the high-pressure turbulent spray flame-field encountered in the practical HSDI diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Combustion Processes and Pollutant Formation in HSDI Diesel Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0126
The Representative Interactive Flamelet(RIF) concept has been applied to numerically simulate the combustion processes and pollutant formation in the direct injection diesel engine. Due to the ability for interactively describing the transient behaviors of local flame structures with CFD solver, the RIF concept has the capabilities to predict the auto-ignition and subsequent flame propagation in the diesel engine combustion chamber as well as to effectively account for the detailed mechanisms of soot and NOx formation. In order to account for the spatial inhomogeneity of the scalar dissipation rate, the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model using the multiple flamelets has been employed. Special emphasis is given to the turbulent combustion model which properly accounts for vaporization effects on turbulence-chemistry interaction.
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