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Technical Paper

An Application of Magnesium Alloy to Passenger Air Bag Housing

2000-03-06
2000-01-1115
To achieve a mass goal and minimize the bell mouthing phenomenon of Passenger Air Bag Housing which takes place when the air bag is in explosive action and detrimental to the safety of passenger side because excessive canister bell mouthing may distort and crash the top surface of instrument panel, a study on the replacing process of a PAB housing to a different material and process was performed. The explosive action of current steel PAB housing was firstly analized to evaluate the reaction forces transferred through the PAB and find out the adaptable material for replacing process. Due to the properties among the die casting alloys, the AM60B alloy was chosen for our new material for PAB housing. Then, stress analysis by the finite element method was performed for a design modification of magnesium one piece housing.
Technical Paper

Hyundai Full Scale Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0629
A new Hyundai Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel (HAWT) has been opened in the Nam-yang Technical Center of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) since August 1999. This wind tunnel has a 3/4 semi-open jet test section and a closed circuit in order to improve aerodynamic and wind noise and thermodynamic characteristics of vehicles. The HMC technical center had started the feasibility study of full-scale wind tunnel in 1995, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics and to meet fuel consumption regulations. The main purpose of this facility is conduct various kinds of tests on customer driving conditions, including aerodynamic and aero-acoustic tests and engine cooling simulations, etc. The technical specification was made on the basis of HMC engineers' experience of their own model scale and full-scale wind tunnels (like MIRA or DNW) during last 10 years.
Technical Paper

The COANDA Flow Control and Newtonian Concept Approach to Achieve Drag Reduction of Passenger Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1267
In order to reduce total drag during aerodynamic optimization process of the passenger vehicle, induced drag should be minimized and pressure drag should be decreased by means of applying streamlined body shape. The reduction of wake area could decrease pressure drag, which was generated by boundary layer separation. The induced drag caused by rear axle lift and C-pillar vortex can be reduced by the employing of trunk lid edge and kick-up or an optimized rear spoiler. When a rear spoiler or kick-up shape was installed on the rear end of a sedan vehicle, drag was reduced but the wake area became larger. This contradiction cannot be explained by simply using Bernoulli’s principle with equal transit or longer path theory. Newtonian explanation with COANDA effect is adopted to explain this phenomenon. The relationships among COANDA effect, down wash, C-pillar vortex, rear axle lift and induced drag are explained.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flow Characteristics Inside the Two Types of Exhaust Manifold and CCC Systems

1999-03-01
1999-01-0457
A study of unsteady compressible flow for two types of exhaust manifold and CCC (Close-Coupled Catalyst) systems attached to a 4-cylinder DOHC gasoline engine was carried out to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases and finally to make the conversion efficiency of catalyst better. An experimental study was conducted, using LDV technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside exhaust manifolds and CCC under practical engine conditions. In this study, through experiment and calculation, the effects of geometric configuration of exhaust manifold on flow maldistribution in monolith were mainly investigated to understand the exhaust flow structure in terms of flow uniformity and to improve the conversion efficiency. As a result of this fundamental study, the modified exhaust manifold (Type B) was designed and manufactured. Full load performance tests and vehicle emission tests were performed to see the effects of flow characteristics on engine performance and emission.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Efficiency of the Composite Sound (TTS) and It’s Application in Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0257
In the meantime, clarity and naturalness has been used as a standard for the TTS speech synthesis evaluation. However, the standard for speech synthesis evaluation should now be the human-voice and comprehension scale for the further application. This paper introduces subject on quality improvement of the composite sound explaining dB type and it’s gathering procedure, PS-RELP algorithm ending with explanation of various cases how the improved TTS can be applied in vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Finite Element US-SID and Euro-SID Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0160
In contrast to the other types of crash simulation, integrated analysis is needed to perform the side impact simulation, and the acquired injury values are so sensitive that they are difficult to assess by the deformed vehicle structure itself. Therefore, the accurate FE side impact dummy (US-SID, Euro-SID) models are needed to predict the various injury values in side impact simulation. In the past, rigid body model or coarse FE model have been used. The advantage of these models is low computing power, but they have lack of predictability especially in the high-speed crash analysis such as NCAP and car-to-car simulations. The deviations are caused by inaccurate geometry and improper material characteristic expression of the side impact dummy models. In this paper, the development of new side impact dummy models and their applications at full car simulations are introduced. Also, the analyses about injury values are illustrated in side impact simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Electric Power Simulator for Optimizing the Electric Charging System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0451
The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to numerous electrical and electronic systems. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: a generator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In order to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system, an easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed. In this study, a vehicle electric power simulator is developed. The simulator can be utilized to determine the optimized capacities of generators and batteries appropriately. To improve the flexibility and easy usage of the simulation program, the program is organized in modular structures, and is run on a PC.
Technical Paper

Development Work on HMC'S Natural Gas-Fueled 1.5 L MPI DOHC Engine

1993-11-01
931869
Thii paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on the dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) engine, A conventional light duty gasoline engine, a 1.5 liter four cylinder DOHC, has been modified to run on natural gas (NG) by a gas injection system and engine dynamometer test has been performed with emphasis on optimizations of compression ratio and intake port. Also presented are the results on the exhaust emissions characteristic and the purification performance of three-way catalytic converters developed for NG engine. Fuel composition and THC emissions are analyzed quantitatively using gas chromatography devices.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flame Propagation for Different Combustion Chamber Configurations in an SI Engine

1997-02-24
970876
High speed natural light motion picture records synchronized with head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data have been made in the transparent engine of different combustion chamber configurations. For knocking cycles, the head gasket ionization current method simultaneously taken with pressure data was able to find the location of knocking occurrence. To investigate the effects of combustion chamber configurations, the flame propagation experiments for pent-roof combustion chamber with center ignition ( Modified Type I engine ) and modified pent-roof ( Type II engine ) combustion chamber were performed with high speed natural light photography technique. The flame propagation of Modified Type I engine represents more uniform patterns than that of Type II engine. The investigation of knocking combustion was also made possible by observing flame propagation with the measuring techniques that use head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

A Study of Design Methodology to Develop Improved Door System of a Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0616
In the past few years, technological innovations in the automobile industry took vehicle performance to the next level. One such innovation is frame integrated panel door. This type of door helps automobile companies to have the advantages of both conventional panel and frame type doors. Though it has a good number of advantages, there are some drawbacks too. It requires improvements in its quality, NVH performance, weight and etc. Quality of a door is low due to the limitations in structural design and manufacturing technologies. And it is difficult to have a robust structure which leads to degradation of key performing factors such as NVH. For a lightweight vehicle, it is important to design an optimized structure for saving weight, without compromising its performance. In order to overcome these drawbacks a new optimized design structure is required for door system.
Journal Article

Study of Optimizing Sliding Door Efforts and Package Layout

2017-03-28
2017-01-1302
A sliding door is one of the car door systems, which is generally applied to the vans. Compared with swing doors, a sliding door gives comfort to the passengers when they get in or out the car. With an increasing number of the family-scale activities, there followed a huge demand on the vans, which caused growing interests in the convenience technology of the sliding door system. A typical sliding door system has negative effects on the vehicle interior package and the operating effort. Since the door should move backward without touching the car body, the trajectory of the center rail should be a curve. The curve-shaped center rail infiltrates not only the passenger shoulder room, but also the opening flange curve, which results in the interior package loss. Moreover, as the passenger pulls the door outside handle along the normal direction of the door outer skin, the curved rail causes the opening effort loss.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Biofidelity of the Human Body Model Morphed to Female with Abdominal Obesity in Frontal Crashes

2017-03-28
2017-01-1429
This paper aims to evaluate the biofidelity of a human body FE model with abdominal obesity in terms of submarining behavior prediction, during a frontal crash event. In our previous study, a subject-specific FE model scaled from the 50th percentile Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) human model to the average physique of three female post mortem human subjects (PMHSs) with abdominal obesity was developed and tested its biofidelity under lap belt loading conditions ([1]). In this study frontal crash sled simulations of the scaled human model have been performed, and the biofidelity of the model has been evaluated. Crash conditions were given from the previous study ([2]), and included five low-speed and three high-speed sled tests with and without anti-submarining device.
Technical Paper

Study of Active Steering Algorithm Logic in EPS Systems by Detecting Vehicle Driving Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1481
Conventional EPS (Electric Power Steering) systems are operated by one type of steering tuning map set by steering test drivers before being released to customers. That is, the steering efforts can't change in many different driving conditions such as road conditions (low mu, high mu and unpaved roads) or some specific driving conditions (sudden stopping, entering into EPS failure modes and full accelerating). Those conditions can't give drivers consistent steering efforts. This paper approached the new concept technology detecting those conditions by using vehicle and EPS sensors such as tire wheel speeds, vehicle speed, steering angle, steering torque, steering speed and so on. After detecting those conditions and judging what the best steering efforts for safe vehicle driving are, EPS systems automatically can be changed with the steering friction level and selection of steering optimized mapping on several conditions.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injector Geometry at 250 MPa Injection in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0693
This paper investigated the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics of a light-duty diesel engine with 250 MPa injection. The engine used for the experiment was the 0.4L single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The diesel fuel injection equipment was operated under 250MPa injection pressure. Three injectors with nozzle hole number of 8 to 10 were compared. As the nozzle number of the injector increased, the orifice diameter decreased 105 μm to 95 μm. The ignition delay was shorter with larger nozzle number and smaller orifice diameter. Without EGR, the particulate matter(PM) emission was lower with larger nozzle hole number. This result shows that the atomization of the fuel was improved with the smaller orifice diameter and the fuel spray area was kept same with larger nozzle number. However, the NOx-PM trade-offs of three injectors were similar at higher EGR rate and higher injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen as an Additive on Lean Limit and Emissions of a Turbo Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1886
For gasoline engine, thermal efficiency can be improved by using lean burn. However, combustion instability occurs when gasoline engine is operated on lean condition. Hydrogen has features that can be used for improving combustion stability of gasoline engine. In this paper, an experimental study of hydrogen effect on lean limit was carried out using a four-cylinder 2.0L turbo gasoline direct injection engine. The engine torque was fixed at 110Nm on 1600RPM, 2000RPM and 2400RPM. The results showed that lean limit was extended and brake thermal efficiency was improved by hydrogen addition. Especially, at lower engine speed, the large improvement of lean limit was achieved. However, improvement of brake thermal efficiency was achieved at high speed. HC and CO2 emissions were decreased and NO emissions increased with hydrogen addition. CO emissions were slightly reduced with hydrogen addition.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Alternator and Battery Systems with a Recuperation Control Algorithm for a Mid-Sized Sedan

2015-04-14
2015-01-1188
The fuel economy of a vehicle can be improved by recuperating the kinetic energy when the vehicle is decelerated. However, if there is no electrical traction component, the recuperated energy can be used only by the other electrical systems of the vehicle. Thus, the fuel economy improvement can be maximized by balancing the recuperated energy and the consumed energy. Also, suitable alternator and battery management is required to maximize the fuel economy. This paper describes a design optimization process of the alternator and battery system equipped with recuperation control algorithms for a mid-sized sedan based on the fuel economy and system cost. A vehicle model using AVL Cruise is developed for cycle simulations and validated with experimental data. The validated model is used for the parametric study and design optimization of the alternator and battery systems with single and dual energy storage.
Technical Paper

Re-design of Power Sliding Door Pulley System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1312
The power sliding door system(PSD) is being equipped in the MPV(Multi-Purpose Vehicle/minivans) vehicle for convenience in the door operation. This study will focus on package space optimization for interior design and overall vehicle packaging for the vehicles equipped with PSD. To optimize the package, investigation for PSD's structure need to be done and the examples of other vehicle maker will be investigated and compared. The study that considers performance and package requirements resulted in a unique PSD design. And finally, this study will show the result vehicle in which the optimized mechanism is applied.
Technical Paper

Assessing Panel Noise Contribution of a Car Engine Using Particle Velocity Sensors

2015-06-15
2015-01-2248
In order to apply an effective noise reduction treatment determining the contribution of different engine components to the total sound perceived inside the cabin is important. Although accelerometer or laser based vibration tests are usually performed, the sound contributions are not always captured accurately with such approaches. Microphone based methods are strongly influenced by the many reflections and other sound sources inside the engine bay. Recently, it has been shown that engine radiation can be effectively measured using microphones combined with particle velocity sensors while the engine remains mounted in the car [6]. Similar results were obtained as with a dismounted engine in an anechoic room. This paper focusses on the measurement of the transfer path from the engine to the vehicle interior in order to calculate the sound pressure contribution of individual engine sections at the listener's position.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Nozzle Hole Geometry on Particulate Emissions in a Downsized Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0111
In this study, the effect of the nozzle tip geometry on the nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions was investigated. Various designs for the injector nozzle hole were newly developed for this study, focusing on the step hole geometry to reduce the nozzle tip wetting. The laser induced fluorescence technique was applied to evaluate the fuel wetting on the nozzle tip. A vehicle test and an emissions measurement in a Chassi-Dynamo were performed to investigate the particulate emission characteristics for injector nozzle designs. In addition, the in-cylinder combustion light signal measurement by the optical fiber sensor was conducted to observe diffusion combustion behavior during the vehicle test. Results showed that the step hole surface area is strongly related to nozzle tip wetting and particulate emissions characteristics. Injectors without the step hole and with a smaller step hole geometry showed significant reduction of nozzle tip wetting and number of particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

Transient Nonlinear Full-Vehicle Vibration Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-1553
This paper presents a transient vibration analysis of a nonlinear full-vehicle. The full-vehicle model consists of a powertrain, a trimmed body, a drive line, and front and rear suspensions with tires. It is driven by combustion forces and runs on a road surface. By performing time-domain simulation, it is possible to capture nonlinear behavior of a vehicle such as preload due to gravitational force, large deformation, and material nonlinearity which cannot be properly treated in the conventional steady state analysis. In constructing a full-vehicle, validation process is essential. Validation process is applied with respect to the assembling sequence. The validation starts with component levels such as tires, springs, shock absorbers, and a powertrain, and then the full-vehicle model is constructed. Model validation is done in two aspects; one is model accuracy and the other is model efficiency.
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