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Technical Paper

Appropriate Damping Loss Factor of Vehicle Interior Cavity For Valid Application of Statistical Energy Analysis

By using a method of a previous study (SAE 2014-01-2081), sound transmission loss (STL) of vehicle panel structure could be calculated with an FEM model. The FEM model is consisting of the body in white, a hemispehere-shaped exterior cavity, and the interior cavity. The exterior cavity is excited and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) principle is applied for the calculation of STL of vehicle panel structure. It is known that SEA is a rapid and simple methodology for analyzing the complex vibroacoustic system. However, SEA principle is not always valid and one has to be careful about the physical conditions at which SEA principle is acceptable. In this study, the appropriate damping loss factor of the vehicle interior cavity is studied in the viewpoint of the modal overlap factor of the cavity and the decay per mean free path (DMFP) of the cavity. It is found that DMFP is appropriate between 0.5 ~ 1 dB for applying SEA principle.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The success of improved fuel economy is the proper integration of thermal management components which are appropriately performed to reduce friction and wasted energy. The thermal management systems of vehicle are able to balance the multiple needs such as heating, cooling, or appropriate operation within specified temperature ranges of propulsion systems. Since the propulsion systems of vehicle have changed from a single energy source based on conventional internal combustion engine to hybrid system including more electrical system such as full type of hybrid electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, a new transition associated with vehicle thermal management arises. More efficient thermal management systems are required to improve the fuel economy in the hybrid electric vehicles because of the driving of electric traction motor and the increase of engine off time. The decrease of engine operation time may not sustain the proper temperature ranges of engine and gearbox.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cabin Air Quality with Fractional Air Recirculation

A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3, and 4), four fan speed settings and at 20, 40, and 70 mph. A manual control was installed for the recirculation flap door so different ratios of fresh air to recirculated air could be used. Full recirculation is the most efficient setting in terms of thermal management and particle concentration reduction, but this causes elevated CO₂ levels in the cabin. The study demonstrated cabin CO₂ concentrations could be controlled below a target level of 2000 ppm at various driving conditions and fan speeds with more than 85% of recirculation. The proposed fractional air recirculation method is a simple yet innovative way of improving cabin air quality. Some energy saving is also expected, especially with the air conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Microorganism Causing Odor in an Air-Conditioning System

This study has been conducted to analyze microbial diversity and its community by using a method of NGS(Next generation sequencing) technique that is not rely on cultivation for microbial community in an core evaporator causing odor of car air conditioner. The NGS without any cultivation method of cultivation, has been developed recently and widely. This method is able to research a microorganism that has not been cultivated. Differently with others, it can get a result that is closer to fact, also can acquire more base sequence with larger volume in relatively shorter time. According to bacteria population analysis of 23 samples, It can be known limited number of bacteria can inhabit in Evaporator core, due to small exposure between bacteria and evaporate, as well as its environmental characteristics. With the population analysis, only certain group of it is forming biofilm in proportion.
Technical Paper

Control of Automotive PEM Fuel Cell Systems

In order to understand the automotive PEM fuel cell system, mathematical system modeling is conducted and the model is implemented and simulated by using the Matlab®/Simulink®. The components such as fuel cell stack, air supplier, and radiator are modeled individually and integrated into a system level. The PEM fuel cell system operation control includes thermal management, air supply control, hydrogen supply control, fuel cell stack protection control, and load following control. In the thermal management, the inlet and outlet temperature of coolant are controlled to operate the fuel cell stack in desired temperature range and to prevent flooding inside the fuel cell stack. In air supply control and hydrogen supply control, the flow rates of air and hydrogen are controlled not to starve the fuel cell stack according to the output current. A control structure for the system is developed and confirmed by using the developed simulation model.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Development Process of a Body with High Stiffness

Design optimization of a vehicle is required to increase a product value for noise and vibration performances and for a fuel-efficient car. This paper describes the development process of a high stiffness and lightweight vehicle. A parameter study is carried out at the initial stage of design using the mother car, and a design guide with a good performance is achieved early prior to the development of the proto car. Influences of body stiffness based on the relative weight ratio of the floor and side structures are analyzed. Results show that bending and torsional stiffness has a significant effect on weight distribution ratio. Influences of the distribution of side joint stiffness are analyzed through numerical experiments. Results reveal that the stiffness difference between the upper and lower parts should be small to increase the stiffness of a body.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Air Quality of Vehicle’s Cabin by Evaluating CO2 Concentration and Fine Dust on the Actual Road

For a complete automotive HVAC system, it is desirable to keep good air quality control for the interior vehicle cabin. This experimental study for evaluating the CO2 concentration levels in a vehicle cabin was done on the roads in South Korea. Increasing levels of CO2 can cause a passenger to become tired, sleepy and cause headaches or discomfort. The study results shows that CO2 and fine dust concentration is a result of the number of passengers,_driving condition and HVAC user settings. The result from this investigation can be used to establish a development guide for air quality in a vehicle cabin.
Technical Paper

An Application of Magnesium Alloy to Passenger Air Bag Housing

To achieve a mass goal and minimize the bell mouthing phenomenon of Passenger Air Bag Housing which takes place when the air bag is in explosive action and detrimental to the safety of passenger side because excessive canister bell mouthing may distort and crash the top surface of instrument panel, a study on the replacing process of a PAB housing to a different material and process was performed. The explosive action of current steel PAB housing was firstly analized to evaluate the reaction forces transferred through the PAB and find out the adaptable material for replacing process. Due to the properties among the die casting alloys, the AM60B alloy was chosen for our new material for PAB housing. Then, stress analysis by the finite element method was performed for a design modification of magnesium one piece housing.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Auxiliary Belt Drive System for Actual Fuel Saving

The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
Technical Paper

A Development of Aluminum EGR Cooler for Weight Reduction and Fuel Economy

As environmental problems such as global warming are emerging, regulations on automobile exhaust gas are strengthened and various exhaust gas reduction technologies are being developed in various countries in order to satisfy exhaust emission regulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is a very effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high combustion temperatures by using EGR coolers to lower the combustion temperature. This EGR cooler has been mass-produced in stainless steel, but it is expensive and heavy. Recently, high efficiency and compactness are required for the EGR cooler to meet the new emission regulation. If aluminum material is applied to the EGR cooler, heat transfer efficiency and light weight can be improved due to high heat transfer coefficient of aluminum compared to conventional stainless steel, but durability is insufficient. Therefore, the aluminum EGR cooler has been developed to enhance performance and durability.
Technical Paper

A Study on NVH Performance Improvement of TPE Air Intake Hose Based on Optimization of Design and Material

Environmental and fuel economy regulations (Eu 6d and WLTP RDE) on automobiles have been tightened recently. To counter this regulation, the global automobile industry is focusing on weight reduction, fuel efficient turbo charger, cooled EGR, thermal management, low friction and so on. However, the high-speed turbocharger makes turbulence, and resulting in airflow noise. This noise is transmitted indoor through the air intake system, which adversely affects the vehicle's competitiveness. Therefore, for turbo engine, it is essential to reduce the noise of the air intake system. The air intake system consists of air cleaner, air filter, air intake hose and air duct. The air flow noise of turbo-engine is mainly the emission noise emitted from the walls of air intake system. And the transfer path of turbo noise is in order of air intake hose, air cleaner and air duct. Therefore, it is effective to reduce the noise of the air intake hose located at the beginning of noise transfer path.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Suspension Component Stiffness on the Road Noise: A Sensitivity Study and Optimization

This paper investigates the sensitivity of stiffness of front and rear suspension systems on the structure-borne road noise inside a vehicle cabin. A flexible multi-body dynamics based approach is used to simulate the structural dynamics of suspension systems including rubber bushings, suspension arms, a subframe and a twist beam. This approach can accurately predict the force transfer to the trimmed body at each suspension mounting point up to a frequency range of 0 to 300 Hz, which is validated against a force measurement test using a suspension test rig. Predicted forces at each mounting point are converted to road noise inside the cabin by multiplying it with experimentally obtained noise transfer functions. All of the suspension components are modeled as flexible bodies using Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis method.
Technical Paper

Research on Mechanism of Seat Back Reclining Linked to Cushion for Enhancing the Comfort of Rear Seat

This paper suggests the new mechanism of rear seat reclining that enhances the comfort. This mechanism enables rear seat back to recline backward with cushion moving forward and upward simultaneously, which makes the rear seat more relaxing. Also this mechanism was developed to have many advantages, especially in the aspect of cost, weight and package layout.
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvement of Sitting Posture Stability for Heavy Truck Drivers

The driver’s seat in heavy trucks is designed for an upright driving posture with narrow back and cushion angles; thus, the seatback offers very little support. This makes the sitting posture prone to shifting during long trips, leading to loss of comfort and increase in fatigue. Sitting posture stability allows initial posture to be maintained during long drives, and the lack of stability causes fatigue and body pain during the drive. This study confirmed that enhancement of sitting posture stability of the driver’s seat in heavy trucks requires appropriate support from the cushion. The study also analyzed the support characteristics of each part of the cushion, and presented development guidelines of new cushion. Although subjective assessments of sitting posture stability have been performed, this study presented a method for quantitative and efficient assessment of sitting posture stability using the PAM-COMFORT simulation tool and virtual testing.
Technical Paper

Development of an Automated Seat Dimension Evaluation System

The dimensions of an automobile seat are important factors affecting a driver’s seating comfort, fit, and satisfaction. In this regard, seat engineers put forth tremendous efforts to evaluate the dimensions of a product seat until the dimensions are consistent with the design reference in a computer aided design (CAD). However, the existing evaluation process is heavily reliant on seat engineers’ manual tasks which are highly repetitive, labor intensive, and time-demanding tasks. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system that can efficiently and accurately evaluate seat products by comparing estimated seat dimensions from a CAD model or a 3D scan model. By using the developed system, the evaluation time for comparing 18 seat dimensions on CAD and scan models has been substantially reduced to less than one minute, which is 99% time saving compared to two hours in the manual process.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

Eco-Vehicle Battery System Big-Data Analysis and Fault Mode and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Related Robust System Development

High-voltage battery system plays a critical role in eco-friendly vehicles due to its effect on the cost and the electric driving range of eco-friendly vehicles. In order to secure the customer pool and the competitiveness of eco-vehicle technology, vehicle electrification requires lowering the battery cost and satisfying the customer needs when driving the vehicles in the real roads, for example, maximizing powers for fun drive, increasing battery capacities for achieving appropriate trip distances, etc. Because these vehicle specifications have a critical effect on the high-voltage battery specification, the key technology of the vehicle electrification is the appropriate decision on the specification of the high-voltage battery system, such as battery capacity and power. These factors affect the size of battery system and vehicle under floor design and also the profitability of the eco-friendly vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driver's Behavior and Environmental Conditions on Thermal Management of Electric Vehicles

Worldwide projections anticipate a fast-growing market share of the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to meet stringent emissions regulations for global warming and climate change. One of the new challenges of BEVs is the effective and efficient thermal management of the BEV to minimize parasitic power consumption and to maximize driving range. Typically, the total efficiency of BEVs depends on the performance and power consumption of the thermal management system, which is highly affected by several factors, including driving environments (ambient temperature and traffic conditions) and driver's behavior (aggressiveness). Therefore, this paper investigates the influence of these factors on energy consumption by using a comprehensive BEV simulation integrated with a thermal management system model. The vehicle model was validated with experimental data, and a simulation study is performed by using the vehicle model over various traffic scenarios generated from a traffic simulator.
Technical Paper

Development of Logistic Regression Models to Classify Seat Fit

The digital evaluation process of vehicle-seat dimensions is an efficient and cost-effective way to achieve better seating comfort and proper fit. The present study is intended to quantify the statistical relationships between seat dimensions (e.g., insert width and bolster height defined at SAE J2732) and subjective seat fit (e.g., too tight, right fit, or too wide). Subjective fit evaluations for 45 different vehicle seats and the corresponding vehicle seat dimensions at various cross-sectional planes were collected by seat engineers (experts). The best subset logistic regression analyses were applied to quantify the relationships between the collected expert evaluations and seat dimensions at each cross-sectional plane. As a result, significant seat dimensions on the seat fit were identified and their statistical relationships were quantified as regression coefficients.
Technical Paper

Development of an Air Support System for Long-Distance Drive Comfort

Passenger fatigue during long distance driving is greatly influenced by the comfort performance of the seat. Seat comfort performance is determined by the appropriate contour of the seat and the appropriate pad with sufficient thickness. The height of vehicle has been lowered to enhance car styling, and battery for electric vehicle applied to the underbody of the vehicle, reducing the package space of the seat in the vehicle. These external factors eventually lead to a reduced pad thickness of the seat cushion and compromise one of the important components in the seat cushion compartment, creating an uncomfortable cushioning problem when driving long distances. To improve the cushion composition of the seat within a limited package, air bladders are applied to the underside of the cushion pad. In addition, the function to support the buttocks using the air bladders of the lower cushion, similar to lumbar support for the back, was implemented to improve cushion comfort performance.