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Technical Paper

The Simulation of ABS Stopping Distance

2011-04-12
2011-01-0570
Recently, customers have been demanding increased safety features in cars. Meanwhile, auto magazines now seek to publish the stopping distance. Further, the car development period has become shorter. For all these reasons, a precise estimation of the ABS stopping distance has grown important. A few steps that can be taken to improve accurate simulations of the ABS stopping distance are as follows: 1 Development of the tire hysteresis concept, its confirmation by test results, and then its application. 2 Free diagram development of the wheel combining ideal braking force, real braking force, and specific tire quality. 3 Modeling of HCU. 4 Application of ABS and EBD logic. 5 Application of booster characteristic to the section of early braking.
Technical Paper

A Study of Layout Regarding Integrated Controls on the Steering Wheel

2013-03-25
2013-01-0036
In order to utilize in-vehicle systems efficiently, many vehicles are becoming equipped with integrated controls near the center fascia or the control box. However, the placement of these control systems can cause safety issues and risks due to visual distractions. In this study, we proposed a new integrated touch screen on the steering wheel. For this experiment, a control system was placed on the steering wheel or the center fascia. 15 participants were required to drive while utilizing vent and navigation control tasks regarding four different locations. Three of these locations were based on the steering wheel (center, upper right, lower right) and one location on the center fascia. Afterwards, the task completion time and visual distraction rate of the different locations were measured and compared. The results showed that a touch screen placed on the upper right section of the steering wheel had better performance and lower user discomfort.
Technical Paper

Co-operative Control of Regenerative Braking using a Front Electronic Wedge Brake and a Rear Electronic Mechanical Brake Considering the Road Friction Characteristic

2012-09-17
2012-01-1798
In this study, a co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was developed for an electric vehicle (EV) equipped with an electronic wedge brake (EWB) for its front wheels and an electronic mechanical brake (EMB) for its rear wheels. The co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was designed considering the road friction characteristic to increase the recuperation energy while avoiding wheel lock. A powertrain model of an EV composed of a motor, and batteries and a MATLAB model of the control algorithm were also developed. They were linked to the CarSim model of the vehicle under study to develop an EV simulator. The EMB and EWB were modeled with an actuator, screw, and wedge to develop an EMB and EWB simulator. A co-simulator for an EV equipped with an EWB for the front wheels and an EMB for the rear wheels was fabricated, composed of the EV and the EMB and EWB simulator.
Technical Paper

Solution for the Torque Steer Problem of a Front-wheel Drive Car with a High-torque Engine in Vehicle Development Stages

2007-08-05
2007-01-3656
This paper describes a torque steer reduction process for a front-wheel drive car with a high torque engine at the initial stage of vehicle development. Literature reviews for the reduction process and vehicle integration tradeoffs among chassis components, driveline components, and loading condition are included. Drive shaft angle and its stiffness, differential gear stiffness, and power train mount, and vehicle weight distribution are mainly considered. In addition, wheel alignment data such as kingpin offset, kingpin inclination, camber angle, ride height, and dynamic tire radius are also discussed to solve the torque steer problem. This paper introduces an example solution to improve the torque steer during vehicle development stage. In that case, the vehicle parameters should be considered the factors to achieve many requirements. In spite of that restriction of alteration, the result of improvement became better than that of its competitor.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Power Steering Shudder

2008-04-14
2008-01-0501
Shudder vibration of a hydraulic power steering system during parking maneuver was studied with numerical and experimental methods. To quantify vibration performance of the system and recognize important stimuli for drivers, a shudder metric was derived by correlation between objective measurements and subjective ratings. A CAE model for steering wheel vibration analysis was developed and compared with measured data. In order to describe steering input dependency of shudder, a new dynamic friction modeling method, in which the magnitude of effective damping is determined by average velocity, was proposed. The developed model was validated using the measured steering wheel acceleration and the pressure change at inlet of the steering gear box. It was shown that the developed model successfully describes major modes by comparing the calculated FRF of the hydraulic system with measured one from the hydraulic excitation test.
Technical Paper

Influence of Tire Size and Shape on Sound Radiation from a Tire in the Mid-Frequency Region

2007-05-15
2007-01-2251
In this research, the influence of tire size and shape on sound radiation in the mid-frequency region was studied. First, the relationship between the structural wave propagation characteristics of a tire excited at one point and its sound radiation was identified by using FE and BE analyses. Then, by using that relationship, the effect of modifying a tire's aspect ratio, width and wheel diameter on its sound radiation between 300 Hz and 800 Hz was investigated. Finally, an optimization of the sound radiation was performed by modification of the tire structure and shape. It was found that most of a tire's structural vibration does not contribute to sound radiation. In particular, the effective radiation was found to occur at the frequencies where low wave number components of the longitudinal wave and the flexural wave first appear.
Technical Paper

The Aesthetic Analysis of Sporty Design Factors in a Sports Car

2008-04-14
2008-01-0563
The design of a product is becoming more important and it affects product preference and buying decision. The objectives of this study are first to determine the major elements affecting the feeling of exterior design from aesthetic engineering point of view, and then to extract the highly correlated design factor within the experimental result. Firstly, the buying preference is highly affected by the dynamic and elegant factors. Through deepening analysis using only 2-door type car, the ‘Cowl and Deck Point Angle * Overall Length / Overall Height’ factor is highly positive correlated, and the ‘Rear Overhang’ factor is highly negative correlated with buying preference. There are three special features of a sports car; firstly, stable (long wheel base) and aggressive (lean towards the front) design makes consumers feel dynamic. Secondly, the consumers prefer modern and sedan-like coupe design. Thirdly, sleek design line and consistent character line are preferred.
Technical Paper

The Development and Experiment of the Variable Rack Stroke (VRS) System

2005-04-11
2005-01-1270
The turning radius is designed with considering sufficient gap between front tires including snow chains and front parts around wheels (e.g. side member, wheel guard, and suspension control arms). Therefore, when we don't use the snow chain needed only in winter season, there remains gap between tires and elements around front wheels. Since there is much available space between the front tire and other parts around wheel without the snow chains, we strived to increase the steering angle of the front wheels for the smaller turning radius of the vehicle. In this paper, with the idea, we strived to develop the VRS (Variable Rack Stroke) system which is invented by Hyundai Motor Company for the first time around world and is capable of varying the minimum tuning radius of the vehicle.
Journal Article

A Study of Wheel Guards for Reduction of High Frequency Road-Noise

2015-04-14
2015-01-1309
This Study describes about the development of new concept' rear wheel guards for the reduction of Road Noise in the passenger vehicles. The new wheel guards are proposed by various frequency chamber concept and different textile layers concept. Two wheel guards were verified by small cabin resonance and vehicle tests. Through new developing process without vehicle test, Result of road noise will be expected if this concepts and materials of wheel guard are applied into automotive vehicle. As this concept consider tire radiation noise frequency and multilayers sound control multilayers, 2 concepts reduced road noise from 0.5 to 1.0dB. The proposed method of part reverberant absorption is similar to results of vehicle tests by part absorption index. Furthermore, optimization of frequency band in wheel guards will reduce more 0.5 dB noises. As a result of the application of Aimed Helmholtz and Multilayers concept, this paper classifies reduction of the road noise, cost and weights.
Technical Paper

Steering Wheel Torque Control of Steer-by-Wire System for Steering Feel

2017-03-28
2017-01-1567
This paper proposes a reference steering wheel torque map and a torque tracking algorithm via steer-by-wire to achieve the targeted steering feel. The reference steering wheel torque map is designed using the measurement data of rack force and steering characteristic of a target performance of the vehicle at transition steering test. Since the target performance of the vehicle is only tested in nominal road condition, various road conditions such as disturbances and tire-road friction are not considered. Hence, the measurement data of the rack force that reflects the road conditions in the reference steering wheel torque map have been used. The rack force is the net force which consists of tire aligning moment, road friction force and normal force on the tire kingpin axis. A motor and a magnetorheological damper are used as actuators to generate the desired steering feel using the torque tracking algorithm.
Technical Paper

Control of Steer by Wire System for Reference Steering Wheel Torque Tracking and Return-Ability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0566
This paper proposes a torque tracking algorithm via steer by wire to achieve the target steering feel and proposed a modified friction model to obtain return-ability. A three dimensional reference steering wheel torque map is designed using the measurement data of the steering characteristics of the target vehicle at a transition test and a weave test. In order to track the reference steering wheel torque, a sliding mode control is used in the tracking algorithm. In addition, to achieve return-ability, the modified friction model for steer by wire is used instead of the friction model defined in the reference steering wheel torque map. The modified friction model is composed of various models according to the angular velocity. The angular velocity and the angular acceleration used in the control algorithm are estimated using a kalman filter.
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