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Technical Paper

An Application of Magnesium Alloy to Passenger Air Bag Housing

2000-03-06
2000-01-1115
To achieve a mass goal and minimize the bell mouthing phenomenon of Passenger Air Bag Housing which takes place when the air bag is in explosive action and detrimental to the safety of passenger side because excessive canister bell mouthing may distort and crash the top surface of instrument panel, a study on the replacing process of a PAB housing to a different material and process was performed. The explosive action of current steel PAB housing was firstly analized to evaluate the reaction forces transferred through the PAB and find out the adaptable material for replacing process. Due to the properties among the die casting alloys, the AM60B alloy was chosen for our new material for PAB housing. Then, stress analysis by the finite element method was performed for a design modification of magnesium one piece housing.
Technical Paper

Hyundai Full Scale Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0629
A new Hyundai Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel (HAWT) has been opened in the Nam-yang Technical Center of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) since August 1999. This wind tunnel has a 3/4 semi-open jet test section and a closed circuit in order to improve aerodynamic and wind noise and thermodynamic characteristics of vehicles. The HMC technical center had started the feasibility study of full-scale wind tunnel in 1995, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics and to meet fuel consumption regulations. The main purpose of this facility is conduct various kinds of tests on customer driving conditions, including aerodynamic and aero-acoustic tests and engine cooling simulations, etc. The technical specification was made on the basis of HMC engineers' experience of their own model scale and full-scale wind tunnels (like MIRA or DNW) during last 10 years.
Technical Paper

The COANDA Flow Control and Newtonian Concept Approach to Achieve Drag Reduction of Passenger Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1267
In order to reduce total drag during aerodynamic optimization process of the passenger vehicle, induced drag should be minimized and pressure drag should be decreased by means of applying streamlined body shape. The reduction of wake area could decrease pressure drag, which was generated by boundary layer separation. The induced drag caused by rear axle lift and C-pillar vortex can be reduced by the employing of trunk lid edge and kick-up or an optimized rear spoiler. When a rear spoiler or kick-up shape was installed on the rear end of a sedan vehicle, drag was reduced but the wake area became larger. This contradiction cannot be explained by simply using Bernoulli’s principle with equal transit or longer path theory. Newtonian explanation with COANDA effect is adopted to explain this phenomenon. The relationships among COANDA effect, down wash, C-pillar vortex, rear axle lift and induced drag are explained.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Efficiency of the Composite Sound (TTS) and It’s Application in Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0257
In the meantime, clarity and naturalness has been used as a standard for the TTS speech synthesis evaluation. However, the standard for speech synthesis evaluation should now be the human-voice and comprehension scale for the further application. This paper introduces subject on quality improvement of the composite sound explaining dB type and it’s gathering procedure, PS-RELP algorithm ending with explanation of various cases how the improved TTS can be applied in vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Finite Element US-SID and Euro-SID Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0160
In contrast to the other types of crash simulation, integrated analysis is needed to perform the side impact simulation, and the acquired injury values are so sensitive that they are difficult to assess by the deformed vehicle structure itself. Therefore, the accurate FE side impact dummy (US-SID, Euro-SID) models are needed to predict the various injury values in side impact simulation. In the past, rigid body model or coarse FE model have been used. The advantage of these models is low computing power, but they have lack of predictability especially in the high-speed crash analysis such as NCAP and car-to-car simulations. The deviations are caused by inaccurate geometry and improper material characteristic expression of the side impact dummy models. In this paper, the development of new side impact dummy models and their applications at full car simulations are introduced. Also, the analyses about injury values are illustrated in side impact simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of a Vehicle Electric Power Simulator for Optimizing the Electric Charging System

2000-03-06
2000-01-0451
The electric power system of a modern vehicle has to supply enough electrical energy to numerous electrical and electronic systems. The electric power system of a vehicle consists of two major components: a generator and a battery. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. In order to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system, an easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed. In this study, a vehicle electric power simulator is developed. The simulator can be utilized to determine the optimized capacities of generators and batteries appropriately. To improve the flexibility and easy usage of the simulation program, the program is organized in modular structures, and is run on a PC.
Technical Paper

A Study of Design Methodology to Develop Improved Door System of a Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0616
In the past few years, technological innovations in the automobile industry took vehicle performance to the next level. One such innovation is frame integrated panel door. This type of door helps automobile companies to have the advantages of both conventional panel and frame type doors. Though it has a good number of advantages, there are some drawbacks too. It requires improvements in its quality, NVH performance, weight and etc. Quality of a door is low due to the limitations in structural design and manufacturing technologies. And it is difficult to have a robust structure which leads to degradation of key performing factors such as NVH. For a lightweight vehicle, it is important to design an optimized structure for saving weight, without compromising its performance. In order to overcome these drawbacks a new optimized design structure is required for door system.
Journal Article

Study of Optimizing Sliding Door Efforts and Package Layout

2017-03-28
2017-01-1302
A sliding door is one of the car door systems, which is generally applied to the vans. Compared with swing doors, a sliding door gives comfort to the passengers when they get in or out the car. With an increasing number of the family-scale activities, there followed a huge demand on the vans, which caused growing interests in the convenience technology of the sliding door system. A typical sliding door system has negative effects on the vehicle interior package and the operating effort. Since the door should move backward without touching the car body, the trajectory of the center rail should be a curve. The curve-shaped center rail infiltrates not only the passenger shoulder room, but also the opening flange curve, which results in the interior package loss. Moreover, as the passenger pulls the door outside handle along the normal direction of the door outer skin, the curved rail causes the opening effort loss.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Biofidelity of the Human Body Model Morphed to Female with Abdominal Obesity in Frontal Crashes

2017-03-28
2017-01-1429
This paper aims to evaluate the biofidelity of a human body FE model with abdominal obesity in terms of submarining behavior prediction, during a frontal crash event. In our previous study, a subject-specific FE model scaled from the 50th percentile Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) human model to the average physique of three female post mortem human subjects (PMHSs) with abdominal obesity was developed and tested its biofidelity under lap belt loading conditions ([1]). In this study frontal crash sled simulations of the scaled human model have been performed, and the biofidelity of the model has been evaluated. Crash conditions were given from the previous study ([2]), and included five low-speed and three high-speed sled tests with and without anti-submarining device.
Technical Paper

Study of Active Steering Algorithm Logic in EPS Systems by Detecting Vehicle Driving Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1481
Conventional EPS (Electric Power Steering) systems are operated by one type of steering tuning map set by steering test drivers before being released to customers. That is, the steering efforts can't change in many different driving conditions such as road conditions (low mu, high mu and unpaved roads) or some specific driving conditions (sudden stopping, entering into EPS failure modes and full accelerating). Those conditions can't give drivers consistent steering efforts. This paper approached the new concept technology detecting those conditions by using vehicle and EPS sensors such as tire wheel speeds, vehicle speed, steering angle, steering torque, steering speed and so on. After detecting those conditions and judging what the best steering efforts for safe vehicle driving are, EPS systems automatically can be changed with the steering friction level and selection of steering optimized mapping on several conditions.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Alternator and Battery Systems with a Recuperation Control Algorithm for a Mid-Sized Sedan

2015-04-14
2015-01-1188
The fuel economy of a vehicle can be improved by recuperating the kinetic energy when the vehicle is decelerated. However, if there is no electrical traction component, the recuperated energy can be used only by the other electrical systems of the vehicle. Thus, the fuel economy improvement can be maximized by balancing the recuperated energy and the consumed energy. Also, suitable alternator and battery management is required to maximize the fuel economy. This paper describes a design optimization process of the alternator and battery system equipped with recuperation control algorithms for a mid-sized sedan based on the fuel economy and system cost. A vehicle model using AVL Cruise is developed for cycle simulations and validated with experimental data. The validated model is used for the parametric study and design optimization of the alternator and battery systems with single and dual energy storage.
Technical Paper

Re-design of Power Sliding Door Pulley System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1312
The power sliding door system(PSD) is being equipped in the MPV(Multi-Purpose Vehicle/minivans) vehicle for convenience in the door operation. This study will focus on package space optimization for interior design and overall vehicle packaging for the vehicles equipped with PSD. To optimize the package, investigation for PSD's structure need to be done and the examples of other vehicle maker will be investigated and compared. The study that considers performance and package requirements resulted in a unique PSD design. And finally, this study will show the result vehicle in which the optimized mechanism is applied.
Technical Paper

Transient Nonlinear Full-Vehicle Vibration Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-1553
This paper presents a transient vibration analysis of a nonlinear full-vehicle. The full-vehicle model consists of a powertrain, a trimmed body, a drive line, and front and rear suspensions with tires. It is driven by combustion forces and runs on a road surface. By performing time-domain simulation, it is possible to capture nonlinear behavior of a vehicle such as preload due to gravitational force, large deformation, and material nonlinearity which cannot be properly treated in the conventional steady state analysis. In constructing a full-vehicle, validation process is essential. Validation process is applied with respect to the assembling sequence. The validation starts with component levels such as tires, springs, shock absorbers, and a powertrain, and then the full-vehicle model is constructed. Model validation is done in two aspects; one is model accuracy and the other is model efficiency.
Technical Paper

Steering Wheel Torque Control of Steer-by-Wire System for Steering Feel

2017-03-28
2017-01-1567
This paper proposes a reference steering wheel torque map and a torque tracking algorithm via steer-by-wire to achieve the targeted steering feel. The reference steering wheel torque map is designed using the measurement data of rack force and steering characteristic of a target performance of the vehicle at transition steering test. Since the target performance of the vehicle is only tested in nominal road condition, various road conditions such as disturbances and tire-road friction are not considered. Hence, the measurement data of the rack force that reflects the road conditions in the reference steering wheel torque map have been used. The rack force is the net force which consists of tire aligning moment, road friction force and normal force on the tire kingpin axis. A motor and a magnetorheological damper are used as actuators to generate the desired steering feel using the torque tracking algorithm.
Technical Paper

A Novel Method Predicting the Influence of Absorption Material on the Sound Quality of Interior Noise

2017-06-05
2017-01-1885
This paper presents a novel method predicting the variation of sound quality of interior noise depending on the change of the proprieties of absorption materials. At the first, the model predicting the interior noise corresponding to the change of the absorption material in engine room is proposed. Secondly the index to estimate the sound quality of the predicted sound is developed. Thirdly the experimental work has been conducted with seven different materials and validated the newly developed index. Finally, this index is applied for the optimization of absorption material to improve the sound quality of interior noise in a passenger car.
Technical Paper

A Study on Automated Tuning of the Head Gasket Coolant Passage Hole of the Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using Optimization Technology

2019-03-25
2019-01-1411
Tuning the size and position of the cooling water holes in the head gasket during engine cooling system development is generally positioned at the final stage of the cooling system hardware design. Until now, the gasket hole tuning operation was dependent on the case study through repetitive CFD analysis. In this process, there was a difference in the optimization level by know-how and expertise of the person in charge. In this study, a gasket hole tuning technique was developed using optimization algorithms to improve the level of optimization. First, select factors and perform screening using the DOE(Design Of Experiments) method, and then find the optimal gasket hole size and arrangement through the optimal design process based on the results of the CFD analysis planned by DOE.
Technical Paper

The Study of Optimization of Sliding Door Effect

2019-03-25
2019-01-1425
A sliding door system is one of the vehicle door types, which is generally applied to the MPVs. The Sliding door is contains three rails (an upper, a center, and lower rail), which are mounted on body structure, and three rollers (the upper roller, the center roller, Lower roller), which are mounted on the sliding door side. The system is different from a swing door, rotated by hinge axis. To set up sliding door layout for better performance, predict operating force is one of the main factors, But The door moving trace is on three-dimension, hard to calculate and predict. So in this study, it is an object to analyze the impact between the main factors affecting the performance of the closing and open performance and the sliding door through the study formula and a layout scheme for ensuring the best operating performance of the sliding doors.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Prediction and Optimization Tool for Wiper High Speed Performance

2019-03-25
2019-01-1417
In this paper, we focused on the robust wiping performance of high speed driven condition as an important situation for vehicle safety. Frist, we selected appropriate wiper performance parameter to accurately predict its ability not only systematic point but also vehicle point. Second, we obtained parameter sensitivity of wiper high-speed performance using DFSS technique. Third, we developed prediction and optimization tool using commercial program; Excel and Visual Basic. Finally, we improved our tool to compare vehicle test and then modified prediction coefficient for the accuracy of tool. Thus, we proposed a systematic tool to predict wiping performance in high speed vehicle, and successfully obtained efficiency when we developed the new project’s wiper performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Surfactant-Free Anti-Fogging Coating for Automotive Headlamps

2019-03-25
2019-01-1439
Recently, the design of automotive headlamps has become diversified and complicated according to customer needs. Hence, structural complexity of the headlamps has also increased. Complex structure of the headlamps inevitably causes a disturbance in air circulation. For this reason, inadvertent micro-sized water droplets, called fogging, are condensed on the inner surface of headlamp lens due to temperature difference between the inner and outer lens surfaces. To circumvent fogging inside of the headlamp lens, an anti-fogging coating is indispensable. Conventionally, diverse surfactants have been adopted as substantial material for the anti-fogging coating. However, the usage of the surfactants causes undesirable side effect such as water mark arising from vapor condensation, which is an important issue that must be fully resolved. In this study, we developed an innovative anti-fogging coating material without using conventional surfactant.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Brake Squeal Noise Related to the Friction Properties of Brake Friction Materials

2019-09-15
2019-01-2132
The friction properties related to squeal noise was analyzed with the development histories and simplified computational method. Firstly, the development histories were investigated especially focusing on the case which the friction materials were modified to improve squeal noise occurrence. Based on the histories, the friction properties of selected friction materials were newly measured using dynamometer. The average friction coefficient levels, torque oscillations, the increment of friction coefficient during full-stop, and etc. were compared with the squeal noise occurrence, and the results showed that increase of friction properties cause production of squeal noise. The result suggested that the size of friction energy was important factors related to triggering the squeal noise. Also, the contact conditions between rotor disc and friction materials were significant factors deciding the noise occurrence.
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