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Technical Paper

Reinforcement of Low-Frequency Sound by Using a Panel Speaker Attached to the Roof Panel of a Passenger Car

The woofer in a car should be large to cover the low frequencies, so it is heavy and needs an ample space to be installed in a passenger car. The geometry of the woofer should conform to the limited available space and layout in general. In many cases, the passengers feel that the low-frequency contents are not satisfactory although the speaker specification covers the low frequencies. In this work, a thin panel is installed between the roof liner and the roof panel, and it is used as the woofer. The vibration field is controlled by many small actuators to create the speaker and baffle zones to avoid the sound distortion due to the modal interaction. The generation of speaker and baffle zones follows the inverse vibro-acoustic rendering technique. In the actual implementation, a thin acrylic plate of 0.53ⅹ0.2 m2 is used as the radiator panel, and the control actuator array is composed of 16 moving-coil actuators.
Journal Article

Development of Nano Diamond Polymer Coating on Piston Skirt for Fuel Efficiency

Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Cold Start Operating Conditions in a Stoichiometric GDI Engine with Wall-guided Piston using CFD Analysis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mixture formation and optimize the operating conditions under cold start in a stoichiometric (λ=1) GDI engine with wall-guided piston using a 3D commercial code, STAR-CD [8]. For GDI engine under cold start, it can be difficult to carry out the optimization of operating conditions by engine test alone without the understanding of mixture formation inside the combustion chamber. In this study, three cold start conditions of the catalyst heating mode with split injection, the cranking under freezing temperature and acceleration before engine warm-up which causes oil dilution were calculated. In particular, injection strategy for each cold start condition were optimized and compared to the engine test data. The previously validated spray models [6] were applied to the analysis of the spray formation and mixing process inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

New 1.4ℓ SI Engine Development with the Aluminum Thermal Spray Coated Counter Spiny Thin-Wall Cast Iron Liner

For the lightweight and compact cylinder block, new cast iron liner was developed, which has counter spiny form on the out side of the liner. Additionally, the outer surface was spray-coated with Aluminum in order to enhance the heat conductivity and to increase the grip force between the liner and the block. Without any redesign of cylinder block or crankshaft, the displacement of the engine could be increased from 1.25ℓ to 1.4ℓ by adapting this new liner only. This liner enabled to expand the engine displacement without both great dimension changes and production facility changes.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Spray-guided Gasoline DI Engine

Adopting the Spray-guided Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) concept, a new multi-cylinder engine has designed. The engine has piezo injectors at the central position of its combustion chamber, while sparkplugs are also at the center. The sparkplug location is designed so that the spark location is at the outer boundary of the fuel spray where the appropriate air-fuel mixture is formed. A few important operating parameters are chosen to investigate their effects on the combustion stability and fuel consumption. The final experimental results show a good potential of the SGDI engine; the fuel consumption rate was much less than that of the base Multi Port Injection (MPI) engine at various engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Flow Analysis of Exhaust Manifolds for PZEV

As the current and future emission regulations become stringent, the research on exhaust manifold with CCC (Close Coupled Catalyst) has been the interesting and remarkable subject. To design of exhaust manifold with CCC is a difficult task due to the complexity of the flow distribution caused by the pulsating flows that are emitted at the exhaust ports. This study is concerned with the theoretical and experimental approach to improve catalyst flow uniformity through the basic understanding of exhaust flow characteristics. Computational and experimental approach to the flow for exhaust manifold of conventional cast type, stainless steel bending type with 900 cell CCC system in a 4-cylinder gasoline engine was performed to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Tumble Flow Measurements Using Three Different Methods and its Effects on Fuel Economy and Emissions

In-cylinder flows such as tumble and swirl have an important role on the engine combustion efficiencies and emission formations. In particular, the tumble flow which is dominant in current high performance gasoline engines has an important effect on the fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions under part load conditions. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance and optimize the tumble ratio for better fuel economy and exhaust emissions. First step in optimizing a tumble flow is to measure a tumble ratio accurately. In this research the tumble ratio was measured, compared, and correlated using three different measurement methods: steady flow rig, 2-Dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), and 3-Dimensional PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry). Engine dynamometer test was also conducted to find out the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Diesel Engine with 2 Stage Turbocharger

High specific power, additional hardware and mapping optimization was done to achieve reduction of fuel economy for current engine in this study. 2 stage turbocharger with serial configuration was best candidate not only for high specific power at high engine speed but also for increase of low end torque for current engine. This increase of low end torque is important for development of transient characteristic of vehicle. DoE and efficient EGR Cooler was applied for optimization of fuel economy. DoE was useful for optimization of fuel consumption affected by various fuel injection parameters. This DoE was also efficient for matching optimal fuel economy after change of engine hardware. Performance improvement of engine with 2 stage turbocharger VGT was evaluated and additional development of fuel economy was performed in this study.
Technical Paper

Geometric Effects on Stiffness in Big End Structure of Connecting Rod

The main role of the connecting rod in the engine is to deliver the firing load to the crankshaft. In order to carry out successfully the function, it is need to grasp the rotating crankshaft and also to keep the good stiffness of the big-end of the connecting rod in acceptable ranges during engine operation. When the stiffness of the big-end is needed to be reinforced, in general, some geometric dimensions are simply increased without consideration of their complex effects on deformation. Sometimes the reinforced geometry causes negative effects on the stiffness. This paper focuses on the effect of geometric parameters on stiffness in the big-end structure of connection rod by using Taguchi method. It is found that the side flange is the most influencing parameters. The FEA simulated results are compared with experiments.
Technical Paper

Study of Sealing Mechanism to Prevent Oil Leakage for the Thermoplastic Cylinder Head Cover

Most of car makers nowadays produce Cylinder Head Cover with Thermoplastic to get the benefit of weight and cost reduction. The production of Cylinder Head Cover with Thermoplastic brings a number of benefits such as enhancement in productivity, design freedom, integration with other parts and reduction in weight. However, NVH characteristics, sealing performance issues possibly caused by design of cover and gasket and loss of properties of materials when used for long-term period still remain as critical tasks to be solved. Especially in case of car OEMs strongly insist that we have to meet their severe specifications requirements so as to satisfy their customers' growing demand. Sealing performance is one of the core factors, which require continuous effort and studies to meet the OEM's specifications.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow, Mixture Formation and Combustion Processes in a Spray-Guided GDI Engine

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the air/fuel mixture formation and combustion characteristics in a spray-guided GDI engine using a commercial code, STAR-CD. This engine adopted the outwardly opening injector located in the center of cylinder head, which forms a hollow cone spray. The spray injection was modeled arranging multiple points using random function along the ring-shaped nozzle exit. To predict the breakup of spray, Reitz-Diwakar's breakup model was used, and the model constants were calibrated against published experimental data in a constant volume chamber. The validated spray models were applied to the analysis of spray behavior and mixture formation process inside the engine combustion chamber under operating condition of ultra-lean mixture (λ ≈ 4). To predict the combustion process, the modified eddy breakup combustion model was applied.
Journal Article

Development of Fatigue Durability Analysis Techniques for Engine Piston using CAE

A piston in a diesel engine is subject to the high pressure and the high thermal load. The high structural reliability is required to the piston in the automotive diesel engine and it is important to confirm the design parameters of piston in initial design stage. There are lots of research works proposing new geometries, materials and manufacturing techniques for engine pistons. But, the failures of piston occur frequently in development stage. Failure mechanisms are mainly fatigue related. This paper presents failure mechanisms of the high cycle fatigue and low cycle thermal fatigue cracks which occur on the piston during durability test using engine dynamometer. In this study, FE analysis was carried out to investigate the root cause of piston failure. The analysis includes the FE model of the piston moving system, temperature dependent material properties, mechanical and thermal loadings.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Durability in HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

In order to cope with new exhaust emission regulations, automotive industry is interested in research and development of HSDI (High Speed Direct Injection) diesel engines with common rail systems. Since HSDI diesel engine operates under highly loaded condition due to increased power output, cylinder head of HSDI diesel engine is susceptible to high cycle fatigue cracks. In this study, FE analysis was used to find the mechanism of high cycle fatigue crack in the HSDI diesel cylinder head. In order to improve the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head, the modifications of cylinder head and head bolt pre-load were investigated. Experiments were performed to prove the existence of residual stress created during the heat treatment of cylinder head. The results of experiments showed that residual stress can affect the durability of HSDI diesel cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Combustion Processes and Pollutant Formation in HSDI Diesel Engines

The Representative Interactive Flamelet(RIF) concept has been applied to numerically simulate the combustion processes and pollutant formation in the direct injection diesel engine. Due to the ability for interactively describing the transient behaviors of local flame structures with CFD solver, the RIF concept has the capabilities to predict the auto-ignition and subsequent flame propagation in the diesel engine combustion chamber as well as to effectively account for the detailed mechanisms of soot and NOx formation. In order to account for the spatial inhomogeneity of the scalar dissipation rate, the Eulerian Particle Flamelet Model using the multiple flamelets has been employed. Special emphasis is given to the turbulent combustion model which properly accounts for vaporization effects on turbulence-chemistry interaction.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Two-Stage Turbocharger Configurations on the Perceived Vehicle Acceleration Using Numerical Simulation

Charge boosting strategy plays an essential role in improving the power density of diesel engines while meeting stringent emissions regulations. In downsized two-stage turbocharged engines, turbocharger matching is critical to achieve desired boost pressure while maintaining sufficiently fast transient response. A numerical simulation model is developed to evaluate the effect of two-stage turbocharger configurations on the perceived vehicle acceleration. The simulation model developed in GT-SUITE consists of engine, drivetrain, and vehicle dynamics sub-models. A model-based turbocharger control logic is developed in MATLAB using an analytical compressor model and a mean-value engine model. The components of the two-stage turbocharging system evaluated in this study include a variable geometry turbine in the high-pressure stage, a compressor bypass valve in the low-pressure stage and an electrically assisted turbocharger in the low-pressure stage.
Technical Paper

Optimization for Brake Feeling in Vehicle without Brake Noise

Recently, upon customer’s needs for noise-free brake, carmakers are increasingly widely installing damping kits in their braking systems. However, an installation of the damping kits may excessively increase softness in the brake system, by loosening stroke feeling of a brake pedal and increasing compressibility after durability. To find a solution to alleviate this problem, we first conducted experiments to measure compressibility of shims by varying parameters such as adhesive shims (e.g., bonding spec., steel and rubber thickness), piston’s shapes (e.g., different contact areas to the shims), and the numbers of durability. Next, we installed a brake feeling measurement system extended from a brake pedal to caliper. We then compared experimental parameters with brake feeling in a vehicle. Finally, we obtained an optimized level of brake feeling by utilizing the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS).
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Control Method for Monitoring and Improving the Diesel Combustion Noise

This paper presents two closed-loop control methods for monitoring and improving the combustion behavior and the combustion noise on two 4-cylinder diesel engines, in which an in-cylinder pressure and an accelerometer transducer are used to monitor and control them. Combustion processes are developed to satisfy the stricter and stricter regulations on emissions and fuel consumption. These combustion processes are influenced by the factors such as engine durability, driving conditions, environmental influences and fuel properties. Combustion noise could be increased by these factors and is detrimental to interior sound quality. Therefore, it is necessary to develop robust combustion behaviors and combustion noise. For this situation, we have developed two closed-loop control methods. Firstly, a method using in-cylinder pressure data was developed for monitoring and improving the combustion noise of a 1.7L engine. A new index using the values calculated from the data was proposed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flame Propagation for Different Combustion Chamber Configurations in an SI Engine

High speed natural light motion picture records synchronized with head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data have been made in the transparent engine of different combustion chamber configurations. For knocking cycles, the head gasket ionization current method simultaneously taken with pressure data was able to find the location of knocking occurrence. To investigate the effects of combustion chamber configurations, the flame propagation experiments for pent-roof combustion chamber with center ignition ( Modified Type I engine ) and modified pent-roof ( Type II engine ) combustion chamber were performed with high speed natural light photography technique. The flame propagation of Modified Type I engine represents more uniform patterns than that of Type II engine. The investigation of knocking combustion was also made possible by observing flame propagation with the measuring techniques that use head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Influence of Plastic Intake Manifold on the Performance and NVH of In-line 4 Cylinder Gasoline Engine

The primary purpose of using a plastic material instead of conventional aluminum cast for intake manifold is to reduce its weight and cost. Moreover, the use of plastic for intake manifold is regarded as a key for further development of so called an “intake modular system”. As a secondary effect, the engine power can be increased with the help of improved interior surface roughness and lowered air temperature. With regard to NVH, however, plastic intake manifold is considered somewhat negative since it is less rigid and less dense than aluminum one. In this paper, the mechanism that plastic intake manifold affects the performance and NVH of in-line 4 cylinder gasoline engine is presented. In connection with engine performance, air flow efficiency of not only intake manifold itself but also other components of intake system and also cylinder head is evaluated.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Control for Diesel Combustion Noise Using Engine Vibration Signals

The combustion noise of a diesel engine can be deteriorated by combustion characteristics such as the maximum rate of heat release and the start of combustion. These combustion characteristics in turn are influenced by the factors such as the engine NVH durability, driving conditions, environmental factors and fuel properties. Therefore, we need to develop the robust combustion noise that is insensitive to these factors. To achieve this aim, methods for predicting combustion characteristics has been developed by analyzing the vibration signal measured from the engine cylinder block. The closed-loop control of injection parameters through combustion characteristics prediction has been performed to produce the desired engine combustion performance. We constructed an ECU logic for the closed-loop control and verified the design in a diesel passenger car. We also evaluated the effect of combustion noise and fuel consumption by applying the closed-loop control.