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Technical Paper

Development of Effective Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery System for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The success of improved fuel economy is the proper integration of thermal management components which are appropriately performed to reduce friction and wasted energy. The thermal management systems of vehicle are able to balance the multiple needs such as heating, cooling, or appropriate operation within specified temperature ranges of propulsion systems. Since the propulsion systems of vehicle have changed from a single energy source based on conventional internal combustion engine to hybrid system including more electrical system such as full type of hybrid electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, a new transition associated with vehicle thermal management arises. More efficient thermal management systems are required to improve the fuel economy in the hybrid electric vehicles because of the driving of electric traction motor and the increase of engine off time. The decrease of engine operation time may not sustain the proper temperature ranges of engine and gearbox.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cabin Air Quality with Fractional Air Recirculation

A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3, and 4), four fan speed settings and at 20, 40, and 70 mph. A manual control was installed for the recirculation flap door so different ratios of fresh air to recirculated air could be used. Full recirculation is the most efficient setting in terms of thermal management and particle concentration reduction, but this causes elevated CO₂ levels in the cabin. The study demonstrated cabin CO₂ concentrations could be controlled below a target level of 2000 ppm at various driving conditions and fan speeds with more than 85% of recirculation. The proposed fractional air recirculation method is a simple yet innovative way of improving cabin air quality. Some energy saving is also expected, especially with the air conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Control of Automotive PEM Fuel Cell Systems

In order to understand the automotive PEM fuel cell system, mathematical system modeling is conducted and the model is implemented and simulated by using the Matlab®/Simulink®. The components such as fuel cell stack, air supplier, and radiator are modeled individually and integrated into a system level. The PEM fuel cell system operation control includes thermal management, air supply control, hydrogen supply control, fuel cell stack protection control, and load following control. In the thermal management, the inlet and outlet temperature of coolant are controlled to operate the fuel cell stack in desired temperature range and to prevent flooding inside the fuel cell stack. In air supply control and hydrogen supply control, the flow rates of air and hydrogen are controlled not to starve the fuel cell stack according to the output current. A control structure for the system is developed and confirmed by using the developed simulation model.
Technical Paper

A Development of Aluminum EGR Cooler for Weight Reduction and Fuel Economy

As environmental problems such as global warming are emerging, regulations on automobile exhaust gas are strengthened and various exhaust gas reduction technologies are being developed in various countries in order to satisfy exhaust emission regulations. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is a very effective way to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high combustion temperatures by using EGR coolers to lower the combustion temperature. This EGR cooler has been mass-produced in stainless steel, but it is expensive and heavy. Recently, high efficiency and compactness are required for the EGR cooler to meet the new emission regulation. If aluminum material is applied to the EGR cooler, heat transfer efficiency and light weight can be improved due to high heat transfer coefficient of aluminum compared to conventional stainless steel, but durability is insufficient. Therefore, the aluminum EGR cooler has been developed to enhance performance and durability.
Technical Paper

A Study on NVH Performance Improvement of TPE Air Intake Hose Based on Optimization of Design and Material

Environmental and fuel economy regulations (Eu 6d and WLTP RDE) on automobiles have been tightened recently. To counter this regulation, the global automobile industry is focusing on weight reduction, fuel efficient turbo charger, cooled EGR, thermal management, low friction and so on. However, the high-speed turbocharger makes turbulence, and resulting in airflow noise. This noise is transmitted indoor through the air intake system, which adversely affects the vehicle's competitiveness. Therefore, for turbo engine, it is essential to reduce the noise of the air intake system. The air intake system consists of air cleaner, air filter, air intake hose and air duct. The air flow noise of turbo-engine is mainly the emission noise emitted from the walls of air intake system. And the transfer path of turbo noise is in order of air intake hose, air cleaner and air duct. Therefore, it is effective to reduce the noise of the air intake hose located at the beginning of noise transfer path.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

Eco-Vehicle Battery System Big-Data Analysis and Fault Mode and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Related Robust System Development

High-voltage battery system plays a critical role in eco-friendly vehicles due to its effect on the cost and the electric driving range of eco-friendly vehicles. In order to secure the customer pool and the competitiveness of eco-vehicle technology, vehicle electrification requires lowering the battery cost and satisfying the customer needs when driving the vehicles in the real roads, for example, maximizing powers for fun drive, increasing battery capacities for achieving appropriate trip distances, etc. Because these vehicle specifications have a critical effect on the high-voltage battery specification, the key technology of the vehicle electrification is the appropriate decision on the specification of the high-voltage battery system, such as battery capacity and power. These factors affect the size of battery system and vehicle under floor design and also the profitability of the eco-friendly vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driver's Behavior and Environmental Conditions on Thermal Management of Electric Vehicles

Worldwide projections anticipate a fast-growing market share of the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to meet stringent emissions regulations for global warming and climate change. One of the new challenges of BEVs is the effective and efficient thermal management of the BEV to minimize parasitic power consumption and to maximize driving range. Typically, the total efficiency of BEVs depends on the performance and power consumption of the thermal management system, which is highly affected by several factors, including driving environments (ambient temperature and traffic conditions) and driver's behavior (aggressiveness). Therefore, this paper investigates the influence of these factors on energy consumption by using a comprehensive BEV simulation integrated with a thermal management system model. The vehicle model was validated with experimental data, and a simulation study is performed by using the vehicle model over various traffic scenarios generated from a traffic simulator.