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Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures.
Journal Article

Development of Nano Diamond Polymer Coating on Piston Skirt for Fuel Efficiency

Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Acoustic Performance of Dash Isolation Pad Using Hollow Fiber

Usually, fibrous materials with porosity can dissipate the energy of the sound wave penetrating them, so can be the useful sound absorbing materials to reduce the noise in the vehicle. The fibrous materials have been used for the various types of automotive components as the sound absorbing materials, which can be placed close to the noise source, in the noise paths and near the receiver such as passengers. Although all materials can absorb a little amount of sound energy, the term “acoustical material” has been primarily applied to those materials that can provide the higher sound absorption performance above the ordinary levels. One of the examples of fibrous acoustic materials for automotive components is the sound absorbing felt composed of the fibers which have the several characteristics such as the material type, the cross-sectional shape and the fiber density (can be expressed as denier) related to the sound absorbing performance.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Muscle Fatigue for Urban Bus Drivers using Electromyography

Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
Technical Paper

The Analysis of Crack Mechanism and Estimate of Life Time by the Vibration Measurement of Stainless Exhaust Manifold in Firing Condition

SUS exhaust manifold is weaker than cast iron in aspect of high temperature vibration. So as to improve reliability of SUS exhaust manifold and get over gas temperature limit, exhaust manifold vibration mode and level has to be decreased. And because of error and limit of conventional modal analysis, we measured vibration mode and level of SUS exhaust manifold directly in engine firing condition. To measure vibration of hot parts(600∼800°C) in engine, we used special cooling device at base of accelerometer. Thus we developed analysis method of SUS exhaust manifold crack mechanism. We came to know the accurate vibration mode and level of SUS exhaust manifold in hot condition. Besides, we found out in proportion as vibration level increases endurance life decreases.
Technical Paper

New 1.4ℓ SI Engine Development with the Aluminum Thermal Spray Coated Counter Spiny Thin-Wall Cast Iron Liner

For the lightweight and compact cylinder block, new cast iron liner was developed, which has counter spiny form on the out side of the liner. Additionally, the outer surface was spray-coated with Aluminum in order to enhance the heat conductivity and to increase the grip force between the liner and the block. Without any redesign of cylinder block or crankshaft, the displacement of the engine could be increased from 1.25ℓ to 1.4ℓ by adapting this new liner only. This liner enabled to expand the engine displacement without both great dimension changes and production facility changes.
Journal Article

The Role of Copper on the Friction and Wear Performance of Automotive Brake Friction Materials

Copper has been regarded as one of the indispensable ingredients in the brake friction materials since it provides high thermal diffusivity at the sliding interface. However, the recent regulations against environmentally hazardous ingredients limit the use of copper in the commercial friction material and much effort has been made for the alternatives. In this work, the role of the cuprous ingredients such as copper fiber, copper powder, cupric oxide (CuO), and copper sulfide (CuS) are studied using the friction materials based on commercial formulations. The investigation was performed using a full inertial brake dynamometer and 1/5 scale dynamometer for brake performance and wear test. Results showed that the cuprous ingredients played a crucial role in maintaining the stable friction film at the friction interface, resulting in improved friction stability and reduced aggressiveness against counter disk.
Technical Paper

Development of Polymer Composite Battery Pack Case for an Electric Vehicle

A battery pack case of an electric vehicle was developed with a fibrous thermoplastic composite material. Due to cost effectiveness, long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics by direct process (D-LFT) were adopted. PA6 (Polyamide 6)-based composites were processed using a D-LFT pilot machine at the temperature range between 250° and 290°. Glass and carbon fibers were added in the matrix varying the mixture ratio of the fibers while keeping the weight fraction 40%. The increase of carbon fibers in the mixture increased tensile modulus and strength, however, decreased Izod impacts strength. The fatigue life of developed composites was evaluated by fatigue tests in tension, which were over one million cycles at the maximum fatigue loading less than 60% of the composite strength. Associated with fiber orientation, anisotropic mechanical behavior was investigated in terms of flexural properties and mold shrinkage.
Technical Paper

Strength Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction of an Extra Large Dump Truck Deck and Subframe

An engineering strategy to develop a new 27-ton dump truck is introduced in the process of design and analysis. Main engineering concerns in development of the new dump truck are focused on reducing weight as much as 180kg without deteriorating structural strength and fatigue life of its upper body - deck and subframe. To achieve this goal, a stress analysis and a fatigue life prediction based on CAE technique are employed at the early stage of design process. A finite element model of the full vehicle was constructed for the strength analysis. Then the fatigue life was predicted through the strength analysis and an S-N curve of high strength steel. The S-N curve for welded structures made of high strength steel was used along with a prototype vehicle's endurance test in order to set strength targets. As a result, the upper body was successfully developed without any fatigue issues.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Non-Asbestos Organics vs. Low Steel Lomets for Humidity Sensitivity

Non-Asbestos Organic (NAO) disc pads and Low Steel Lomet disc pads were subjected to high and low humidity conditions to discover how humidity affects these two classes of formulations for physical properties, friction, wear and noise characteristics. The 2 classes of formulations show similarities and differences in response to increasing humidity. The humidity effect on deformation of the surface microstructure of the gray cast iron disc is also investigated. Humidity implications for pad quality control and brake testing are discussed.
Technical Paper

High Strength Light-Weight Valve Spring for Automotive Engine to Enhance Fuel Efficiency

High strength oil-tempered wire was developed to apply to light-weight valve spring for automotive engine. By adding Mo, V, B and Ni, tensile strength increased by 20% compared to the conventional oil-tempered wire. Higher tensile strength of wire enabled a constant of valve spring to lower by reducing the size of spring. As a result, reduction of spring constant lowers the load of spring, thereby enhancing fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Study on Sound Insulation Performance of Vehicle Dash Reinforcements

Dash panel is the most important path of structure-borne and air-borne interior noise for engine-driven vehicles. Reinforcements, which are added to dash panel, are mainly designed in order to suppress the structure-borne noise contribution from the dash panel. However, the effects of dash reinforcements do not seem clear in the viewpoint of air-borne noise. In this paper, the insulation performance of a dash structure with spot-welded reinforcements is studied through several STL (Sound Transmission Loss) tests and STL simulations. The results of this study could be utilized for increasing the sound insulation performance of vehicle body structure.
Technical Paper

A BIW Structure Research of Light Weight Vehicle with High Stiffness by Steel

The focus of this paper is to develop an innovative vehicle layout and optimize vehicle body structure with the latest lightweight steel technologies, such as hydro-forming and hot stamping. Our BIW structure achieved a mass savings of 28 kg (−10%) compared to the mass of baseline BIW structure. (Base BIW : MD_Elantra)
Technical Paper

Analysis of Microorganism Causing Odor in an Air-Conditioning System

This study has been conducted to analyze microbial diversity and its community by using a method of NGS(Next generation sequencing) technique that is not rely on cultivation for microbial community in an core evaporator causing odor of car air conditioner. The NGS without any cultivation method of cultivation, has been developed recently and widely. This method is able to research a microorganism that has not been cultivated. Differently with others, it can get a result that is closer to fact, also can acquire more base sequence with larger volume in relatively shorter time. According to bacteria population analysis of 23 samples, It can be known limited number of bacteria can inhabit in Evaporator core, due to small exposure between bacteria and evaporate, as well as its environmental characteristics. With the population analysis, only certain group of it is forming biofilm in proportion.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Resistance to Fretting Corrosion of SCr 420 Gear Steel

A study for improving the resistance to fretting corrosion of SCr 420 pinion gear was conducted. Fretting is the damage to contacting surfaces experiencing slight relative reciprocating sliding motion of low amplitude. Fretting corrosion is the fretting damage to unlubricated contacting surfaces accompanied by corrosion, mostly oxidation that occurs if the fretting occurs in air. Two kinds of conventional heat treatment and a newly designed one suggested for improving the resistance to the fretting corrosion of pinion gear were compared each other to find out what is the main factor for generating fretting corrosion phenomenon. Increased carbon potential at both the heating and diffusing zone and reduced time of tempering was found out to be a solution for improving the resistance to fretting corrosion of forged and heat treated gear steel. On the contrary, modified carbo-nitriding using ammonia gas has been getting worse the fretting corrosion problem.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Flow Analysis of Exhaust Manifolds for PZEV

As the current and future emission regulations become stringent, the research on exhaust manifold with CCC (Close Coupled Catalyst) has been the interesting and remarkable subject. To design of exhaust manifold with CCC is a difficult task due to the complexity of the flow distribution caused by the pulsating flows that are emitted at the exhaust ports. This study is concerned with the theoretical and experimental approach to improve catalyst flow uniformity through the basic understanding of exhaust flow characteristics. Computational and experimental approach to the flow for exhaust manifold of conventional cast type, stainless steel bending type with 900 cell CCC system in a 4-cylinder gasoline engine was performed to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Compatibility between Brake Discs and Friction Materials in DTV Generation and Recovery Test

A comparative study was carried out to investigate the DTV (disk thickness variation) behavior according to the types of brake disks (gray iron grade 250 and high-carbon gray iron grade 200, 170) with two typical friction materials (non-steel and low-steel friction materials). To evaluate DTV generation and recovery characteristics, a parasitic drag mode simulating highway driving (off-brake) and a normal braking mode simulating city traffic driving (on-brake) were used with an inertia brake dynamometer. Results showed that DTV and BTV were strongly affected by the microstructure, hardness level and distribution of the gray cast iron with the friction material types. The BTV was reduced in the friction two pairs using non-steel friction materials with high carbon grade disks and low-steel friction materials with high-carbon, low hardness disk. In particular, the pair of low-steel friction materials and high-carbon, low-hardness brake disks was more effective on DTV recovery.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Induced Brake Torque Variation: The Effect from Gray Iron Microstructure and Friction Materials

Brake judder caused by corrosion of gray iron disks was investigated. In this study, the microstructure of the gray iron disks and the friction film developed on the disk surface by commercial friction materials were examined to find the root cause of the corrosion induced brake torque variation. Corrosion of the disk was carried out in an environmental chamber, simulating in-vehicle disk corrosion. Moisture content and acidity of the friction materials were also taken into account for this investigation and brake tests to examine torque variation during brake applications were performed using a single-end brake dynamometer. Results showed that the friction film developed on the disk surface strongly affected the amount of corrosion, while graphite morphology of the gray iron had little effect on the corrosion.
Technical Paper

Road Noise Reduction Using a Source Decomposition and Noise Path Analysis

It is considered that improper usage of rubber bushes and weak dynamic characteristics of chassis and body structures yield interior road noise problems. This paper describes systematic processes for road noise improvement along with measurement and analysis process. Firstly, the noise sources are identified by using a source decomposition method. Secondly, the main noise paths are identified by using a noise path analysis (NPA) method. Thirdly, the design modification of body panels is suggested for road noise reduction by using a panel contribution analysis. Finally the method is validated by applying to road noise improvement process for a new vehicle.
Technical Paper

Study of Sealing Mechanism to Prevent Oil Leakage for the Thermoplastic Cylinder Head Cover

Most of car makers nowadays produce Cylinder Head Cover with Thermoplastic to get the benefit of weight and cost reduction. The production of Cylinder Head Cover with Thermoplastic brings a number of benefits such as enhancement in productivity, design freedom, integration with other parts and reduction in weight. However, NVH characteristics, sealing performance issues possibly caused by design of cover and gasket and loss of properties of materials when used for long-term period still remain as critical tasks to be solved. Especially in case of car OEMs strongly insist that we have to meet their severe specifications requirements so as to satisfy their customers' growing demand. Sealing performance is one of the core factors, which require continuous effort and studies to meet the OEM's specifications.